Compression Ignition Engine Modifications for Straight Vegetable Oil Fuel
Compression Ignition Engine Modications for Straight Plant Oil Fueling in Remote Contexts: Modication Design and Short-run Testing a,∗ b c a c,∗∗ M. Basinger , T. Reding , C. Williams , K. S. Lackner , V. Modi a Earth and Environmental Engineering, Columbia University, New York City, USA b Mechanical Engineering, Manhattan College, New York City, USA c Mechanical Engineering, Columbia University, New York City, USAAbstractThough many plant oils have a similar energy density to fossil diesel fuel, several properties of plantoils are considerably dierent from those of diesel. Engine modications can overcome some of thesedierences. An engine modication kit has been designed and tested for a slow speed, stationary,indirect-injection diesel engine - the Lister-type CS 6/1, common throughout the developing world.The kit allows waste vegetable oil fueling with similar performance to that of diesel fueling. Thekits simple yet robust design is targeted for use as a development mechanism, allowing remotefarmers to use locally grown plant oils as a diesel substitute. The modication kit includes a preheating system and the tuning of the injector pressure andtiming to better atomize given the unique properties of straight plant oils. The design methodologyfor the modications is detailed and a suite of performance test results are described including fuelconsumption, eciency, pre-combustion chamber pressure, and various emissions. The results ofthe study show how a combination of preheating the high pressure fuel line, advancing the injectortiming and increasing the injector valve opening pressure allows this engine to eciently utilizeplant oils as a diesel fuel substitute, potentially aiding remote rural farmers with a lower cost,sustainable fuel source enabling important agro-processing mechanization in parts of the worldthat needs it most.Keywords: plant oils, straight vegetable oil, diesel engine, emissions, performance, CI enginePACS: 88.20.ft1. Introduction The idea of fueling compression ignition engines on plant oil is as old as the diesel engine itself.In Rudolph Diesels preface to his 1912 patent he wrote that the use of vegetable oil for enginefuel may seem insignicant today but such oil may become in the course of time, as important aspetroleum . It seems that over the decades since this patent, whenever petroleum prices suddenlyincrease a renewed interest in plant oil combustion occurs. This has resulted in a signicant body of ∗ Corresponding author ∗∗ Principal corresponding author Email address: email@example.com (M. Basinger)Preprint submitted to Fuel October 15, 2009
2literature describing engine performance and resulting emissions of dierent oils in dierent engines.Some studies have investigated modications to the engine that allow for straight fueling with plantoil, others blend plant oils with diesel, while others carry out a combination of these approaches. More recently, biodiesel production (transesterication) has become a popular endeavor. Evenso, biodiesel captures only a small fraction of the total diesel fuel market share in 2007 the U.S.sproduction of biodiesel was 1% the amount of fossil diesel sold . Even if the entire worldsproduction of 115 billion liters of vegetable oil had been used for fuel in 2007, neglecting conversionlosses as well as the debate on the use of food materials for fuel, this would only satisfy about 3/4of the U.S. diesel fuel demand . However, some niche contexts do oer immediate opportunity. The technology development andexperimental results discussed in this paper are focused on the application of straight plant oils indiesel engines in the developing country context. Many developing countries lack adequate energyinfrastructure. Modern fuels and generation systems are often inaccessible due to complex issues ofnancing, transportation, education/training, etc. The United Nations Development Programme(UNDP) reported that worldwide in 2005, nearly 2.4 billion people used traditional biomass fuelsfor cooking and nearly 1.6 billion people did not have access to electricity . Mechanical power foragriculture processing from small, stationary diesel engines is a core development mechanism forrural populations. However, the cost and availability of fuel in these remote locations can prohibitthe use of this important energy resource. The use of locally grown, non-edible, plant oils to fuel slow-speed diesel engines has potentialto provide a low cost, sustainable solution. The ruggedness of engines like the Listeroid CS and itswidespread availability lend itself to this application.2. SVO Fueling Methodology The combustion of plant oils in diesel engines is inuenced by qualities of both the oil and theengine. Dierent studies have found dierent results and reached dierent conclusions dependingon the type of oil and engine that were used. Few experimental studies reach across engine typeand oil type to elucidate these trends [5, 6]. What follows is a brief review of the impact of the oiland the impact of the engine on plant oil combustion.2.1. The Impact of the Oil The processing of plant oils is complex. An entire industry surrounds the procedures andpractices involved in taking oil-crops from the eld to the food-stand, or fuel tank. Extremelylarge, multivolume works, such as Bailys Industrial Oil Fats Products, detail every aspect of thisindustry . Some vegetable oil combustion studies have found that the degree or type of processingof the oil has little impact on engine performance or emissions while others recommend at leastdegumming in order to remove phosphatides [5, 6]. A detailed treatment of all the combustionimplications from the dierent degrees of processing of plant oils is beyond the scope of this paper. The term straight vegetable oil (SVO) will hence forth be used to simply dierentiate plantoil from biodiesel. Specic properties of dierent SVOs are discussed, in order to highlight broaddierences from one type of plant oil to the next as they generally relate to combustion. The two primary motivations behind transesterication are to remove the glycerin head of thevegetable oil and to reduce the viscosity. The glycerin in SVOs has been shown to lead to enginedeposits in endurance testing [8, 9]. High viscosity can impede ow in the fuel lines and lter but isof most concern with regard to its impact on atomization. For this reason the high viscosity of SVO
2.1 The Impact of the Oil 3 100 Soybean Canola Peanut 75 Palm Viscosity (cP) Jatropha Soy Shortening 50 Pre-WVO WVO Diesel 25 0 0 50 100 150 200 Temperature (C) Figure 1: Viscosity vs. Temperature of Several Plant Oils and Dieselhas been the property of greatest emphasis in most SVO combustion research. Improvements toviscosity can be obtained through preheating. As shown in Figure 1, SVO viscosity is exponentiallyreduced as temperature increases. A Brookeld viscometer, model LVTD, and a hotplate were used to measure the dynamicviscosity of the eight vegetable oils and number 2 diesel fuel. Each sample was heated in ve degreeincrements; the viscosity measurements are shown in Figure 1. The soy, canola, and peanut sampleswere cooking oils obtained from a commercial food market. The waste vegetable oil (WVO) is usedcooking oil from a local cafeteria; it is the same sample used throughout this paper. The pre-WVO,from which the WVO is derived, is a mix of soy and canola cooking oil. Full parameter, chemical,and lipid analysis of the WVO is provided in the appendix in Tables A.2 through A.4. A regression utilizing equation (1) can be t to the viscosity versus temperature curves fromFigure 1, where µ is the viscosity in centi-Poise and T is the temperature in Celsius. CoecientsA, B , and C for each oil are shown in Table 1. The temperature range over which the viscosity wasmeasured is also provided. µ = A + BeCT (1) Though the high viscosity of unheated SVOs is a major issue for combustion in modern dieselengines, there are several other physical and fuel properties that also warrant attention. Table A.2in the appendix lists some of these properties for a few SVOs. The oil yield per land area per year is important when considering scaling issues surrounding theuse of SVOs as fuel. Soil, climate condition, agricultural inputs (fertilizer, etc.), plant variety, andother factors all impact yield. Due to the complexity of these factors and their interactions, TableA.2 provides an oil yield information as a range. Other important SVO properties, such as energydensity, can be compared more succinctly. For example, the energy density, or caloric value, ofSVOs is generally about 10 percent less than number 2 diesel, though will vary from SVO to SVO.This lower energy density results in higher fuel consumption compared to fossil diesel. The cetane number (CN) also has important combustion implications. The CN is a measure of
2.1 The Impact of the Oil 4 Table 1: Viscosity-Temperature Coecients A B C Correlation Coecient Temperature Range (C) Soybean 1.110 109.6 -0.036 0.999 25 to 160 Canola 5.590 141.9 -0.038 0.998 25 to 200 Peanut 5.768 165.9 -0.041 0.998 25 to 200 Palm 3.265 327.2 -0.055 0.993 25 to 145 Jatropha 1.607 134.1 -0.037 0.999 25 to 145 Soy Shortening -3.638 89.30 -0.022 0.996 50 to 145 Pre-WVO 1.040 146.7 -0.039 0.998 25 to 145 WVO 3.486 171.1 -0.040 0.997 25 to 160 Diesel 1.015 5.058 -0.019 0.996 25 to 125a fuels ignition delay quality; a higher CN corresponds to a shorter ignition delay. Long ignitiondelay is undesirable due to the consequences of engine knock. A CN between 40 and 60 is preferable. Some negative aspects of an SVOs ignition quality can be lessened or avoided through tuningthe engines injection timing for the particular fuel. Vegetable oils are hydrocarbons, though much heavier, and less volatile than number two diesel. The chemical composition of SVOs is important when considering combustion implications.Table A.3 in the appendix shows the C:H:O:S:N ratio for several SVOs. The occurrence of oxygenin the SVO molecule is advantageous, enhancing mixing-limited combustion and even reducingparticulate emissions, though potentially increasing NOx [12, 13]. The existence of nitrogen andoxygen in SVOs has valuable lubricity benets . The ratio of an SVOs C:H:O:S:N is meaningful, but the bond conguration of these elements, thelipid prole, is also important to consider. Dierent fatty acid chains occur in signicantly dierentamounts for dierent oils. This lipid prole has implications for combustion. Many investigationshave shown high amounts of unsaturated fatty acid chains, especially linolenic and linoleic chains,increase engine wear as a result of the polymerizing quality of the heavy polyunsaturated lipids[15, 9, 6]. There is a trade-o however. The degree of saturation of an oil impacts cold owproperties. Soybean oil may have more polymerizing qualities compared to palm oil, but at lowtemperatures, such as those often found in temperate climates during winter months, the cloudpoint and pour point of palm oil can prohibit its use as a non-blended, non-preheated fuel. Thelipid prole has also been shown to directly inuence ignition delay and in turn NOx and particulateemissions . Ryan and Bagby found that it is not only an SVOs physical properties (viscosity), but itschemistry can also impact atomization characteristics. Polyunsaturated lipids such as linolenic andlinoleic chains were most aected during the injection process, resulting in unexpected injectorspray characteristics . Structural indices such as the saponication value (SV) and iodine value (IV) are used to quicklydescribe constituent lipid qualities. The SV is a measure of the average molecular weight, or chainlength, of the fatty acids present in an oil. The IV describes the unsaturated quality, the amountof double bonds, of an oil. An IV is assigned to an SVO based on the amount of iodine that canbe absorbed by the double bonds. The IV neglects the dierentiation between polyunsaturatedacids and monounsaturated acids. Knothe describes other, less common indices that can be usedto overcome the limitations of the IV . For the time being however, the widespread use of the
2.2 The Impact of the Engine 5IV means that it is often readily available across studies, making it a useful index. Table A.4 inthe appendix provides the lipid proles and iodine values for several SVOs.2.2. The Impact of the Engine Several SVO engine study reviews highlight the role of the engine type and conguration ininuencing combustion; depending on the engine and modication used in a study, results can diersignicantly [8, 9, 10, 11, 19, 20, 21]. Engine speed and loading has been found to be important.Vojtisek-Lom, Blazek, et al. investigated rapeseed SVO fueling and found at higher engine loadsCO levels improved while NOx worsened compared to diesel, while at low engine loads HC, CO,and PM worsened . In addition to load, the design of specic components also impacts SVOcombustion. Piston conguration and injector design are inuential, but most often an emphasis isplaced on the type of injection system, direct or indirect. Modern diesel engines tend to have direct injection (DI) systems due to the improved eciencyand emissions it can oer. Older designs, sometimes relics from days with less stringent fuel qualitystandards, utilized indirect injection (IDI) systems because of its ability to robustly burn lowerquality fuel. The general trend in SVO combustion studies seems to conrm this value of IDIsystems. Hemerlein, Korte et al. showed that DI engines fueled on rapeseed SVO tended to havepoorer emissions and were not suitable for direct fueling, while IDI engines with big cylinders weresuitable . Ryan, Dodge, et al. tested multiple SVOs in a DI and IDI engine and found increased nozzlecoking and lubrication contamination compared to diesel in the DI engine but not in the IDI engine,though the specic energy consumption of the DI engine was generally better then the IDI engine. However, Engler, Johnson, et al. found that though short run IDI engine tests were favorablefor various degummed SVOs, longer 40 hour tests revealed rapid fouling of the lubrication oil . Suda showed that in some DI engines unburned fuel impingement on the cylinder wall results indeposits, ring and cylinder wear, and lubrication oil contamination . Suda also tested soybeanSVO in an IDI with a pre-combustion chamber and designed a special heat plug to allow the engineto robustly burn the SVO. Redesigning major engine components is often less desirable than more minor modications. Themost common minor engine modication is to preheat the SVO. Dierent studies have made dierentconclusions with regard to just how much to preheat. Bari, Yu, et al. found heating between 55 and70 degrees Celsius was adequate for reducing lter clogging and improving engine performance andemissions characteristics [25, 26]. Pugazhvadivu and Jeyachandran found preheating to 135 degreesCelsius to be preferable . Nwafor investigated the impact of preheating rapeseed SVO to 70degrees Celsius and found at low speed and partial loading it was benecial, but at higher speedsand loads it had less impact . Analysis of properties of various SVOs has shown temperaturesbetween 200-300°C to result in thermal decomposition, while higher temperatures approach theash point . Even lower temperatures have been argued to result in overheating the SVO. Bari,Lim, et al. noted that at 100 degrees Celsius vapor bubbles occurred in the fuel line, resulting innon-ideal combustion . Suda found that at 90 degrees Celsius oxidation can occur, resulting ingum formation . Another common minor modication is to increase the injector valve opening pressure (IVOP).Increasing a diesel engines IVOP has been shown to decrease fuel spray droplet diameter, andincrease velocity and penetration distance resulting in a host of engine performance and emissionsimprovements [31, 32, 33, 34, 35]. Initial average fuel spray droplet diameter has been shown to beinversely related to its velocity squared . This means that as velocity increases (from increased
6IVOP), droplet size rapidly decreases. Droplet evaporation can be described by the D2 law, whichrelates evaporation rate to the droplet diameter squared . Decreasing the droplet diameter canthen signicantly increase evaporation rates, thus enhancing combustion. This dual exponentialrelationship between droplet evaporation time and diameter, and between diameter and velocitymeans that even relatively small increases to the IVOP can have signicant combustion advantages. It has already been discussed how SVOs are more viscous and heavier then number 2 diesel fuel;this has been shown to result in considerably larger droplet diameters and lower injection velocities,as described by lower Weber numbers [38, 39]. For these reasons SVOs in particular can benetfrom increased IVOP. Enoki, Hayashi, et al. noted an improvement in brake thermal eciency,ignition, and combustion stability with increased IVOP in an IDI engine fueled on various SVOs. Puhan, Jegan, et al. also found improved engine performance and emissions from increasedIVOP in a DI engine fueled on linseed methyle esters . There is a point where increasing the IVOP becomes counterproductive. This is due to increasedspray penetration resulting in wall impingement . For this reason it can be valuable to tunea particular engines IVOP for the specic SVO. Injection timing is another minor modication that has been employed to help the performanceand emissions of SVO fueled diesel engines. Haldar, Gosh, et al. observed enhanced engine perfor-mance with advanced timing, they attributed this to the lower cetane number of SVOs . Bari,Yu, et al. investigated timing eects on a WVO in a DI engine. They found advanced timing im-proved eciency and reduced CO emissions, though it elevated NOx emissions . Nwafor, Rice,et al. also found benets from advancing the timing of a rapeseed SVO fueled IDI engine. Theengine ran smoother and both CO and CO2 emissions improved . This was attributed to thelonger ignition delay and slower burning rates of plant oils. However, delay period was also foundto be inuenced by engine load, speed and temperature. Similar to IVOP ndings, advancing thetiming too far can have negative consequences, resulting in erratic engine behavior .3. Experimental Setup As shown in Figure 2 a slow speed stationary engine common to remote rural developing countrysettings was fueled with waste vegetable oil (WVO). A modication kit was developed and tested.3.1. System Overview Listeroid engines are used throughout developing countries for agro-processing. These enginesare typically 6 to 16 horsepower, vertical, stationary, water cooled with large ywheels. Theseengines weigh more than 300 kilograms. For this study a Listeroid CS (cold start) 6/1, 650 RPM,4-stroke, 114.3 mm x 139.7 mm bore/stroke, water cooled, IDI diesel engine was used to drivean ST-5 5kW generator head which was loaded by a bank of light bulbs. The ST-5 was chosen toprovide the load to the engine because it is a generator commonly paired with Listeroids throughoutthe developing world. Engine load was measured from a power meter which logged volts, amps,frequency, and power factor. Engine speed was measured with a Hall Eect sensor and a magneton the ywheel. The engine coolant system was comprised of a 55 gallon drum lled with water, circulating viaa passive thermal siphon cycle. Two type J thermocouples were used to measure water coolantlevel entering and exiting the engine. A thermostat was used in the engine coolant exit to speed upthe rate at which the engine reached steady state. Steady state was dened as the point where the
3.1 System Overview 7 Figure 2: Experimental Setup
8water coolant temperature leaving the engine was stable and consistent; this occurred after about90 degrees Celsius. The air intake ow rate was measured via an orice plate pressure transducer. A plenumchamber was utilized to attenuate the air ow pulses, sized per SAE standards . Ambienttemperature, pressure, and relative humidity were measured near the plenum chamber entrance. A dual fuel tank approach was utilized the engine was started on diesel to allow the preheaterto come up to temperature and shutdown on diesel so that the high pressure fuel lines and pumpwere purged of the WVO. Each fuel tank had its own lter. The WVO was pre-ltered to 1-micronbefore being added to the fuel tank. The WVOs on-engine lter (post fuel tank) was 80 mesh, to reduce a pressure drop that couldresult in starving the engine of fuel. To minimize mixing between the two fuels, the injectors fuelreturn line was not routed back to either fuel tank, but instead directly to the juncture of the twofuel lines (SVO and diesel) situated just before the fuel pump. This point is labeled as the fuelcross in Figure 2. The opacity of the exhaust was measured using an AutoLogic model # 310-0332 opacity meterto take readings at 16 Hz that were then averaged across a 10 minute sampling window. To measuregaseous emissions, an Enerac 700 integrated emissions system was used to measure O2, CO, CO2,unburned hydrocarbons (UHCs), NO, NO2, and SO2. Data was collected once per second as partsper million (ppm) or vol%, depending on the concentration. Readings were averaged across a tenminute steady state window (steady state referring to both engine stabilization and the stabilizationof the gas analyzer measurements).4. Preheater Design In order to lower the viscosity of the WVO to a level comparable to diesel, a preheater wasdesigned to take advantage of the Listeroid CSs special characteristics. The original design of theengine included a Change Over Valve (COV) for adjusting the compression ratio for easier start-up in cold climates. This original design is shown in Figure 3. As this engine is now manufacturedand used in primarily warm climates, the COV has been replaced by a COV plug. This COV plugsdirect access to a large amount of waste heat through the cooling jacket, nearby location to theinjector, and easy removal for use in a modication kit, made it an appealing candidate for use asa preheater. Various methods of using the COV plug as a preheater were explored. A priority was placedon a design that could be easily manufactured in a basic machine shop making it appropriate fordeployment and servicing in a developing country context. The nal design consisted of machininga V-shaped passageway to route the fuel through as shown in Figure 4. The inlet and outletwere tapped to allow compression ttings to be attached so that the high pressure line could beconnected as shown in Figure 2. More complex geometries could have been utilized to further aid heat transfer, but the V-shapechannel was chosen as it was believed to possess an optimal ease and cost of local manufacturabilityfor the target context. The passageway diameter was chosen to be 0.635 cm (0.25 in). It wasassumed that any larger diameter would potentially adversely aect the injection timing or riskedoverexerting the fuel pump (due to the increased volume of fuel and its compressibility under highpressure). The length of the passageway was chosen to be 11.43 cm (4.5 in); a longer length wouldhave been within 1.3 cm (0.5 in) of the pre-combustion chamber leaving a thickness of material thatmight be susceptible to failure. A simplied heat transfer model aided the design of the geometry,
9Figure 3: Original Lister CS Head and COV Figure 4: COV Plug Modication
10 Figure 5: Heat Transfer Modelshowing that the fuel would not be over or under heated. The performance was then conrmedexperimentally. Before building the preheater, to estimate the performance of the V-shaped passageway wasmodeled as a 1-D heat transfer problem. The modeled passageway was a straight tube with diameterD and length L with the same values as the V-shaped diameter and length. The mass ow rateof the fuel ow through the passage way was designated m, ˙ with a bulk temperature T b, and a walltemperature T w, as shown in Figure 5. This simplication allowed the utilization of well knownempirical correlations for determining the heat transfer coecients. The bulk temperature of the fuel (T b ) was dened by equation (2): Tf + Ti Tb = (2) 2 Where Ti was the initial temperature of the fuel entering the passageway and Tf was the naltemperature leaving the passageway. In a convection dominated system, the overall power utilizedto raise the temperature of the fuel can be calculated by equation (3): q = mcp (Tf − Ti ) = hA (Tw − Tb ) ˙ ˙ (3) where cp is the specic heat of the fuel and is a function of T b. A is the surface area in thetube. h is the convection coecient and is a function of the Nusselt number (N u). For laminar,fully developed ow in a horizontal tube, an empirical relation has been developed and is expressedin equation (4) [45, 46] hD 1/5 1.8 Nu = = 0.61 (ReRa) 1+ 1/5 (4) k (ReRa) Where Re and Ra were the Reynolds Number and Raleigh Number, respectively, and denedin equations (5) and (6). UD Re = (5) ν gβ (Tw − Tb ) D3 Ra = (6) να where U was the average velocity of the fuel, ν was the kinematic viscosity of the fuel, g was thegravitational acceleration, β was the volumetric thermal expansion coecient of the fuel (assumedto be constant), and α was the thermal diusivity of the fuel. ν and α were functions of T b . For agiven T w and T i , T f can be iteratively solved for through utilizing equations (2) through (6). In
11 1.3cm depth 160 3.8cm depth Temperature (C) 6.4cm depth 140 120 100 0% 25% 50% 75% 100% Engine Load Figure 6: COV Temperature Proleorder to nd appropriate values of Tw a thermal prole of the COV plug was measured throughthe following experimental setup. Five thermocouples were installed into the COV plug in an X conguration, rst at a depthof 1.3 cm (0.5 in) into the plug from the exterior of the engine, then 3.8 cm (1.5 in), and nally 6.4cm (2.5 in). These depths extended across 80% of the total COV plug length. The ve measuredtemperatures were averaged at each depth for each load tested and this thermal prole of the plugis shown in Figure 6. Error bars indicate standard deviation between the 5 thermocouples, averagedacross the ve loads at the specic depth. For purposes of a simple theoretical calculation of Tf the wall temperature of the passageway(Tw ) was assumed to be uniform across all depths, but vary depending on the load, so the averagetemperature across all depths was used as the Tw for each load. To justify the use of equations (2) and (3) the role of convection relative to conduction neededto be determined so the Rayleigh Number (Ra) of the waste vegetable oil traveling through thepassageway was calculated using the measured Tw . The Rayleigh number exceeded 50,000 for allengine loads (10%-90%), validating the assumption that convection dominated . Tf was found through iteratively solving equations (2) through (6). This theoretical Tf wascompared to the experimentally measured temperature at the injector utilizing the actual geometry.Figure 7 shows the agreement between the calculated theoretical and the experimentally measured. The dierences between the calculated and measured results are likely due to the following. 1. The simplifying assumption of laminar ow is inaccurate. The fuel pump pushes fuel through the preheater in pulses which likely enhance heat transfer. 2. The experimental measurement of the fuel temperature was not at the exit of the preheater (Tf ), but instead approximately 15 cm (6 in) downstream at the inlet to the injector. Though this 15 cm (6 in) of fuel line was insulated, some temperature loss would have occurred, meaning the experimental values in Figure 7 are lower than the actual Tf . 3. The wall temperature of the passageway (Tw ) was assumed to be uniform and only vary with load. But the measured COV plug thermal prole showed increasing temperature with
4.1 Pressure and Timing 12 150 Injector Temperature (C) Experimental 125 Theoretical 100 75 50 0% 25% 50% 75% 100% Engine Load (%) Figure 7: Injector Temperature Performance increasing depth into the plug. These higher temperature ranges would have made the heat transfer more favorable then the simplied model represented.Even with these limitations of the model, the design was veried and the performance of thepreheater was found to increase the temperature of the WVO entering the injector to a satisfactorilylevel (approximately 90 degrees Celsius), signicantly reducing viscosity.4.1. Pressure and Timing As discussed above, the combustion characteristics of WVO are dierent from that of fossildiesel. A more complete burn can occur from increased injector valve opening pressure (IVOP) andadvanced injector timing. To increase the IVOP on the Listeroid CS engine, a cap on the top of the injector is removed, alock nut loosened, and a screw tightened. Equally as simple, advancing the timing involves looseninga lock nut under fuel pump and raising an adjusting screw. Because of the minimal overhead withregard to tools and training required to make each of these modications, both were determined tobe appropriate additions for the modication kits targeted context.5. Results and Discussion The performance of the modication kit described above (preheater, increased IVOP, advancedtiming) was experimentally tested through multiple methods.5.1. Injection Tuning In order to tune the engines timing and IVOP to optimal conditions for the WVO, three timingsettings (20º BTDC, 25º BTDC, and 30º BTDC) and three IVOPs (9 MPa, 12 MPa, and 15MPa) were tested. Higher IVOPs were tested previously but erratic performance precluded furtherexploration past 15 MPa. Each of these nine settings was tested three times each at 75% engineload (+/- 1%) and 650 RPM (+/- 1 RPM). For all of the 27 tests, the fuel was preheated viathe COV plug design detailed above. The summary of the engines performance across these tests
5.1 Injection Tuning 13is detailed below. Error bars signify standard error across the three repetitions, for each of the9 dierent settings. Figure 8 shows various engine performance parameters. All four parameterspoint toward an optimized tuning of the injector timing at 25º BTDC with an IVOP of 15 MPa. The temperature of the middle of the exhaust stream was measured immediately o the enginehead with a type-J thermocouple. The results are shown in Figure 8 (a). A clear dierencein temperature occurs primarily from increasing the IVOP. As the timing advances the exhausttemperature is lowered to a point, and then increases again. The lowered temperature is likelyindicative of more complete combustion, whereas the hotter temperatures are likely due to lesscomplete combustion that continued late into the cycle . These results follow the same trendas the ndings from Bari et. al. where advanced timing of a DI engine fueled on WVO resulted inlower exhaust temperature, due to combustion occurring earlier, thus allowing the burnt gas moretime to cool . Figure 8 (b) shows the brake specic fuel consumption for the system (generator and electricallosses were not subtracted). With a trend nearly identical to the exhaust temperature, the bestperformance was found at the timing of 25º BTDC with an IVOP of 15 MPa. These results relatewell to the ndings of Nwafor et. al., where advanced timing of an IDI engine resulted in lowerBSFC at low engine speeds . Given WVOs measured higher heating value of 39.4 MJ/kg, the brake fuel conversion eciencywas calculated (the generator and electrical system was assumed 82.5% ecient). Figure 8 (c) showshow tuning the IVOP and timing can result in a gain of 2% eciency. Such a gain is signicantwhen considering the modest eciency of the engine. This trend toward improved eciency atadvanced timing is similar to Haldars ndings . The equivalence ratio is the actual fuel to air ratio divided by the stoichiometric fuel to air ratioand is a direct indicator of the quality of combustion. Figure 8 (d) shows the equivalence ratioacross the nine test points. In strong agreement with all other engine performance parameters, theequivalence ratio map reinforces the hypothesis that when fueling the Listeroid CS 6/1 on WVO,optimal tuning occurs at the timing of 25º BTDC with an IVOP of 15 MPa. These engine performance benets that were gained by advancing the timing and increasingthe IVOP can likely be attributed to the specic atomization and ignition qualities of the WVO.As discussed earlier, plant oils have poorer atomization qualities due to their specic physical andchemical properties. The Cetane Number (CN) of the WVO used in the experiments, as shownin Table A.2, is low compared to fossil diesel, meaning that ignition is delayed. Advancing theinjection timing then helps to overcome this high ignition delay. Similarly, increased injection valveopening pressure has been shown to reduce the droplet size, decreasing the burn time and leadingto more complete combustion (as described above). This more complete combustion is also seen inthe emissions. The measured opacity values are reported in Figure 9. The results show that at the mostadvanced injector timing (30° BTDC), regardless of IVOP, opacity is worse than at stock timing(20° BTDC). However, in agreement with the engine performance data from Figure 8, increasingthe IVOP improves the opacity. This vividly shows an engine tuning envelope eect - advancedtiming and increased IVOP improves combustion, but only to a point, where it then begins todegrade combustion. When injection is advanced too far cylinder conditions are not optimal forgood atomization. Temperatures and pressures rise rapidly close to TDC. These conditions areimportant for appropriate mixing and vaporization which lead to good combustion. Advancing theinjection too much introduces the fuel spray into the cylinder before these conditions are available. The measured gaseous emissions are reported in Figure 10. For both the carbon monoxide and
5.1 Injection Tuning 15 12 9 MPa 12 MPa 10 15 MPa 8 Opacity (%) 6 4 2 0 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 Injector Timing (ºBTDC) Figure 9: IVOP Timing Exhaust Opacity Mapthe oxides of nitrogen, the 12 MPa IVOP results so closely resembled the 15 MPa IVOP resultsthat they have not been shown in Figure 10 (a) and (b). Instead, the low and high IVOP settingare shown to illustrate the envelope. At the lower IVOP more CO is generated, but less NOx. (NOx is reported as the sum ofmeasured NO + NO2.) This common CO - NOx trade o (also described as a PM-NOx trade o )points again to the quality of the combustion. As the IVOP is increased, atomization improves. Indiesel engine combustion, carbon monoxide production tends to be low under fuel lean conditions(equivalence ratio less than 1). During the combustion process carbon monoxide is produced, butwith adequate oxidant, mixing, and at necessary temperatures much of it is oxidized to carbondioxide. At the highest IVOP (15 MPa), as timing is advanced CO rapidly increases. This maybe explained by the poorer mixing and oxidation conditions that occur at the more advancedtiming the fuel spray is encountering lower pressures and temperatures and because the IVOP ishigher, more of the spray encounters these conditions (the increased IVOP results in faster injection:reduced injection period). The NOx values between the dierent IVOPs are not dramatically dierent (the error barsin Figure 10 (b) between the two IVOPs overlap at low and mid timing). Increasing the IVOPfrom 9 to 15 MPa does not then drastically increase NOx. Timing on the other hand does seemto noticeably aect NOx. The envelope is not as sharp, NOx somewhat levels o as timing isincreased past 25° BTDC. NOx formation is commonly attributed to the Zeldovich mechanism (athermal mechanism). With regard to advanced injection timing, Patterson and Henien describeNO formation increasing in two ways . As timing is advanced ignition delay increases but lessso than the actual advancement (in terms of crank angle), resulting in earlier autoignition. HigherNO formation is then related to the longer ignition delay as it allows for more fuel evaporation andmixing in the lean ame region of the spray. But in other spray regions NO may also increasedue to higher temperatures. This description seems applicable to what is observed in Figure 10 (b).Bari et. al. also found NOx to increase with advanced timing when fueled on WVO . Figure 10 (c) and (d) show the measured UHC and SO2 concentrations, respectively. Bothcases support the same trend observed throughout all of the other IVOP / timing maps. Unburnedhydrocarbon emissions appear to stay relatively level at advanced timing likely due to the better
5.2 Pre-combustion Pressure 17matching of the ignition delay to timing, but then UHC more rapidly increase as timing is furtheradvanced past 25° BTDC. This may be because as timing continues to be advanced the spray isintroduced into lower pressure and temperature conditions which results in less vaporization andlarger droplets which may not burn as completely or may potentially impinge on the walls. In the case of SO2, emissions became undetectable at the optimized tuning of 25º BTDC withan IVOP of 15 MPa. Sulfur dioxide is produced from the sulfur in the fuel or lubrication oil and isformed more vigorously in fuel-rich conditions (equivalence ratios greater than 1). But even in fuellean conditions, the air to fuel ratio impacts SO2 formation. Figure 10 (d) mirrors Figure 8 (d); SO2tracks closely with equivalence ratio. The conversion of SO2 to SO3 and eventually H2SO4 (whichis strongly hydrophilic and mixes with water and particulate matter in the exhaust, reducing theamount of SO2) has been the object of other studies, especially with regard to catalysis design, andit has been shown that the equivalence ratio and exhaust temperature signicantly inuence theseconversions . Given this tendency of SO2, the lower equivalence ratio and exhaust temperaturesare likely the cause of the lower SO2 emissions at the injection timing of 25º BTDC and IVOP of15 MPa. The error bars in Figure 8, Figure 9, and Figure 10 are the standard error across the samplestaken per specic IVOP and timing position. Across the gures these error bars tend to decreaseas timing is advanced to 25° BTDC and IVOP is increased to 15 MPa. This means that not onlydoes engine performance and emissions tend to improve at this engine tuning position, but theperformance and emissions are more consistent. One limitation of this studys injection tuning exercise is that it was only carried out at oneengine loading point, 75% load. Studies such as Bari et. al. have found engine performance andemissions results to vary across loads as timing is changed. This study tuned the timing and IVOPat 75% engine loading as this was assumed to be the most common engine loading for this specicengine in its specic context (agro-processing in developing countries).5.2. Pre-combustion Pressure A pressure transducer provided by Kulite Semiconductor Products Inc. was used to map thepressure in the pre-combustion chamber versus the crank angle. Three cases were tested: diesel at standard (unmodied) conditions (room temperature fuel, IVOP of 9 MPa, and injector timing of 20º BTDC) WVO under unmodied conditions (room temperature fuel, IVOP of 9 MPa, and injector timing of 20º BTDC) WVO under modied conditions (fuel heated to 100°C, IVOP of 15 MPa, and injector timing of 25º BTDC).The engine was loaded to 75% and run at 650 RPM. The pressure transducer was mounted into theCOV plug preventing its use as a preheater; instead, the high pressure line was heated electrically. The pressure traces are shown in Figure 11 (a). Ignition is usually identied by heat release,specically the initial spike on the rate of heat release (RoHR) curve. To accurately calculate theheat release of an IDI engine both the prechamber and main chamber pressures must be measured.Though heat release can be calculated with only one or the other pressure, the calculation canhave as large as a 25% error, especially during early combustion . Due to the availability ofonly the prechamber pressure, heat release was not calculated. Instead, ignition was approximately
5.3 Multi-Load Comparison 18 7 0.3 Diesel Diesel 6 WVO 0.25 WVO Pressure (MPa) 5 WVO w/mod WVO w/mod 0.2 ∆P/∆CA 4 ∆ 0.15 3 2 0.1 1 0.05 0 0 -90 -60 -30 0 30 60 90 -12 -10 -8 -6 -4 Crank Angle Degrees Crank Angle Degrees (a) Pre-combustion Chamber Pressure vs. Crank Angle (b) Pre-combustion Chamber Change in Pressure per Change in Crank Angle Figure 11: Pre-combustion Chamber Pressureidentied by the rapid change in pressure per change in crank angle (∆P/∆CA ). From Figure 11 (b)ignition can be identied for each of the three cases. For the purpose of this study the ignition pointwas specically dened as the point where the ∆P/∆CA exceeded 0.15 for 2 crank angle degrees. The summarized ignition points, peak pressure values, and peak pressure points are shown inFigure 12. The ignition point and peak pressure point of diesel and WVO are nearly identical,though the peak pressure value of WVO is lower. The modied WVO case showed a slightly earlierignition which resulted in an earlier peak pressure point, and higher peak pressure value. Lowerviscosity from preheating, advanced injector timing, and increased IVOP are likely all contributingfactors to this enhancement to the ignition quality.5.3. Multi-Load Comparison From the IVOP-timing maps and pre-combustion traces it was found that an appropriate mod-ication kit would include: a COV plug preheater (injector temperature ~90°C) advanced injection timing (25º BTDC) increased IVOP (15 MPa)This modication kit was then tested across all engine loads, 10%-90%, and compared to dieseland WVO without the modication kit. The diesel and WVO were run under stock conditions -no injector preheating, injector timing of 20º BTDC, and an IVOP of 9 MPa. Data was taken foreach of the three test cases only after bringing the engine to steady state conditions at 650 RPMat each of the ve loads tested. Data for each case and for each load was then averaged across aone hour steady state window. These results are detailed in Figure 13. The engine performance from the modication kit is favorable. However, this type of a shortrun test does not illuminate longevity based wear issues that may occur from the WVO without
5.3 Multi-Load Comparison 19 10 Diesel WVO ºBTDC, ºTTDC, MPa 8 WVO w/mod 6 4 2 0 Ignition point Peak Pressure Point Peak Pressure (ºBTDC) (ºATDC) (MPa) Figure 12: Pre-combustion Pressure Test Summarymodication case. In the short term, the modication kit performed similarly to, though slightlybetter than the unmodied case, and diesel performed best of all. Figure 13 (a) shows the measured exhaust temperature. Across all loads: the WVO case was thehighest, the WVO case with modication kit was slightly lower, and the diesel case was lower still.As mentioned in the above injection tuning section, the exhaust temperature is likely indicativeof the completeness of combustion. The WVO at stock timing, IVOP, and temperature is notcombusting as completely as the WVO with the modication kit. Diesel likely had the lowesttemperature because it is a lighter fuel than WVO. The heavier (less evaporate) WVO moleculescontinued to burn late into the cycle, resulting in a higher temperature than the diesel. Figure 13 (b) shows a similar trend in the System BSFC. The diesel case performed noticeablybetter than either WVO case. Its important to note that at a caloric value of 45.8 MJ/kg versusWVOs 39.4 MJ/kg, diesel has a strong energy density advantage. The eciency measurementshown in Figure 13 (c) accounts for this dierence in heating values. At higher engine loading themodied WVO case has nearly a 1% gain in eciency compared to the unmodied WVO case.This same type of trend in BSFC and eciency was also found by Nwafor et. al. and Bari et al.[42, 26]. The equivalence ratios for each of the three cases in Figure 13 (d) are nearly indistinguishablefrom one another, though at high loads the unmodied WVO case does have slightly poorer values.Bari et. al. also found the air to fuel ratio to decrease signicantly between diesel and WVO, andto decreases slightly more when timing was advanced for the WVO case . The same type oftrend was found in this study between the two WVO cases, especially at higher loads. Though theequivalence ratio was not as low. For each of the three cases the opacity was measured and is detailed in Figure 14. The lowlevels measured do not present a strong contrast between the three cases, though an interestingphenomenon occurred as engine loading increased: at lower engine loads the diesel exhaust wasless opaque but at higher loads the modied WVO performed best. Across all engine loads theunmodied WVO had the most opaque exhaust. This higher opacity level of the WVO withoutmodication seems to follow from its relatively poorer equivalence ratio. The likely explanation ofthe lower opacity of the exhaust from WVO in the modied engine operation at high load when
5.3 Multi-Load Comparison 21 12 Diesel 10 WVO WVO w/mod Opacity (%) 8 6 4 2 0 0% 25% 50% 75% 100% Engine Load (%) Figure 14: Multi-Load Opacity Comparisoncompared to a diesel operated engine is that at low loads the lighter molecular weight of the dieselresults in a spray that atomizes to smaller droplet sizes, which burn more completely. But asloading increases, the role of the increased IVOP becomes more important. The likely reduction indroplet size and the improved mixing from the increased IVOP are keeping the equivalence ratiolower then the diesel case and thus the opacity is slightly lower. There is more air to oxidize thefuel, resulting in less soot formation. The measured emissions for each case are compared in Figure 15. As indicated by the lower CO,UHC, SO2, and the higher NOx levels, the diesel seems to have the best combustion characteristics.Unmodied WVO generally emits more CO and SO2, though the modied WVO case did tend tohave slightly higher UHC and lower NOx. The CO results for the unmodied WVO and diesel cases shown in Figure 15 (a) resemble thetrend found by Bari et. al. . At all loads diesel CO is the lowest. At low loads unmodiedWVO is relatively at, then at mid load the CO begins to increase. The modied WVO case is inbetween the diesel and unmodied case. This is likely because the modication improves mixingand evaporation, but the heavier WVO molecules with their slower evaporation rate still do notburn as completely as the diesel. When comparing the opacity values to the CO values of the unmodied WVO case and dieselcase at high loads, it appears that the increased availability of oxidant from improved mixing andthe lower droplet size (due to the increased IVOP) is enough to reduce the soot, but not enough toalso lower the CO below the diesel level. The increased IVOP is denitely impactful, but the WVOis still molecularly heavier than diesel. The NOx values in Figure 15 (b) show the diesel to have the highest values across all loads, whileboth WVO cases are nearly identical. Like the CO, this points to a more complete combustion inthe diesel case, which in turn provides hotter temperatures for greater thermal NOx generation. The UHC values in Figure 15 (c) also show the diesel to have the best emissions, though at lowloads the three cases are very similar. At medium loads the modied WVO case is higher than theunmodied case. This might be due to increased wall impingement from the higher IVOP in themodied case. At high loads the two WVO cases are indistinguishable.
23 The SO2 values in Figure 15 (d) are generally noisy, very low, and similar across all cases andall loads. At the lowest loading (10%) the unmodied WVO case is considerably higher than theother two cases. This may be due to the relationship sulfur oxide has with PM as discussed earlier.At this low loading the opacity was low, which may indicate that the sulfur oxides had less soot toattach to, and thus showed up more readily as SO2. To really understand what is happening to thesulfur a more comprehensive treatment is necessary, especially with regard to the PM. Instead of asimple opacity measurement, gravimetric PM measurements would be valuable, as well as furtheranalysis of the VOF, SO3, SO2, etc. Such an exercise is left for future studies.6. Conclusions Plant oils have potential as a fuel source for stationary engines used for agricultural processingin remote developing community contexts. The role that dierent SVO physical and chemical prop-erties have on combustion has been discussed. Similarly, engine design dierences and modicationsapplicable to SVO fueling have been described. An experimental investigation was carried out involving the design of a unique preheating mod-ication for an IDI engine common in developing countries, raising the temperature at the injectorto 90 degrees Celsius. The engine was also tuned to an increased IVOP and advanced timing appro-priate to the combustion characteristics of preheated SVOs. It was found that 25º BTDC with anIVOP of 15 MPa was ideal for the specic engine when fueled on waste vegetable oil. Experimentswere carried out that showed improved performance and emission characteristics from the utiliza-tion of this three part modication kit. These improvements included lower exhaust temperatures,lower brake specic fuel consumption, lower equivalence ratio, increased thermal eciency, loweropacity, and lower carbon monoxide.7. Acknowledgments This project was supported by the Gates Foundation, Darren Manelski, and the Three LoavesFund. This support is gratefully acknowledged. The authors would like to thank Kulite Semicon-ductor Products Inc. for the use of their pressure transducer, and Adam Hurst for his assistance.The assistance received from Marco Castaldi, Alissa Park, and Will Northrop is also gratefullyacknowledged. Additionally the support, guidance, and expert advice provided by George Breck-enridge is recognized, without which this research would not have been possible.
24AppendixA. Selected Properties of Several Plant Oils and Diesel Table A.2: Physical and Fuel Properties of Several Plant Oils and Diesel Diesel Soybean Rapeseed Peanut Palm Jatropha WVO Yield 450-480 590-1200 850-1100 2800-6000 740-1590 (L/Ha-Yr) Viscosity a 2.6-3.6 33 37-42 40 39 34-37 36 (cSt) Density 820-845 914-924 912-920 888-902 860-910 860-933 910-940 (kg/m3) Caloric Value 43-46 36.9-39.6 36.8-39.7 39.5-39.8 36.5-40.1 37.8-42.1 39.2-39.6 (MJ/kg) Cetane 45-56 36-38 38-41 35-42 42-49 38-45 36-37 Number [49, 11, [11, 54, [11, 54, [11, 30, [60, 61, [49, 50, original Reference 54, 55, 56, 55, 58, 5, 55, 58, 59, 50, 55, 52, 11, 12, 55, 51, 52, 53] data 57, 53, 58] 56, 57, 53] 56, 57, 53] 56, 57] 56, 62, 57] a Viscosity of Diesel, Palm, Jatropha, and WVO measured at 40C; all others measured at 38C Table A.3: Chemical Composition of Several Plant Oils and Diesel Element Diesel Soybean Rapeseed Peanut Palm Jatropha WVO C 80.33-86 76.2-77.1 77.9-78 70-76.55 50.27 76.11-76.56 76.50-77.78 H 12.36-14.8 11.6-12.9 10-13.2 11.97 7.07 10.52-13.19 11.55-12.07 O 1.19 10-10.4 8.9-12 11.48 36.28 11.06 11.1-11.57 S 0.1-0.25 0.01 0.0012-0.01 0.01 0.4-0.63 0.02-0.03 N 1.76 1.9 0.42 0.34 0.02-0.03 C Residue 0.1-0.14 0.24-0.27 0.3-0.31 0.22-0.24 0.22-0.24 0.7-0.9 Ash 0.01 0.006-0.01 0.01-0.54 0.005-0.02 5.33 0.03-0.036 [61, 5, 52, [54, 58, 63, [54, 58, 64, original Reference [54, 58, 64] [52, 65] [60, 61, 12] 53] 53] 5] data
25 Table A.4: Lipid Prole of Several Plant Oils Plant Oil: Lipids Soybean Rapeseed Peanut Palm Jatropha WVO Lauric 0-1.15 5.9 0.02-0.04 (C12:0) Myristic 0.1 0.5-2.74 0.1-2.7 0.14-0.25 (C14:0) Palmitic 11.3-13.9 3.49-3.5 8-11.34 26.18-47.5 14.1-15.3 6.74-12.4 (C16:0) Palmitoleic 0.1-0.3 0.1-1.66 1.3 0.47-1.0 (C16:1) Stearic 2.1-3.6 0.85-1.6 1.8-2.4 3.5-11.97 3.7-9.8 2.79-4.47 (C18:0) Oleic 23.2-24.9 33-64.4 48.28-53.3 35.49-46.1 21.8-45.8 31.50-58.2 (C18:1) Linoleic 53-56.2 20.4-22.3 28.4-32 6.5-12.76 29-47.4 21.2-42.20 (C18:2) Linolenic 4.3-6.31 7.9-8.23 0.3-0.93 0-2.25 0.3 5.85-7.4 (C18:3) Arachidic 0.3 0.9-1.32 0.4-1.74 0.3 0.39-0.62 (C20:0) Gadoleic 0.3 9.3 2.4 0.2-2.56 (C20:1) Behenic 2.52-3 0.2 0.34-0.35 (C22:0) Erucic 0.3 23 0-1.49 0.06-0.08 (C22:1) Lignoceric 0.1 1.23-1.8 0.1 0.07-0.09 (C24:0) Iodine 69.82-152 81-120 80-119.55 44-65.5 92-112 107-115 Value [54, 58, 18, [54, 58, 18, [67, 54, 58, [67, 18, 9, original Reference [60, 68, 69] 9, 66] 9, 66] 18, 66] 66] dataReferences P. Vasudevan, S. Sharma, A. Kumar, Liquid fuel from biomass: an overview, Journal of Sci- entic Industrial Research 64 (11) (2005) 822831. United States Department of Energy, Annual energy report (2008). D. Pimentel, A. Marklein, M. A. Toth, M. N. Karpo, G. S. Paul, R. Mccormack, J. Kyriazis,
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