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Winter Crops for Bioenergy and More
          March 29, 2011



               Doug Schaufler, P.E.
               Farm Operations & Services
               Penn State College of Agricultural Sciences
               University Park, PA
   Biodiesel blends and B100
   Straight vegetable oil (SVO)
1900
   Rudolph Diesel
    demonstrates his new
    engine at the World’s
    Fair in Paris, running on
    peanut oil.

             1908
   Henry Ford unveils his
    Model T, designed to
    run on either gasoline
    or ethanol, “the fuel of
    the future.”
US opts for
petroleum instead of
plant-based fuels.
   Testing 100% biodiesel and SVO in agricultural
    tractors
Animal Fat or Vegetable Oil   Straight Vegetable Oil
                              (SVO)


   Transesterification
 using alcohol & catalyst



        Biodiesel
Comparison of fuels
Fuel Type                      BTU/US gallon
           Regular gasoline       125,000
                    Ethanol       84,600
                 Methanol         64,600
    Gasohol (10% ethanol)         120,900
                  Kerosene        135,000
                  #2 Diesel       138,700
                  Biodiesel       126,200
Straight vegetable oil (SVO)      123,000
   In collaboration with New Holland, four new
    tractors ran 3 years on B100 – these have been
    returned to New Holland for evaluation.
   2 new pieces of equipment running SVO
   Exploring long term effects of biodiesel and
    SVO
   Penn State University converted diesel fuel
    station for all diesel fuel to B20 in 2006

    New Holland endorses B100
    in 2007
    - NH Tier IV engines required in
    2011 in over 175 HP off road
    equipment no longer endorsing
    B100 use – B20 the maximum
New Holland TC40 injectors after 2
         years on B100
   May require engine modifications
   Heated to change the viscosity
   Start engine on petro-diesel fuel
   Shut down on petro-diesel fuel
Engine deposit buildups after running on straight soybean oil
85C = 185F
KernKraft Oilseed Press
KernKraft Oilseed Press
Filter Press
Straight Vegetable Oil Fuel
New Holland T7060
                     (180 PTO HP)
                     (134 PTO kW)




Case 621E Loader
  (146 net HP)
  (109 net kW)
Our challenges with the SVO systems
  NH T7060
   •SVO too hot from heat exchanger – engine
   depowering
   •SVO filter clogging
   •Low temperatures – mix with petroleum diesel
   Case 621E
   •Engine coolant not reaching operating temperature
   •SVO filter clogging
   •Low temperatures – mix with petroleum diesel
   •Power supply – 12V vs. 24V
   •Fuse location in control box
Oil Seed Crop Yield


   Oil Yield          Oil Yield
Overall SVO vs. Petro-diesel usage at Penn State



                      NH T7060        Case 621E
                     (1370 hours)    (1118 hours)
 % SVO used of
                         85%              53%
 total fuel use
 Total SVO used       3428 gallons     796 gallons
 Total diesel used    628 gallons      701 gallons
NH 7060: Power vs. RPM for Diesel and SVO
                                      December, 2010
             160



             140



             120



             100
Power (kW)




                                        Rated Power – 134 kW (180 HP)
              80
                                                                               Diesel Power (kW)
                                                                               SVO Power (kW)
              60



              40



              20



               0
                   500     600    700    800       900      1000        1100

                                        RPM
Canola
   Meal
 Analysis


Crude Protein
   33.9%




        Crude Fat
          16.9%
PSU Cold-pressed Canola Oil
Penn State Canola
                                                Oil Cycle

 Canola        Canola seed

                                                     Oilseed
                                                      press



                                    Used fryer oil
Canola meal




              Oil       Fryer oil


                                                      Biodiesel
                                                      processor

 Canola
QUESTIONS?

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Running the Tractor on Straight Vegetable Oil from Oil Crops - Winter Crops

  • 1. Winter Crops for Bioenergy and More March 29, 2011 Doug Schaufler, P.E. Farm Operations & Services Penn State College of Agricultural Sciences University Park, PA
  • 2. Biodiesel blends and B100  Straight vegetable oil (SVO)
  • 3. 1900  Rudolph Diesel demonstrates his new engine at the World’s Fair in Paris, running on peanut oil. 1908  Henry Ford unveils his Model T, designed to run on either gasoline or ethanol, “the fuel of the future.”
  • 4. US opts for petroleum instead of plant-based fuels.
  • 5. Testing 100% biodiesel and SVO in agricultural tractors
  • 6. Animal Fat or Vegetable Oil Straight Vegetable Oil (SVO) Transesterification using alcohol & catalyst Biodiesel
  • 7. Comparison of fuels Fuel Type BTU/US gallon Regular gasoline 125,000 Ethanol 84,600 Methanol 64,600 Gasohol (10% ethanol) 120,900 Kerosene 135,000 #2 Diesel 138,700 Biodiesel 126,200 Straight vegetable oil (SVO) 123,000
  • 8. In collaboration with New Holland, four new tractors ran 3 years on B100 – these have been returned to New Holland for evaluation.  2 new pieces of equipment running SVO  Exploring long term effects of biodiesel and SVO
  • 9. Penn State University converted diesel fuel station for all diesel fuel to B20 in 2006 New Holland endorses B100 in 2007 - NH Tier IV engines required in 2011 in over 175 HP off road equipment no longer endorsing B100 use – B20 the maximum
  • 10. New Holland TC40 injectors after 2 years on B100
  • 11.
  • 12. May require engine modifications  Heated to change the viscosity  Start engine on petro-diesel fuel  Shut down on petro-diesel fuel
  • 13. Engine deposit buildups after running on straight soybean oil
  • 19. New Holland T7060 (180 PTO HP) (134 PTO kW) Case 621E Loader (146 net HP) (109 net kW)
  • 20.
  • 21.
  • 22. Our challenges with the SVO systems NH T7060 •SVO too hot from heat exchanger – engine depowering •SVO filter clogging •Low temperatures – mix with petroleum diesel Case 621E •Engine coolant not reaching operating temperature •SVO filter clogging •Low temperatures – mix with petroleum diesel •Power supply – 12V vs. 24V •Fuse location in control box
  • 23. Oil Seed Crop Yield Oil Yield Oil Yield
  • 24. Overall SVO vs. Petro-diesel usage at Penn State NH T7060 Case 621E (1370 hours) (1118 hours) % SVO used of 85% 53% total fuel use Total SVO used 3428 gallons 796 gallons Total diesel used 628 gallons 701 gallons
  • 25. NH 7060: Power vs. RPM for Diesel and SVO December, 2010 160 140 120 100 Power (kW) Rated Power – 134 kW (180 HP) 80 Diesel Power (kW) SVO Power (kW) 60 40 20 0 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 RPM
  • 26. Canola Meal Analysis Crude Protein 33.9% Crude Fat 16.9%
  • 28. Penn State Canola Oil Cycle Canola Canola seed Oilseed press Used fryer oil Canola meal Oil Fryer oil Biodiesel processor Canola