Cns Anatomy Slides


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Cns Anatomy Slides

  1. 1. Brain Anatomy Slides courtesy of Dr. Maria Rubio General Rule: The functional and anatomical organization of sensory processing networks is hierarchical 3rd order neuron 2nd order neuron 1st order neuron
  2. 2. Gross Anatomy of the Spinal Cord Spinal Nerves: 8 Cervical nerves Neck, shoulder, arms and hands 12 Thoracic nerves Shoulders, chest, and upper abdomen 5 lumbar nerves Lower abdomen, hips and legs 5 sacral nerves Genitals and lower digestive tract Figure 16-1 M Figure 13-2 Gross Anatomy of the Spinal Cord Cross Section: Gray matter Gray due to cell bodies In CNS, gray matter also = synapses White Matter White due to myelin; = axons (both myelinated and unmyelinated) Dorsal Horn Ventral Horn Ventral Root Dorsal Root Cell bodies of unipolar sensory neurons No synapses Dorsal Root Ganglion
  3. 3. Note functional Sectional organization of gray matter Anatomy of the Spinal Cord See 16.4M Figure 6-41 V; 16.3M Dorsal Columns Fiber Tracts: Fasciculus cuneatus Fasciculus gracilis Ascending (Sensory) Anterolateral columns Tracts Note functional E.g., spinothalamic tracts organization of WHITE Spinocerebellar tracts matter
  4. 4. Fiber Tracts: Descending (Motor) Tracts Ventromedial System Reticulospinal Vestibulospinal Tectospinal Anterior Corticospinal Dorsolateral System Rubrospinal Lateral Corticospinal Pyramidal; extrapyramidal terminology is outdated! Spinal Nerves Peripheral Nerve Structure
  5. 5. Dermatomes Figure 16.6 M Nerve Plexuses A network of interweaving anterior rami of spinal nerves Rami (pl.) ramus – primary division of a nerve or blood vessel Cervical plexus Brachial plexus Lumbar plexus Sacral plexus
  6. 6. Cervical Plexus C1 – C4 Innervates neck (sensory and motor) Phrenic nerve (C3 - 4) Innervates diaphragm (so you can breathe!) Figure 16.8 M Brachial Plexus C5 – T1 Sensory/motor innervation of upper extremity More complex than cervical plexuses Anterior rami Trunks Divisions Cords Figure 16.9 M
  7. 7. Lumbar Plexus L1 – L4 Supply lower limb of each side Less complex than brachial plexus Figure 16.10 M Sacral Plexus L4 – S4 Supply gluteal region, plevis, perineum, and lower limb of each side Together with Lumbar plexus as lumbosacral plexus Figure 16.11 M
  8. 8. Components of Reflex Arc See also Figure 16.12 M Example of Deep Tendon Reflex Patellar tendon (“knee jerk”) reflex Clinical usefulness
  9. 9. Monosynaptic (Knee Jerk) and Disynaptic (Flexor Withdrawal) Reflexes Figure 16.13 M Clinical usefulness of reflexes – see table 16.6 M Muscle tone
  10. 10. Slides courtesy of Dr. Maria Rubio Sagittal Plane Coronal Plane
  11. 11. Brainstem Brainstem Medulla Pons Midbran Rigidly programmed, automatic behaviors Posterior View Medulla • Centers for cardiovascular and respiratory regulation • Cranial nerve nuclei • Reticular Medulla formation Pons • Cranial nerve nuclei, tracts • Reticular formation Pons
  12. 12. Midbrain • Superior Colliculus • Eye / Head orientation movements • Inferior Colliculus • Tracts, nuclei • Reticular formation Midbrain RETICULAR FORMATION • > 100 Nuclei • Extends throughout brainstem • Receives info from all over brain • Projects throughout brain Cerebellum Cerebellar peduncles • Receives visual, vestibular, proprioceptive input • spinocerebellar tracts • Functions include coordination Figure 15-22 M
  13. 13. (Brainstem and) Diencephalon Posterior View Diencephalon Epithalamus Thalamus • Sensory relay center Hypothalamus • “Homeostasis”
  14. 14. Sagittal Thalamus Coronal Sagittal Hypothalamus Coronal Autonomic Functions
  15. 15. Cerebral Hemispheres Superior View Anterior View Lateral View Ventral View Posterior View Superior View
  16. 16. Anterior View Posterior View
  17. 17. Cortex: Correlate Lobes with Function ridges Shallow separation Frontal Motor, speech, personality, emotion Frontal lobotomies Parietal Somatosensory cortex, voluntary movement Occipital Vision Temporal Hearing, balance, visual processing Figure 15-1 M Lateral View
  18. 18. White Fiber Tracts Projection fibers Commisural fibers Association fibers
  19. 19. Human Brain: coronal sections Frontal Caudal Basal Ganglia Nuclei important in motor control Caudate, putamen, globus pallidus Subthalamic nuclei, substantia nigra
  20. 20. Internal Capsule Between putamen-globus pallidus and thalamus Major projection of fibers to/from cortex Common CVA (stroke) site Rhinencephalon Phylogenetically ancient cortex Olfactory bulb + tract Fornix Limbic system Amygdala Hippocampus
  21. 21. Limbic System Emotional brain Shape of a ring (around diencephalon) Cingulate gyrus Parahippocampal gyrus Hippocampus Amygdala Olfactory bulbs Fornix Diencephalon nuclei Corpus Callosum: connects cerebral hemispheres (with commisural fibers) Figure 15-3 M Cerebral Hemispheres: Frontal section at a: Gray matter (cell bodies – in CNS, also SYNAPSES) White matter (axons)
  22. 22. Figure 15-3 M Cerebellum and Brainstem (section at b): Gray matter (cell bodies + synapses) White matter (axons) Figure 15-3 M Medulla (lower brainstem; section at c): Gray matter (cell bodies + synapses) White matter (axons)
  23. 23. Figure 15-3 M Spinal Cord (section at d): Gray matter (cell bodies + synapses) White matter (axons) Cranial Nerves See lecture outline for functions of each. Ventral View
  24. 24. Ventricles (with CSF) Research Martin Styner The brain is a hollow organ Brain Ventricles Figure 15-6 M
  25. 25. Cranial Meninges Figure 15-5 M Cranial Meninges Dura mater Arachnoid Arachnoid Pia mater
  26. 26. Spinal Meninges Figure 16.2 M Figure 13–3 Cerebral Spinal Fluid (CSF) Surrounds brain & spinal cord; circulates through ventricles Cushions; protection Formed in choroid plexus by ependymal cells Blood-brain barrier limits the flow of solutes into CSF Materials which easily pass across the BBB: Glucose, AAs, certain ions, fatty acids, nicotine, CO, CO2 BBB restricts these materials: Recall role of ASTROCYTES and Blood, wastes (e.g. urea), TIGHT JUNCTIONS in forming BBB proteins, K+ ions
  27. 27. See also Figure 15-8 M Vascularization
  28. 28. The major arterial supply to the brain Middle Cerebral A. Anterior Cerebral A. Posterior Cerebral A. Bas ilar a Internal Carotid A. Vertebral A. Circle of Willis collateral circulation
  29. 29. Anterior cerebral art. Middle cerebral art. Posterior cerebral art.