Processing Devices

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PPT on Central Processing Devices

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Processing Devices

  1. 1. Processing Devices
  2. 2. Processing Devi ces A computer is termed as data processing machine which accepts data and then stores or processes data immediately and display the output for the user . A simple model of a computer INPUT PROCESSING (CPU) OUTPUT STORAGE
  3. 4. Central Processing Unit(CPU) <ul><li>CPU is called as the brain of the computer , where most calculations take place . It is also called as Processor and has electronic circuitry. </li></ul><ul><li>It controls and coordinate the activities of all other components of computer system and performs all the arithmetic and logical operations to be applied to the data. </li></ul><ul><li>For large machines , CPU’s require one or more printed circuit boards (Ex: NASA Servers or Super computers ) and for PC’s , the CPU is housed in single chip called microprocessor. </li></ul>
  4. 5. 3 Basic Parts of CPU <ul><li>Registers </li></ul><ul><li>Arithmetic and Logical Unit(ALU) </li></ul><ul><li>Control Unit(CU) </li></ul><ul><li>CPU </li></ul>
  5. 6. Registers <ul><li>They hold various types of information such as data, instructions, addresses and intermediate results of calculations. </li></ul><ul><li>They hold the material that the CPU is currently working with and they can be thought of as being the CPU’s workspace. As soon as a particular instruction or piece of data is finished, the next one immediately replace it and information that results from the processing is returned to main memory. </li></ul><ul><li>Size of the registers can effect the speed and performance of the processor. </li></ul>
  6. 7. <ul><li>RAM: </li></ul><ul><li>Random access memory is name as any of the locations on a chip can be randomly selected and used to directly store and retrieve data and instructions </li></ul><ul><li>RAM refers to read and write memory and RAM is volatile memory , as soon as power was off, there is no data in the RAM. </li></ul><ul><li>ROM: </li></ul><ul><li>Read only memory chips are used by manufactures to permanently store some programmes . </li></ul>ROM RAM
  7. 8. Arithmetic and Logic Unit(ALU) <ul><li>It’s the place where the actual execution of the instructions take place during the processing operation. </li></ul><ul><li>All calculations are performed and all comparisons are made in ALU. </li></ul><ul><li>Arithmetic operations include addition, subtraction, multiplication and division. </li></ul><ul><li>Logical operations compare numbers, letters and special characters. </li></ul><ul><li>Comparison operations test for three conditions: </li></ul><ul><li>equal to condition, less than conditions and greater than conditions where two values will be compared. </li></ul>
  8. 9. <ul><li>Relational operations (=, <, >) are used to describe the comparison operations used by the arithmetic logic unit . </li></ul><ul><li>The arithmetic logic unit performs logic functions such as AND, OR and NOT . </li></ul><ul><li>The data and instruction , stored in primary storage prior to processing, are transferred as and when needed to the ALU where processing takes place. </li></ul><ul><li>Data may move from primary storage to ALU and back again to memory many times before the processing is over. </li></ul><ul><li>After the processing is complete, the final result which are stored in main memory unit are released to an output device. </li></ul>
  9. 10. Control Unit <ul><li>It contains an electronic circuit that uses electrical signals to direct the entire computer system to carry out, or execute, stored program instructions. </li></ul><ul><li>It communicates with all other devices. </li></ul><ul><li>It manages and coordinates the entire computer system. </li></ul><ul><li>It obtains instructions from the programme stored in main memory, interprets the instructions and issues signals that cause other units of the system to execute them. </li></ul>
  10. 11. Inside Computer Cabinet: Or Buses
  11. 12. Buses <ul><li>Buses connect address, data and control instructions together. A bus is a collection of wires through which data is transmitted from one part of computer to another. </li></ul><ul><li>In PC’s , the term bus usually refers to internal bus. </li></ul><ul><li>This is a bus that connects all the internal computer components to the CPU and main memory . There is also an expansion bus that enables expansion board to access the CPU and memory. </li></ul><ul><li>There are 3 types of buses. </li></ul><ul><li>Address bus </li></ul><ul><li>Data bus </li></ul><ul><li>Control bus. </li></ul>
  12. 13. <ul><li>Data bus used to transfer actual data . </li></ul><ul><li>Address bus is used to identify particular locations(addresses) in the main memory and input/output lines . The width of the address bus determines how many unique memory locations can be addressed. </li></ul><ul><li>To know how much data is transferred at one time is determined by size of data bus . </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: 16 / 32 bit data bus can transfer 16 / 32 bits of data. </li></ul><ul><li>The control bus is used to control flow of data . Ex: to read or write from or to memory. Every bus has a clock speed measured in MHz </li></ul><ul><li>A fastest bus allows data to be transferred faster, which makes applications run faster. </li></ul>
  13. 14. PROCESSOR HISTORY <ul><li>INTEL 4004 </li></ul><ul><li>INTEL 8080 </li></ul><ul><li>INTEL 8086 . </li></ul><ul><li>MOTOROLA 68000 </li></ul><ul><li>INTEL 8088 </li></ul><ul><li>INTEL 80286 </li></ul><ul><li>INTEL 80287 </li></ul><ul><li>INTEL 80386DX </li></ul><ul><li>SPARC </li></ul><ul><li>INTEL 80486DX </li></ul><ul><li>INTEL 80386SX </li></ul><ul><li>INTEL 80386SL </li></ul><ul><li>INTEL 80486SX </li></ul><ul><li>INTEL 80486DX2 </li></ul><ul><li>INTEL PENTIUM </li></ul><ul><li>INTEL PENTIUM PRO </li></ul><ul><li>INTEL PENTUM II </li></ul><ul><li>INTEL PENTIUM III </li></ul>
  14. 15. INTEL® CELERON™ D PROCESSORS INTEL® PENTIUM™ 4 PROCESSORS INTEL® PENTIUM™ D PROCESSORS INTEL® CORE® 2 DUO PROCESSORS AMD ® SEMPRON® PROCESSORS AMD® ATHLON™ 64 PROCESSORS AMD® ATHLON™ 64 X2 DUAL CORE PROCESSORS
  15. 16. Intel Celeron Intel P4 Intel Core 2 Duo
  16. 17. Conclusion CPU is the brain of the computer that it controls and coordinates the activities of all the components of the computer.
  17. 18. Thank you!

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