ORGANIZATIONAL COMMUNICATION DEFINED • Organizational Communication Definitions - Handout • “Communication is the basis for the way in which an organization functions” • Communication plays a critical role in most every aspect of organizational life • A business is a group of people organized around a common goal • Organization - Greek origins – Organon - “tool” or “instrument” – Communication is both the means by which the tool or instrument (the organization) is created and sustained and the prime coordinating mechanism for activity designed to attain personal and organizational goals.
ORGANIZATIONAL COMMUNICATION DEFINED• “…the process of creating, exchanging, interpreting (correctly or incorrectly), and storing messages within a system of human interrelationships.”• “…the exchange of oral, nonverbal, and written messages within (and across the boundaries of) a system of interrelated and interdependent people working to accomplish common tasks and goals within an organization.”• MESSAGE-CENTERED DEFINITION
MESSAGES• “…nonrandom verbal symbolizations.”• “…a use of language (written or spoken) that the recipient interprets as having been created intentionally.”
ASSUMPTIONS AND FEATURES OF ORGANIZATIONAL COMMUNICATION• Communication is central to the existence of the organization• Organizational communication is a complex process (creating, exchanging, interpreting, and storing messages)• Misunderstandings occur
WHAT IS AN ORGANIZATION?“AN ORGANIZATION IS A GROUP OF PEOPLE WORKING TOGETHER TO ACHIEVE A COMMOL GOAL, “BE IT : POLITICAL, PROFESSIONAL, RELIGIOUS, ATHLETIC, SOCIAL, OR ANY OTHER PURPOSEWHOSE ACTIVITIES REQUIRE THEM TO INTERACT – COMMUNICATE.INDEED COMMUNICATION MUST HAVE OCCURRED BEFORE ACOMMON GOAL COULD EVEN BE ESTABLISHED
WHAT IS AN ORGANIZATION?A WALK THROUGH THE HALLS OF A CONTEMPORARYORGANIZATION SHOWS MANAGERS / ADMINSTRATORSAND EMPLOYEES : READING REPORTS DRAFTING e-MAIL MESSAGES – DICTATING CORRESPONDENCE ATTENDING MEETINGS CONDUCTING INTERVIEWS TALKING ON THE PHONE CONFERING WITH SUBORDINATES MAKING PRESENTATIONS
WHAT IS AN ORGANIZATION? IN SHORT PEOPLE ARE SEEN COMMUNICATING - ORGANIZATIONS FACILITATE : EXCHANGE OF INFORMATION, GENERATION OFIDEAS, MAKING OF PLANS, ORDERING OF SUPPLIES, TAKING DECISIONS, FOLLOWING RULES AND PROCEEDURES, MAKING PROPOSALS, SUGNING CONTRACTS AND REACHING AGREEMENTS ETC.
COMMON THEMES IN ORGANIZATIONAL COMMUNICATION • “The use of language as a symbolic means of inducing cooperation in beings that by nature respond to symbols, constitutes our disciplinary foundation . . . A concern with collective action, agency, messages, symbols, and discourse.” Mumby & Stohl • How messages are sent and understood through the use of language, forms the basis of communication in general and organizational communication specifically.
ORGANIZATIONAL COMMUNICATION: WHAT’S IN IT FOR YOU? • Better equipped to address contemporary workplace issues. – Development of a temporary workforce – Implementation of teams – Adoption of new technologies – Multiculturalism • Trained to focus on the complex and collaborative nature of communicating, organizing and knowing.
ORGANIZATIONAL COMMUNICATION: WHAT’S IN IT FOR YOU? • More articulate about ideas. • Understand the task of organizing individuals, groups, projects, and thoughts. • Knowing/Learning how to learn.
PREVALENCE OF MISUNDERSTANDINGS• Paradigms• More levels of hierarchy• More work teams with more members• Cultural, age, sex, gender, religious, and value differences• Power struggles• Sub- and counter organizational cultures• Competition for scarce resources• Impersonal communication media
ORGANIZATIONAL COMMUNICATIONEVERY MANAGEMENT FUNCTION AND ACTIVITY : PLANNING, FORECASTING CONTROLLING, PLANNING PLANNING DECISION MAKING, ORGANISING ORGANISING LEADERSHIP AND DIRECTING INSTRUCTING STAFFING, COORDINATING COORDINATING BUDGETING CONTROLLINGCAN BE CONSIDERED COMMUNICATION – ORGANIZATIONALPERFORMANCE CORRELATES DIRECTLY WITH THE QUALITY OFCOMMUNICATION.AN AVERAGE MANAGER SPENDS MORE TIME IN COMMUNICATING THANDOING ANYTHING ELSE.
ORGANISATIONAL BENEFITS OF EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATIONS – INCREASES PRODUCTIVITY – HELPS ANTICIPATE PROBLEMS – ENCOURAGES DECISION MAKING – ASSISTS COORDINATE WORKFLOW – IMPROVES SUPERVISION – STRENGTHENS RELATIONSHIPS – IMPROVES UNDERSTANDING IN THE WORKPLACE IN GENERAL
INFLUENCE OF ORGANIZATION STRUCTURE ON COMMUNICATION • ORGANIZATION STRUCTURE – FORMALLY PRESCRIBED PATTERN OF INTER- RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN THE VARIOUS UNITS OF AN ORGANIZATION – THE NATURE AND FORM OF COMMUNICATION VARVARIES GREATLY AS A FUNCTION OF PEOPLE’S RELATIVE POSITION WITH AN ORGANIZATION • ORGANIZATION CHART – DIAGRAM SHOWING THE FORMAL STRUCTURE OF AN ORGANIZATION AND INDICATING WHO IS TO COMMUNICATE WITH WHOM
INTERNAL COMMUNICATION• DETERMINATION OF TASKS, PRINCIPLES AND OBJECTIVES• ANALYSIS OF THE EMPLOYEES’ KNOWLEDGE AND IMAGE OF THE ORGANIZATION• DETERMINATION OF FOCUS AREAS IN DEVELOPING COMMUNICATION• RESPONSIBILITIES AND RESOURCES
EXTERNAL COMMUNICATION• REPUTATION - MANAGEMENT• REPUTATION - CAPITAL
THE ROLE OF COMMUNICATION IN ORGANIZATIONSkey purposes:• Direct action: to get others to behave in desired fashion• Achieve coordinated action Systematic sharing of information + interpersonal side with the focus on interpersonal relations between people
COMMUNICATION• The social glue … that continues to keep the organization tied together• The essence of organization• A key process underlying all aspects of organizational operations Properly managing communication processes is central to organizational functioning
ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE: DIRECTING THE FLOW OF MESSAGESOrganizational structure:• The formally prescribed pattern of interrelationships existing between the various units of an organization• Dictating who may and may not communicate with whom• Abstract construction• Depicted in Organizational Charts
ORGANIZATIONAL CHARTS Ideal type Staff & Line Systems Ideal Type Multitask Systems
ORGANIZATION CHART AND FORMAL COMMUNICATIONS SECRETARY InstructionsInformation and Directives Downward Communication AS Sr. JS/JS Upward Communication DS DS DS DS SO SO Horizontal Communication Efforts at Coordination
FORMAL COMMUNICATION• The process of sharing official information with others who need to know it.• According to the prescribed patterns depicted in an organization chart.
FORMAL COMMUNICATION President Instructions and directivesInformation Vice Vice President President Manager Manager Manager Manager Efforts at coordination
FORMAL COMMUNICATION• Downward communication: – instructions, directions, orders – feedback• Upward communication: – data required to complete projects – status reports – suggestions for improvement, new ideas• Horizontal communication: – coordination of cooperation
CENTRALIZED NETWORKS• One central person• Unequal access to information• Central person is at the “crossroads” of the information flow
INFORMAL COMMUNICATION STRUCTURES• Deviation from the planned communication structure – Direction of the flow of information – Leaving out people in the communication line – Integrating people into the communication line
Informal Networks E C K H Y G I X F B D J D E G J D F H I B I C C A B J Probability B A K D Gossip C F A Cluster AChain
INFORMAL COMMUNICATIONinformation shared without any formally imposed obligations or restrictionsif an organization’s formal communication represents its skeleton, its informal communication constitutes its central nervous system“grapevine“– An organization’s informal channels of communication, based mainly on friendship or acquaintance– origin: American Civil War [grapevine telegraphs]
“Grapevine“1. a secret means of spreading or receiving information2. the informal transmission of (unofficial) information, gossip or rumor from person-to-person -> "to hear about something through the grapevine"3. a rumor: unfounded report; hearsay
GRAPEVINE CHARACTERISTICS• Oral mostly undocumented• Open to change• Fast (hours instead of days)• Crossing organizational boundaries
GRAPEVINE CHARACTERISTICS• Inaccuracy: – Levelling Deletion of crucial details – Sharpening Exaggeration of the most dramatic details while the grapevine generally carries the truth it seldom carries the whole truth
GRAPEVINE FIGURES• 70% of all organizational communication occurs at the grapevine level• Estimated accuracy rates: 75-90%• The incorrect part might change the meaning of the whole message though• An estimated 80% of grapevine information is oriented toward the individual while 20% concerns the company
Factors Influencing Grapevine Activity IAccording to Gordon Allport:• Importance of the subject for both listener and speaker• Ambiguousness of the factsFormula: R=ixa“R“: intensity of the rumor“i“: importance of the rumor to the persons“a“: ambiguity of the facts associated with the rumor
FACTORS INFLUENCING GRAPEVINE ACTIVITY IIEmployees rely on the grapevine when:• They feel threatened,• Insecure,• Under stress• When there is pending change• When communication from management is limited
Positive Aspects of the Grapevine• Social function• Reduction of anxiety• Release mechanism for stress• Identification of pending problems• Early warning system for organizational change• Vehicle for creating a common organizational culture• Desired information can be circulated quickly to a large group of subordinates (inofficially!)
COPING OR MANAGING THE GRAPEVINE“the grapevine cannot be abolished, rubbed out, hidden under a basket, chopped down, tied up, or stopped“Don‘t try to control or restrict itUse it to supplement formal channels
“TAPPING“ THE GRAPEVINE• Identify and make use of key communicators ( bridgers)• Monitor what is happening in the organization• Use the grapevine to give new ideas a “trial run“
PREVENTING RUMORS• Provide information through the formal system of communication on the issues important to the employees• Supply employees with a steady flow of clear, accurate and timely information• Present full facts• Keep formal communication lines open and the process as short as possible
THREE SKILLS NEEDED TO BE A GOOD MANAGER Interpersonal Skills Oral Presentation Managerial Skills Writing
Max Weber: Theory of Bureaucracy • Organization is a system of purposeful interpersonal activity designed to coordinate tasks. • Power is the ability of a person to influence others and overcome resistance. • Legitimate authority is power authorized formally by the organization. • Bureaucratic authority is power vested in supervisors and managers by virtue of rules.
THEORETICAL PRIORITIES IN ORGANIZATIONAL COMMUNICATION• 1940s: What effects do downward directed communications have upon employees?• 1950s: How do small-group networks affect organizational performance and members’ attitudes and behaviors?• 1960s: What do organizational members perceive to be communication correlates of “good” supervision?• 1970s: What are the communication components and correlates of organizational communication climates? What are the characteristics and distribution of “key” communication roles within organizational networks?• ‘til now: Organizations are a system of interdependent variables. – What are the strategic parts of the system? – What is the nature of their mutual dependency? – What are the main processes in the system which link the parts together and facilitate their adjustment to each other? – What are the goals sought by the system?
GORDON LIPPITT’S ORGANIZATIONAL HEALTH• Task dimensions – Goal focus – Communication adequacy – Optimum power utilization• Social dimensions – Resource utilization – Cohesiveness – Morale• Growth dimensions – Innovativeness – Autonomy – Adaptation – Problem-solving adequacy
PETER F. DRUCKER’S KEY LEADERSHIP • Key leadership tasks must be done if the organization is to be successful. • On the other hand, the organization cannot function unless the routine tasks are taken care of as well. • The answer, of course, is effective delegation of these routine tasks so the key leaders have time for their genuinely more important responsibilities.
Key Leadership Tasks• Thinking through the mission of the organization• Setting the standards and good examples• Building the human organization• Relating to the “public”• Perform “ceremonial” functions• Attend to crisis after crisis whenever necessary
REQUIREMENTS FOR KEY LEADERSHIP• Analysis of key leadership tasks• Key leadership tasks assigned• Key leadership team• Delegation of operating tasks
Motivation• Motivation an be defined as the will to do, the urge to achieve goals, the drive to excel.• It is also the degree to which a person wants and chooses to engage in certain behaviours. All behaviour is motivated the performance of a task is the product of ability and motivation.• Motivation is concerned both with why people choose to do one thing rather than another and also with the amount of effort or intensity of action that people put into their activities.
INFLUENCES OF MOTIVAION• VALUES: They affect the types of activity that people will find appealing and secondly they influence people`s motivation towards specific outcomes such as money, power and prestige.• BELIEFS: people must believe that what is required of them is possible to achieve and also they need to believe that by performing well, they will personally benefit from their efforts.• ATTITUDES: A person with a positive attitude towards the organisation will be more likely to come to work regularly.• NEEDS• GOALS: A goal provides a target to am at,something to aspire to and goals provide a standard of performance.
THEORIES OF MOTIVATION • CONTENT THEORIES: Content theories are sometimes known as “need” theories and focus on the needs served by work. The motivation of a person depends on the strength of their needs. Motivating Force Activity Goal AchievedPerceived (Tension)needs Main content theories are: • Maslow`s Needs Hierarchy • Herzberg`s two-factor theory • McClelland`s achievement motivation
THEORIES OF MOTIVATION• PROCESS THEORIES: process theories focus on the goals and processes by which workers are motivated. They attempt to explain and describe how people start, sustain and direct behaviour aimed at the satisfaction of needs or the elimination or reduction of inner tension.Main process theories are:• Victor Vroom-Expectancy theory• Adam`s Equity theory• McGregor`s Theory X and Theory Y• Ouchi`s theory Z
Self-Actualization Achieve full potential Fulfillment
MASLOW`S THEORYHe identified a hierarchy of human needs which individuals pursue in a predicted sequence. Maslow showed how an individual`s emphasis moved from basic to the higher needs as satisfaction at the lower level occurred.• BASIC NEEDS• SAFETY NEEDS• SOCIAL NEEDS• EGO NEEDS• SELF-FULFILMENT NEEDS
HERTZBERG`S THEORY OF MOTIVATION• In the late 1950s he developed his 2-factor theory from interviewing 200 engineers and accountants about events at work. The replies led him to conclude that there are two important factors in work situations:1. Satisfiers (or Motivators)2. Dissatisfiers (or Hygiene factors)• He pointed out that the motivating factors were related to the content f works while hygiene factors relate to the context of work. Hygiene actors are purely preventive. Motivating Factors Hygiene factors •Achievement •Company policy& Information •Recognition •Salary and working condition •The work itself •Interpersonal relations •Responsibility •Technical aspects of supervision •Advancement
McCLELLAND`S ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATION THEORYEMPHASISED THREE FUNDAMENTAL NEEDSAS MOTIVATORS:1. ACHIEVEMENT2. AFFILIATION3. POWER
VICTOR VROOM-EXPECTANCY THEORY• Vroom believes that people will be motivated to do things to reach a goal if they believe in the worth of that goal and if they can see that what they do will help them in achieving it.FORCE = VALANCE EXPECTANCY, Where FORCE is the strength of a person`s motivation.Valance =The strength of an individual`s preference for an outcome.Expectancy =The probability that a particular action will lead to a desired outcome. When a person is indifferent about achieving a certain goal, a valance of zero occurs. Likewise, a person would have no motivation to achieve a goal if the expectancy were zero. The heart of the theory is that an individual`s performance is the result f a number of factors –perception about the situation, the worker`s place in the organisation and their role etc.
ADAM`S EQUITY THEORY• Equity theory focuses on people`s feelings of how fairly they have been treated in comparison with the treatment received by others.• Adam`s argues that inequities exist whenever people feel that the rewards obtained for their efforts are unequal to those received by others. Unequities can led followng situation:1. Changing work input2. Changing reward received3. Leaving the situation4. Changing the reference group5. Psychologically distorting the comparisons
MCGREGO`S THEORY X AND THEORY Y• Theory X-assumes that the average human being has an inherent dislike of work and will avoid it if possible. Therefore, they prefer to be directed, wishes to avoid responsibility, less ambition.• Theory Y is the integration of individual and organisational goals. It focuses on:*Expenditure of physical and mental efforts*Commitment to objectives*High degree of imagination* Self-direction and self-control
OUCHI`S THEORY Z Theory Z type of company developed based on findings from American owned and Japanese owned multinationals. main Characteristics are:• Long-term employment• Slow evaluation and promotion• Moderately specialised careers-which may not change• Consensual decision making• Individual responsibility• Implicit informal control –but with very explicit measures• Concern for the employee
STAFF MOTIVATION• PARTICIPATION• QUALITY OF WORK LIFE• JOB DESIGN• JOB ENRICHMENT• JOB ENLARGEMENT• JOB ROTATION• RECOGNITION• ENCOURAGEMENT
INTERPERSONAL SKILLSTHE ABILITY TO RELATE TOCOLLEAGUES •CUSTOMERS, •INSPIRE OTHERS, •RESOLVE CONFLICTS, •BE TACTFUL, •UNDERSTAND CULTURES, •AND SHOW DIPLOMACY.
INTERPERSONAL SKILLSTHIS REQUIRES UNDERSTANDING THE ABILITY OF PEOPLE. ABILITY TO RESOLVE CONFLICT IN WAYS THAT PROVIDE OPPORTUNITIES FOR POSITIVE GROWTH. ABILITY TO GET ALONGWITH PEOPLE. ABILITY TO MAINTAIN AN OPENNESS TO NEW IDEAS. ABILITY TO WORK COOPERATIVELY WITH OTHERS.
INTERPERSONAL SKILLS AND THE ORGANIZATIONIN TODAY’S BUSINESS WORLD ORGANIZATIONS DO NOT COMPETE WITH THEIR PRODUCTSTHEY COMPETE THROUGH USING THEIR MOSTVALUABLE RESOURCE, THEIR PEOPLE, TOMAXIMUM EFFECTINTERPERSONAL SKILLS ARE VITAL TO ALLOW THIS TO HAPPEN
ORGANIZATIONAL CONTEXT• THE ORGANIZATIONAL CONTEXT OF HOW INTERPERSONAL SKILLS ARE USED CAN BE SHOWN BY THE VAST NUMBER OF INTERPERSONAL INTERACTIONS SUCH AS: Meetings Coaching Delegation Problem Solving Motivation Selling Facilitation Leading
INTERPERSONAL SKILLS AND THE ORGANIZATION Working Together Technical & Emotional Competence Traditional Assets Emotional Capital Knowledge Capital
WORKING TOGETHER• THE SUCCESS OF AN ORGANIZATION IS DEPENDENT UPON THE PEOPLE WITHIN IT WORKING WELL TOGETHER• INTERNALLY – IN TEAMS – ACROSS TEAMS – WITHIN AND BETWEEN DEPARTMENTS AND BUSINESS UNITS• EXTERNALLY – WITH SUPPLIERS – WITH CUSTOMERS
WORKING TOGETHER• TAKE THE RELATIONSHIP VIEWPOINT: – EFFECTIVE RELATIONSHIPS WITHIN THE ORGANIZATION – EFFECTIVE RELATIONSHIPS WITH SUPPLIERS – EFFECTIVE RELATIONSHIPS WITH COMPETITORS• TO GAIN REAL COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE THROUGH SUCH RELATIONSHIPS IN THE LONG TERM IS DEPENDENT UPON ONES LEVEL OF INTERPERSONAL SKILLS
TECHNICAL V EMOTIONAL COMPETENCE • TECHNICAL COMPETENCE ALLOWS YOU TO GET TO THE STARTING LINE IN TERMS OF DEALING WITH: – CUSTOMERS – COLLEAGUES – SUPPLIERS TECHNICAL COMPETENCE IS AN ‘EXPECTED’ • EMOTIONAL COMPETENCE -THE ABILITY TO READ, UNDERSTAND AND INTERACT WITH PEOPLE IS WHAT MAKES THE DIFFERENCE IN THE LONG TERM
Tactful ConversationsT = Think before you speakA = Apologize quickly when you blunderC = Converse, don’t competeT = Time your commentsF = Focus on behavior – not personalityU = Uncover hidden feelingsL = Listen to feedback
A Matter of Attitude Go For It Let’s Both Win Let’s TradeConfidence Run Away Yes Boss Confidence
INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION RAINBOW SocraticHIGH direction I facilitating teaching N discussion T E brainstorming demonstrating R A C process monitoring presenting T I O N Contribution to ContentLOW HIGH
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