Behavior therapy


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Behavior therapy

  2. 2. DEFINITION:-“It is a form of psychotherapy whichfocuses on modifying faculty behaviorrather basic changes in the personality.Instead of probing the unconscious orexploring the patient’s thoughts &feelings, behavior therapist tries toeliminate the symptoms & modifyineffective or maladaptive pattern byapplying basic learning techniques.”4/24/20132JAYPATIDAR(M.Sc.NURSING)
  3. 3. BEHAVIOR THERAPY TECHNIQUES1. Behavioral modification2. Systematic desensitization3. Aversion therapy4. Assertiveness training5. Cognitive behavior therapy6. Implosive (flooding) therapy7. Positive reinforcementa. Response shapingb. Modellingc. Token economy4/24/20133JAYPATIDAR(M.Sc.NURSING)
  4. 4. 1. BEHAVIOR MODIFICATIONIt is also called “simple Extinction.”Learned behavior pattern becomes awaste or disappears if it is not reinforced.To eliminated a maladaptive behavior onehas to remove the reinforcement for it.It is effective when reinforcement is beingused without the knowledge of theaffected individual4/24/20134JAYPATIDAR(M.Sc.NURSING)
  5. 5. COUNT…For Example; Every time sonu, a nine year old girl bites hernails, her mother gives her an angry look. Sonuunderstand the mother anger & tries not torepeat the bad habit. A maladaptive behavioris gradually removed. Mother anger is apunishment for sonu . Reward are also provide to reduce themaladaptive learning. Rishu, 11 year old boy,is told that if he studies one hour regularly onhis own in class VI he could be allowed to buy acrocket set of his choice.4/24/20135JAYPATIDAR(M.Sc.NURSING)
  6. 6. 2. SYSTEMATIC DESENSITIZATION It is a form of behavior therapy developed byJoseph Wolpe. The objective of the therapy is to reduce orelimination fear or anxiety in which;I. The patient is trained in deep musclesrelaxation.II. He has various anxiety-provoking situation orspecific phobia, such as fear of death, fear ofanimals. These problems are placed from thestrongest to the weakest order i.e. the client isanxious about which one is causing anxiety theleast.4/24/20136JAYPATIDAR(M.Sc.NURSING)
  7. 7. COUNT…. Each of these situations is presented in imaginationor in reality beginning with the weakest. Once thepatient relaxes while imagining, that means theanxiety is getting reduced gradually.For Example; A child is having fear of crossing theroad. For a few days the mother can take the childto the road & just stand & talk about other thing.The child keeps observing people crossing the road.Than after 2-3 days mother & child cross the roadwhile they are talking. This may reduce the anxietyin a child as he is allowed to cross the road in arelaxed manner. Therapy is very useful for patientwho have developed certain fears specially todomestic animals like dog.4/24/20137JAYPATIDAR(M.Sc.NURSING)
  8. 8. 3. Aversion TherapyIt is a form of behavior therapy in whichthe patient is conditioned to avoid anundesirable behavior or symptoms byassociating them with painful orunpleasant experiences, such as puttinga bitter taste on nails or tongue for nailbiting, giving drug like apormorphinewhich cause nausea & vomiting ontaking alcohol or an electric shock totreat a child with enuresis.4/24/20138JAYPATIDAR(M.Sc.NURSING)
  9. 9. COUNT…Aversion therapy has been used foralcoholism, transvestism, compulsiveunacceptable social behavior likehomosexuality & other sexual deviation.Typically, 20-40 session are given, witheach session lasting about 1 hour. Aftercompletion of treatment, booster sessionmay be given.4/24/20139JAYPATIDAR(M.Sc.NURSING)
  10. 10. 4. ASSERTIVENESS TRAININGIt is a behavior therapy techniques inwhich the patient is given training tobring about changes in emotional & otherbehavioral pattern by asserting himself.One is encouraged not to be afraid ofshowing an appropriate response,negative or positive, to an idea orsuggestion.The assertive behavior training is givenby the therapist first by role playing &then by practice in a real life situation.4/24/201310JAYPATIDAR(M.Sc.NURSING)
  11. 11. COUNT…Attention is focus on more effectiveinterpersonal-skill.The most techniques used in assertivenesstraining is behavioral rehearsal, in whichthe patient act out problematicinterpersonal interactions with the nurse ortherapist. After this role-playing specificmaladaptive behavior are identified & theclient behavior can be adapted.This training can be used for client withbulimia nervosa & major depression,mentally healthy & mentally ill persons.4/24/201311JAYPATIDAR(M.Sc.NURSING)
  12. 12. 5. COGNITIVE BEHAVIOR THERAPY It is a psychotherapeutic approach based on theidea that emotional problems in an individualarise due to faulty ways of thinking & distortedattitude towards oneself & others. The therapist takes the role of a guide who helpsthe patient to correct & revise his perceptions &thoughts. This helps the patient to change his thoughts,feelings & behavior about himself. Cognitive behavior therapy is considered effectivein the treatment of depression & adjustmentdifficulties.4/24/201312JAYPATIDAR(M.Sc.NURSING)
  13. 13. 6. IMPLOSIVE THERAPY (FLOODING)It is a behavior therapy techniquesopposite to systematic desensitization, noprior relaxation techniques are taught tothe patient.In this therapy, an individual is exposeddirectly to a maximum intensity fear-producing situation either in imaginationor in real life. The patient gradually feelsno actual danger in the situation.4/24/201313JAYPATIDAR(M.Sc.NURSING)
  14. 14. COUNT…For Examples; He has developedintense phobia of a lizard. Duringpsychotherapy session suddenly thetherapist puts a rubberized lizard onthe table. For a minute the patient mayget scared but gradually may starthandling a rubberized lizard whiletaking.4/24/201314JAYPATIDAR(M.Sc.NURSING)
  15. 15. 7. POSITIVE REINFORCEMENTIt is a stimulus or stimulus situationwhich is given to a patient or individualafter the response.When the stimulus is given after theresponse it is on the basis that thestrength of the response is increased &that the response will appear again.Examples; as soon as the infants gets up& walks, the mother claps & gives theinfant a piece of chocolate to enjoy.4/24/201315JAYPATIDAR(M.Sc.NURSING)
  16. 16. COUNT…Positive Reinforcement can be done by:a. Responsive shapingb. Modellingc. Token Economy4/24/201316JAYPATIDAR(M.Sc.NURSING)
  17. 17. COUNT…a. Response Shaping: Positive reinforcement is used inresponse shaping or incorporating orestablishing a response which is notexisting in an individual’s behavior. This technique is used in a behaviorproblem or mental retardation.4/24/201317JAYPATIDAR(M.Sc.NURSING)
  18. 18. COUNT…For example; Shubam, 14, has anintelligence level of a five years oldchild. He had never done any of thisactivities such as washing afterdefecation, wearing shoes & socks. Thetherapist trained the family member toencourage Shubam to wear his socks &shoes. When he wears them he shouldbe taken for a ride (car) which he enjoysthe maximum. In this way he can beencourage to learn those behaviorswhich he has never learnt.4/24/201318JAYPATIDAR(M.Sc.NURSING)
  19. 19. COUNT…b. Modelling:Modelling is a behavior therapy techniquein which learning occurs throughobservation.The client watches someone else perform aparticular action such as answeringtelephone.Models are often parents or other adults &childrenModelling is a form of social learning & isoften called observation learning.4/24/201319JAYPATIDAR(M.Sc.NURSING)
  20. 20. COUNT…c. Token Economy: It is a behavioral therapy programme usuallyconducted in a hospital or classroom setting. In token economy the desired behavior is reinforcedby offering tokens that can be exchanged for specialfood, games, comics or other rewards. For example; a patient with schizophrenia does notmaintain personal hygiene. The day he maintains hegets a token as reinforcer that he can watch T.V.when he desire. Like this he is able to collect manytokens & adapt behavior which is socially acceptable.Like maintaining personal hygiene. Sometimes inreturn of tokens the patient may exchange then byasking for PAROLE.4/24/201320JAYPATIDAR(M.Sc.NURSING)