Contextualization of Open Educational Resources in Asia and Europe


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The presentation shows current developments of OER in Europe and Asia - starting with barriers and analysis of the current status, we realized three case studies, looking at OER in Finland, Malaysia and Philippines. The results lead to 10 main recommendations to achieve successful, cross-border collaborations for learning and teaching using OER.

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Contextualization of Open Educational Resources in Asia and Europe

  1. 1. Contextualization of Open Educational Resources in Asia and Europe Jan M. Pawlowski, Henri Pirkkalainen, Juvy Lizette Gervacio, Norazah Nordin, Mohamed Amin Embi #easem Bangkok, 19.12.2013
  2. 2. Jyvä skylä , Finland Source: [,]
  3. 3. Global Information Systems at the University of Jyvä skylä Focus areas Global Information Systems Supporting globally distributed workgroups Open Educational Resources Reference Modeling E-Learning Supporting international education settings Cultural adaptation Standardization & Quality Management Mobile & Ambient Learning Innovative tools and solutions Projects Open Educational Ideas and Innovations (OEI2) Nordic Open Education Alliance OpenDiscoverySpace: OER for Schools OpenScout: OER for Management TELMAP: Technology Forecasting COSMOS: Open Science Resources: Exchange of Scientific Content ASPECT: Open Content and standards for schools iCOPER: New standards for educational technologies
  4. 4. Open X… Type OER Typical Shared Artifacts Learning Objects, Slide sets, simulations, animations OEP Learning designs, curricula, lesson plans, experiences Open Access Articles, textbooks Open Source Authoring tools, LMS Assets Pictures, illustrations, texts OEI Oral conversations
  5. 5. Barriers (Pirkkalainen & Pawlowski, 2013) Lack of resources for sustaining services, content and infrastructures Lack of time for production and localization of OER For sharing OER, Need for Rewards and Acknowledgement. Lack of business model for open content initiatives Too many resources to choose from Hard to find suitable material – where to look from Lack of knowledge and awareness of open content Lack of knowledge and awareness of learning object repositories Lack of contextual information for the resources – how can be used or modified Difficulty level of content – found materials not suitable for specific students Open content do not fit the scope of the course Granularity of the materials Matching the resources to own curricula is problematic The effective use of OER is quite complicated and unclear …lots of things can go wrong…
  6. 6. Contextualization / Adaptation Content – language and cultural changes such as translation – exchange of culture-specific concepts, names, date and time formats. Curriculum, pedagogy and didactics – curriculum fit – teaching and learning methods Interaction and communication – interaction patterns and communications – culture specific communication preferences – adaptation of communication tools Media and design – media and design to organization’s identity (e.g. adapting layouts, logos, templates) – cultural preferences such as colors or symbols / icons – changes of devices (e.g. from desktop applications to mobile app design). Technical – infrastructure and tools (such as LMS, authoring systems, communication or social software tools) – different networking capabilities (e.g. broadband) Cultural (horizontal category) – all change aspects are mainly based on (geographical and organizational) cultural factors
  7. 7. Issues OER re-use is not yet common practice, in particular not in cross-border contexts Not-invented-here syndrome: If I have not created / spent efforts / reviewed it myself, it can’t be good Massive Open Online Colonialism… Lack of appreciation and recognition in the community Sharing complete resources might not be the solution… What are solutions for cross-border collaboration and mutual (!) synergies?
  8. 8. Cases Finland: Open Educational Ideas – Focus on the sharing process Philippines: University of the Philippines’ Open University – Focus on policy / strategy and experiences Malaysia: OER in Malaysia – Good practices from Malaysia Case structure – Motivation and context: Why is the case relevant? What is the setting of the case? – Case description: Short description of the adaptation and contextualization – Case results: What was achieved, what are the key results? – Barriers and Critical success factors
  9. 9. Finland: Open Educational Ideas and Emotional Ownership “the degree that individuals or groups perceive that knowledge or resources belong to them” Theoretical background: – Wabi-Sabi principle (Treviranus, 2011): Designing the imperfect to allow creation processes – From Open Content to Open Thinking (deLiddo, 2010) Imperfect Design ER O
  10. 10. Finland: Revising the Sharing Process OEI Lifecycle
  11. 11. Finland: OEI Artifacts Type Typical Shared Artifacts OEI Artifacts OEI Oral conversations Ideas, innovations, requirements (to educational material) needs / develop OER Learning Objects, Slide sets, Early stage digital objects, draft simulations, animations versions, course outlines OEP Learning designs, curricula, Didactic / lesson plans, new lesson plans, experiences curricula, experience requests Open Access Articles, textbooks Open Source Authoring tools, LMS Position papers, book outlines, drafts Prototypes Assets Pictures, illustrations, texts Sketches, drafts
  12. 12. Philippines: Resource Based Content Package Four parameters of openness: OER, open admissions, open curricula, and distance education at a scale Positioned to lead in the OER movement Resource Based Content Package – detailed study guide, to both on-line and off-line resources considered to be the core set of materials for a course (instead of one textbook) – resources may contain commentaries, detailed explanations, and examples, as well as selfassessment questions and activities Resource examples – web-based publications and digital materials such as podcasts, webcasts, as well as features of Web 2.0 like blogs, wikis, shareware, and virtual communities.
  13. 13. Philippines: Key Issues and Challenges Policy level – Lacking policy on OERs – IPR Issues (protection vs freedom) – constant discussion and articulation on the relevance of OERs could lead to the creation of a policy Resource Constraints – regular appropriation from the government – need to update and acquire equipment and software as well as improve interconnectivity Capacity Building for RBCP – need to create awareness on OERs and the RBCP – How to customize OER Quality Assurance – design a mechanism to ensure quality of OERs. Co-sharing of materials with Institutional Partners – Good basis through institutional partners locally and globally – Exploration of co-development of OERs that can be shared Course Evaluation – need to review OER utilization and customization in the RBCP approach
  14. 14. Malaysia: OER initiatives Aiming at being a leading country on OER Embracing the willingness to create, innovate and share Initiatives – Wawasan Open University & OER Asia – Open University of Malaysia – University Teknologi Malaysia Open CourseWare – International Medical University (IMU) Webinar Learning Series – Web 2.0 OER – Just-in-time Training 2U (JiT2U) – ZaidLearn – Learning Innovation Circle (LIC) More in the next presentation 
  15. 15. Summary: Lessons learned from the case studies Integration of OER with existing initiatives – A variety of initiatives has already been develop – Integration need into broader OER adoption. Policy support – needed on a national level as well as in university strategies – indication that Asian universities have OER higher on the agenda than universities in Europe Capacity and awareness building – Stakeholders in all countries need to be informed and educated Cross-border collaboration – mainly on a regional level – No broad initiatives exist – Strong need to collaborate globally!
  16. 16. Summary: Lessons learned from the case studies Quality assurance – Resources and courses need to be quality assured taking the different country- and organizational requirements into account Institutional partnerships – Supporting the utilization of OER – Existing and new partnerships should include OER as a means for collaboration Early sharing – Idea sharing is a promising concept towards the collaborative development of OER – Not only OER should be shared but also OEI and OEP to share in all parts of the lifecycle Collaboration processes and tools – necessary to facilitate cross-border collaborations and OER development – ease adaptation and in particular translation as well as cultural processes – Integrate standard tools allowing simple collaborative development and adaptation
  17. 17. Outlook First explorative, cross-country study between Asia and Europe Continue on the experiences, everyone can and will learn Expand research on cultural aspects Model a reference process for global OER collaboration (around the OEI model?) Continue to build partnership in e-ASEM but create clear actions for collaboration!
  18. 18. Contact us… Prof. Dr. Jan M. Pawlowski GLIS on the web… Nordic OER OpenDiscoverySpace