Global Trust Pawlowski Yalaho 20090820


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  • An expectation held by an agent that its trading partner will behave in a mutually acceptable manner (including an expectation that neither party will exploit the other’s vulnerabilities)
  • Confidence in the business relationship. The definition is extended to include risk, and it focuses on the relationships that directly involve computers and telecommunications, thus creating a trust bond (security, safety, honesty, consumer-protection laws, contracts, privacy, reputation, brand, mutual self-interest)
  • Global Trust Pawlowski Yalaho 20090820

    1. 1. Awareness and Trust in Globally Distributed Settings Jan M. Pawlowski, Anicet Yalaho INFORTE Seminar, Hankasalmi, 20.08.2009
    2. 2. Licensing: Creative Commons <ul><li>You are free: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>to Share — to copy, distribute and transmit the work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to Remix — to adapt the work </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Under the following conditions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Attribution . You must attribute the work in the manner specified by the author or licensor (but not in any way that suggests that they endorse you or your use of the work). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Noncommercial . You may not use this work for commercial purposes. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Share Alike . If you alter, transform, or build upon this work, you may distribute the resulting work only under the same or similar license to this one. </li></ul></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
    3. 3. Global Information Systems, University of Jyväskylä (JYU) <ul><li>Focus area </li></ul><ul><li>Global Information Systems (GLIS) </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge Management & E-Learning </li></ul><ul><li>Internationalization / Globalization; support of globally distributed groups </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural aspects for learning and knowledge management </li></ul><ul><li>Support through Information and Communication Technologies </li></ul><ul><li>Standardization, Quality Management and Assurance for E-Learning </li></ul><ul><li>Adaptive Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Projects </li></ul><ul><li>OpenScout: Management education in Europe and North Africa as application field for open content </li></ul><ul><li>COSMOS / Open Science Resources: Exchange of Scientific Content </li></ul><ul><li>ASPECT: Open Content and standards for schools </li></ul><ul><li>iCOPER: New standards for educational technologies </li></ul><ul><li>Nordlet: Nordic - Baltic community of Open Educational Resources Exchange </li></ul><ul><li>LaProf: Language Learning Open Educational Resources for Agriculture </li></ul>
    4. 4. Global Information Systems
    5. 5. The team Kati Clements Mirja Pulkkinen, Ph.D. Anicet Yalaho, Ph.D. Denis Kozlov Kirsi Syynimaa Marjo Halmiala Jan M. Pawlowski Philipp Holtkamp Henri Pirkkalainen
    6. 6. Awareness: Introduction <ul><li>People… </li></ul><ul><li>Situation… </li></ul><ul><li>Culture… </li></ul><ul><li>Context… </li></ul>
    7. 7. Context Awareness: Cultural Influence Factors <ul><li>Cultural awareness? </li></ul>
    8. 8. Trust in different cultures… <ul><li>Family </li></ul><ul><li>Friends </li></ul><ul><li>Networks </li></ul><ul><li>Organizations </li></ul><ul><li>Mechanisms </li></ul>[Source:]
    9. 9. <ul><li>Trusted networks? </li></ul><ul><li>Global cooperation? </li></ul>Context: Global Social Networks [Source:]
    10. 10. Main questions <ul><li>How do “soft factors” like trust and awareness influence work and knowledge processes in globally distributed settings? </li></ul><ul><li>How can we support and facilitate processes by increasing trust and awareness? </li></ul><ul><li>How to incorporate these factors into research designs? </li></ul>
    11. 11. Contents <ul><li>Main concepts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Trust </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Awareness </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Trust and awareness in global settings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Concepts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Methods </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Case studies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Global Process Support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Context and culture metadata </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Summary and discussion </li></ul>
    12. 12. Trust <ul><li>Disciplines </li></ul><ul><li>Definitions </li></ul><ul><li>Characteristics </li></ul>
    13. 13. Trust <ul><li>Disciplines </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Extensively studied in Economics (Management, Marketing …etc) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social Science </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Psychology </li></ul></ul>
    14. 14. Management <ul><li>Expectation that another individual or group will </li></ul><ul><ul><li>have good faith and make efforts to behave in accordance with any commitments, both explicit or implicit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>be honest in whatever negotiations precede those commitments, and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>not take excessive advantage of others even when the opportunity (to renegotiate) is available (Bromiley and Cummings 1992) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mutual confidence that no party in an exchange will exploit one another’s vulnerabilities (Barney and Hansen 1994) </li></ul><ul><li>One party’s confidence that the other party in the exchange relationship will not exploit its vulnerabilities (Dyer and Chu 2000) </li></ul><ul><li>… </li></ul>
    15. 15. Marketing <ul><li>The belief that a party’s word or promise is reliable and a party will fulfill its obligations in an exchange relationship (Schurr and Ozane 1987, p 940) </li></ul><ul><li>A firm’s belief that another company will perform actions that will result in positive outcomes for the firm, as well as not taking unexpected actions that would result in negative outcomes for the firm Anderson and (Anderson and Narus 1990) </li></ul><ul><li>… </li></ul><ul><li>Willingness to rely on an exchange partner in confidence (Ganesan 1994) </li></ul><ul><li>… . </li></ul>
    16. 16. Sociology <ul><li>Actions that increase one’s vulnerability to the other (Deutsch 1958) </li></ul><ul><li>Exceptions that arise within a community of regular, honest, and cooperative parties, based on commonly shared norms, on the part of other members of that community (Fukuyama 1995) </li></ul><ul><li>… </li></ul><ul><li>An expectation held by an agent that its trading partner will behave in a mutually acceptable manner (Sako 1998) </li></ul><ul><li>… </li></ul>
    17. 17. Psychology <ul><li>The mutual confidence that no party to an exchange will exploit the other’s vulnerability. Trust is today widely regarded as a precondition for competitive success (Sabel 1993) </li></ul><ul><li>Perceived credibility and benevolence of a target of trust (Doney and Cannon 1997) </li></ul><ul><li>… </li></ul>
    18. 18. Information systems <ul><li>Confidence in the business relationship. The definition is extended to include risk, and it focuses on the relationships that directly involve computers and telecommunications, thus creating a trust bond (Keen 1999) </li></ul><ul><li>The subjective probability with which organizational members collectively assess that a particular transaction will occur according to their confident expectations (Ratnasingam and Pavlou 2002; 2003) </li></ul>
    19. 19. Characteristics of trust <ul><li>A rational or ‘objective’ view which is based on an economic perspective </li></ul><ul><li>A Relational or ‘subjective’ view is based on social perspective </li></ul>
    20. 20. Trust in global settings <ul><li>Swift trust: “a unique form of collective perception, rather than scaled-down trust, for temporary, but not trivial, situations” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vulnerability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uncertainty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Risk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expectation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Source: Meyerson et al. (1996) </li></ul><ul><li>Early behaviour </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Social communication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communication conveying enthusiasm </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Later behaviour </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Communication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Predictable communication </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Substantive and timely responses </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Member actions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Leadership rotated </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Transition </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Phlegmatic reaction to crisis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Source: Jarvenpaa and Leidner (1998) </li></ul>
    21. 21. Awareness: Introduction Context Cultural Situation Location Social / personal
    22. 22. Awareness: Introduction <ul><li>Generally: Perception or consciousness of objects or activities </li></ul><ul><li>Context awareness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ability of computing devices to detect and sense, interpret and respond to aspects of a user's local environment and the computing devices themselves (Hull et al., 1997) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>But also: Entities influencing a situation, person or object </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Situation awareness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Focused on the perception, comprehension and projection of complex situations (Endsley, Garland, 2000) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Social awareness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Focused on persons, groups, organizations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cultural awareness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Focused on the cultural characteristics </li></ul></ul>
    23. 23. Awareness in global settings <ul><li>Social awareness for virtual team work (Dafoulas & Macaulay, 2001) </li></ul><ul><li>Social awareness for coordination (Redmiles et al., 2007) </li></ul><ul><li>Culture awareness / models to represent culture (Hofstede & Hofstede, 2005, Hall & Hall, 1990, Henderson, 2007, Trompenaars & Hampden-Turner, 1997) </li></ul><ul><li>Context awareness, adaptive systems </li></ul><ul><li>… </li></ul>
    24. 24. Case Studies on Trust and Awareness <ul><li>How are trust and awareness handled and studied in global settings? </li></ul><ul><li>Trust: Qualitative study on global outsourcing processes </li></ul><ul><li>Awareness: Representing context and culture </li></ul>
    25. 25. Trust for global cooperation: A case study <ul><ul><ul><li>Source: Yalaho (2006) </li></ul></ul></ul>
    26. 26. Trust for global cooperation: A case study <ul><li>Case 1. FinSoftAlfa (client ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The FinSoftAlfa Company was established in Finland in May 2000 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It provides customized software development services in two related areas: 1) Embedded Systems and 2) Video /Audio / Image Processing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It established an offshore outsourcing strategic partnership with IndiaSoftNet </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Case 2. IndiaSoft (Service provider) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IndiaSoftNet was founded in 1998, headquartered in Bangalore, India. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IndiaSoftNet is a 300-person organization, and partners with global customers located across the US, UK, France, Scandinavia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is a leading provider of large-scale application outsourcing and custom software development, integration and maintenance services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IndiaSoftNet is a CMM Level 4  5 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IndiaSoftNet operates under a global delivery model exploiting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IndiaSoftNet was the preferred service provider of FinSoftAlfa for several years </li></ul></ul>
    27. 27. Trust for global cooperation: A case study <ul><li>Factors that contribute to trust in global cooperation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal reference or contact </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shared norms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shared/join processes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Open communication </li></ul></ul>
    28. 28. Culture and Context Awareness: A case study <ul><li>How can we represent culture and context </li></ul><ul><li>Can those representations be used for awareness raising </li></ul><ul><li>How can those representations be used for adaptive systems </li></ul><ul><li>Methods </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Literature review, expert interviews </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Model construction; validation </li></ul></ul>
    29. 29. Context Metadata (Pawlowski, Richter, 2007) Culture Companies Rules, standards and agreements Human actors Financial aspects Media richness Internet security Demographical development Learner satisfaction Religion Geography & education infrastructure Technical infrastructure Rights History Politics State of development Information & Knowledge Systems
    30. 30. Example: Cultural Context Classes (Pawlowski, Richter, 2007) <ul><li>Language </li></ul><ul><li>Ways of communication </li></ul><ul><li>Humor </li></ul><ul><li>Acceptance of media types </li></ul><ul><li>Gender differences </li></ul><ul><li>Social capital </li></ul><ul><li>Habits and preferences Acceptance of technology </li></ul><ul><li>General opinion </li></ul><ul><li>Taste </li></ul><ul><li>Indigenous cultures </li></ul><ul><li>Hints for technology transfer </li></ul><ul><li>Pedagogical approach </li></ul>
    31. 31. Culture Profiles (Pawlowski, 2008) Culture Profile Instance (Nation / Region) Culture Profile Instance (Group) <ul><li>IMS LIP </li></ul><ul><li>Identification </li></ul><ul><li>Goals </li></ul><ul><li>Qualifications </li></ul><ul><li>Activities </li></ul><ul><li>… </li></ul><ul><li>Culture Profile Specification </li></ul><ul><li>General </li></ul><ul><li>Reference </li></ul><ul><li>Educational </li></ul><ul><li>Culture </li></ul><ul><li>Communication </li></ul><ul><li>… </li></ul><ul><li>E-Portfolio </li></ul><ul><li>Organizations </li></ul><ul><li>Identification </li></ul><ul><li>Resources </li></ul><ul><li>Products </li></ul><ul><li>… </li></ul><ul><li>Culture Profile Instance (Actor) </li></ul><ul><li>… </li></ul><ul><li>Experience 1: Study Netherlands </li></ul><ul><li>Experience 2: Project Korea </li></ul><ul><li>Native Culture: Germany </li></ul><ul><li>… </li></ul>Instantiation <ul><li>RCDEO </li></ul><ul><li>Competency description </li></ul><ul><li>Evidence </li></ul><ul><li>… </li></ul>Presentation Contains Product Defined Culture Competencies Contains Characteristic
    32. 32. Culture Awareness Process Self reflection Culture Profiling Profile Comparison Defining similarities and differences Understanding / Integration Culture Awareness Process Problem statement Goal statement Problem elaboration Conflict identification & resolution Experience sharing Collaborative Work Process
    33. 33. First experiences <ul><li>Technical validation (system design experiments) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adaptive systems require extended representations of cultural characteristics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Culture metadata can be used to design systems based on cultural characteristics, in particular to adapt process logic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Culture metadata can be used to generate awareness objects (culture profiles, culture clouds) </li></ul></ul>
    34. 34. First experiences <ul><li>User validation (pilot; 50 students in Germany and Korea) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Profiles trigger reflection processes on cultural issues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Users consider metadata understandable and helpful </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Users have searched for further information in other sources </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Study in Higher Education group of learners and teachers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In progress… </li></ul></ul>
    35. 35. Summary <ul><li>Trust and awareness factors influence global groups and global business processes in different phases </li></ul><ul><li>Trust is considered a critical success factor </li></ul><ul><li>Culture and context model as a starting point for in-depth investigation of different types of awareness </li></ul><ul><li>New areas to explore – both, in basic research as well as applied settings </li></ul>
    36. 36. Contact <ul><li>Jan M. Pawlowski </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>Skype: jan_m_pawlowski </li></ul><ul><li>Tel.: +358 14 260 2596 </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Anicet Yalaho </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>Skype: lemanois96 </li></ul><ul><li>Tel.:+358 14 260 4625 </li></ul>
    37. 37. References <ul><li>Hull, R., Neaves, P., Bedford-Roberts, J. Towards Situated Computing (1997). 1 st International Symposium on Wearable Computers, 1997, 146-153. </li></ul><ul><li>Endsley, M. R. & Garland, D. J. (Eds.) (2000). Situation awareness analysis and measurement. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates . </li></ul><ul><li>Dafoulas, G., Macaulay, L.: Investigating Cultural Differences in Virtual Software Teams, The Electronic Journal on Information Systems in Developing Countries EJISDC 7(4), 2001 </li></ul><ul><li>Redmiles, D., van der Hoek, A., Al-Ani, B., Hildenbrand, T., Quirk, S., Sarma, A., Silveira Silva Filho, R., de Souza, C., Trainer, E.: Continuous Coordination: A New Paradigm to Support Globally Distributed Software Development Projects, In: Wirtschaftsinformatik, Special Issue on the Industrialization of Software Development, 2007, 49(Special Issue), 28-38. </li></ul>
    38. 38. References <ul><li>Pawlowski, J.M., Richter, T.: Context and Culture Metadata - a Tool for the Internationalization of E-Learning, Edmedia, Vancouver, Canada, Jun. 2007. </li></ul><ul><li>Pawlowski, J.M. (2008): Culture Profiles: Facilitating Global Learning and Knowledge Sharing. Proc. of ICCE 2008, Taiwan, Nov. 2008. </li></ul><ul><li>Trompenaars, F., Hampden-Turner, C. (1997). Riding the waves of culture: Understanding cultural diversity in business. Nicholas Brealey Publishing. </li></ul><ul><li>Hall, E. T., Hall, M. R. (1990). Understanding cultural differences. Yarmouth, ME: Intercultural Press. </li></ul><ul><li>Henderson, L. (2007). Theorizing a Multiple Cultures Instructional Design Model for E-Learning and E-Teaching. In: Edmundson, A. (Ed.) (2007). Globalized E-Learning, Cultural Challenges; Idea Group, U.S., pp. 130-154. </li></ul><ul><li>Hofstede, G., Hofstede G. J. (2005). Cultures and Organizations. Intercultural Cooperation and Its Importance for Survival. USA, revised and expanded 2nd edition, McGraw-Hill Publishers. </li></ul>
    39. 39. References <ul><li>Barney, J.B. & Hansen, M.H. (1994). Trustworthiness as a source of competitive advantage, Strategic Management Journal, (15), 175-216. </li></ul><ul><li>Dyer, J.H. & Chu, W.C. (2000) The determinants of trust in supplier automaker relationships in the U.S., Japan and Korea, Journal of International. Business Studies, (31: 2), 259-185. </li></ul><ul><li>Schurr, P.H. & Ozanne, J.L. (1985). Influence on exchange processes:Buyer’s perception of a seller’s trustworthiness and bargaining toughness, Journal of Consumer Research, (11), March, 939-953. </li></ul><ul><li>Anderson, J.C. & Narus, J.A. (1990). A model of distributor firm and manufacturer firm working partnerships, Journal of Marketing, (54),January, 42-58. </li></ul><ul><li>Ganesan, S. (1994). Determinants of long-term orientation in buyer-sellerrelationships, Journal of Marketing, (58), April, 1-19. </li></ul>
    40. 40. References <ul><li>Deutsch, M. (1958). The Effect of motivational orientation upon trust and suspicion, Human Relations. </li></ul><ul><li>Fukuyama, F. (1995). Trust: The Social Virtues and the Creation of Prosperity, Free Press. </li></ul><ul><li>Sako, M. & Helper, S. (1998). Determinants of trust in supplier relations: Evidence from the automotive industry in Japan and the United States, Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, (34), 387-417. </li></ul><ul><li>Doney, P.M. & Cannon, J.P. (1997). An examination of the nature of trust in buyer-seller relationships, Journal of Marketing, April, 35-51. </li></ul><ul><li>Sabel, C.F. (1993). Studied trust – Building new forms of cooperation in a volatile economy, Human Relations, (49: 9), 1133-1171. </li></ul><ul><li>Keen, P.G.W. (1999). Electronic Commerce and the Concept of Trust, http://wwww/ </li></ul>
    41. 41. References <ul><li>Ratnasingam, P. (2000). The influence of power among trading partners in business to business electronic commerce, Internet Research, (1), 56-62. </li></ul><ul><li>Ratnasingam, P. & Pavlou, P. (2003). Technology trust in Internet-based interorganizational electronic commerce, Journal of Electronic Commerce in Organizations, v 1, no 1, pp. 17-41, (Jan-Mar), Inaugural Issue. </li></ul><ul><li>Yalaho, A. (2006). A Conceptual Model of ICT-Supported Unified Process of International Outsourcing of Software Production. in 10th IEEE International Enterprise Distributed Object Computing Conference Workshops (EDOCW'06). HongKong, China: IEEE Computer Society. </li></ul><ul><li>Yalaho, A. and N. Nahar (2009). The ICT-Supported Unified Process Model Of Offshore Outsourcing Of Software Production: Exploratory Examination And Validation. International Journal of Innovation and Technology Management. v.06, No. 1, pp. 59-96 </li></ul>
    42. 42. References <ul><li>Meyerson, D., Weick, K., E., & Kramer, R., M. (1996). Swift Trust and Temporary Groups. Teoksessa Kramer, M. Roderick and Tom, R. Tyler (Eds.), Trust in Organisations: Frontiers of Theory and Research, 167-195, Sage Publications inc., USA. </li></ul><ul><li>Jarvenpaa, S. L. and Leidner, D. E. (1999). Communication and trust in global virtual teams. Organization Science, 10, 791–815. </li></ul>