Organizational Behavior - Communication


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Organizational Behavior - Communication

  2. 2. Communication - Definition• The sharing of information between two or more individuals or groups to reach a common understanding11/9/2011 2
  3. 3. Importance of Good Communication• Increased efficiency in new technologies and skills  Learning, Implementing, Training  Expands workers skills• Improved quality of products and services• Subordinates communicate problems and solutions for increasing quality to superiors11/9/2011 3
  4. 4. Importance of Good Communication• Increased responsiveness to customers  Empowered workers lower response time to satisfy customer wants and needs• More innovation through communication  Cross-functional teams communicating effectively produce higher quality products more efficiently11/9/2011 4
  5. 5. The Communication Process11/9/2011 5
  6. 6. Communication Issues• Verbal Communication  The encoding of messages into words, either written or spoken• Nonverbal  The encoding of messages by means of facial expressions, body language, and styles of dress11/9/2011 6
  7. 7. Nonverbal Communication• Nonverbal Communication - all elements of communication that do not involve words• Four basic types  Proxemics - an individual’s perception & use of space  Kinesics - study of body movements, including posture  Facial & Eye Behavior - movements that add cues for the receiver  Paralanguage - variations in speech, such as pitch, loudness, tempo, tone, duration, laughing, & crying
  8. 8. Barriers to CommunicationCommunication • Physical separationBarriers - • Status differencesfactors that block • Gender differencesor significantly • Cultural diversitydistort successfulcommunication • Language11/9/2011 8
  9. 9. The Dangers of Ineffective Communication• Managers and their subordinates can become effective communicators by: – Selecting an appropriate medium for each message—there is no one “best” medium. – Considering information richness (the amount of information a medium can carry). • A medium with high richness can carry much more information to aid understanding. – Is there a need for a paper path or electronic trail to provide documentation of the communication?11/9/2011 9
  10. 10. Communication Networks• Communication Networks  The pathways along which information flows in groups and teams and throughout the organization.  Choice of communication network depends on: • The nature of the group’s tasks • The extent to which group members need to communicate with each other to achieve group goals.11/9/2011 10
  11. 11. Communication Networks• Pathways  Vertical • Manager to upper level managers • Manager to subordinates (direct reports)  Lateral • Manager to other managers11/9/2011 11
  12. 12. Communication Networks Communication Network Formal Informal11/9/2011 12
  13. 13. Organization Communication Networks• Organization Chart – A pictorial representation of formal reporting channels in an organization. • Communication in an organization flows through formal and informal pathways • Vertical communications flow up and down the corporate hierarchy. • Horizontal communications flow between employees of the same level. • Informal communications can span levels and departments—the grapevine is an informal network carrying unofficial information throughout the firm. 13
  14. 14. Formal and Informal Communication Networks in An Organization 14
  15. 15. Formal communication network 15
  16. 16. Communication Networks in Groups and Teams 16
  17. 17. Communication Networks in Groups and Teams Type of Network Wheel Network Information flows to and from one central member. Chain Network Members communicate only with the people next to them in the sequence. Wheel and chain networks provide little interaction. Circle Network Members communicate with others close to them in terms of expertise, experience, and location. All-Channel Networks found in teams with high levels of Network communications between each member and all others.11/9/2011 17
  18. 18. Information Richness of Communication Media11/9/2011 18
  19. 19. Collaborative Work Environment New Technologies for Communication • Informational databases • Electronic mail systems • Voice mail systems • Fax machine systems • Cellular phone systems11/9/2011 19
  20. 20. Technological Advances in Communication• Internet – Global system of computer networks used by many firms use it to communicate with their suppliers.• World Wide Web (WWW) – Provides multimedia access to the Internet.• Intranets – A company-wide system of computer networks for information sharing by employees inside the firm.11/9/2011 20
  21. 21. How Do New Technologies Affect Behavior?• Fast, immediate access to information• Immediate access to people in power• Instant information exchange across distance• Makes schedules & office hours irrelevant• May equalize group power• May equalize group participation11/9/2011 21
  22. 22. • Communication can become more impersonal - interaction with a machine• Interpersonal skills may diminish -less tact, less graciousness• Non-verbal cues lacking• Alters social context• Easy to become overwhelmed with information• Encourages polyphasic activity11/9/2011 22
  23. 23. Defensive Communication• Defensive Communication - communication that can be aggressive, attacking & angry, or passive & withdrawing• Leads to – injured feelings – communication breakdowns – alienation – retaliatory behaviors – nonproductive efforts – problem solving failures11/9/2011 23
  24. 24. Non-defensive Communication• Non-defensive Communication - communication that is assertive, direct, & powerful• Provides – basis for defense when attacked – restores order, balance, and effectiveness11/9/2011 24
  25. 25. Two Defensiveness Patterns 25
  26. 26. Defensive Tactics Defensive Tactic Speaker ExamplePower Play Boss “Finish this report by month’s end or lose your promotion.”Put-Down Boss “A capable manager would already be done with this report.”Labeling Boss “You must be a slow learner. Your report is still not done?”Raising Doubts Boss “How can I trust you, Chris, if you can’t finish an easy report?”11/9/2011 26
  27. 27. Defensive Tactics Defensive Tactic Speaker Example Misleading Employee “Morgan has not gone over with me Information the information I need for the report.” [Morgan left Chris with a copy of the report.] Scapegoating Employee “Morgan did not give me input until just today.” Hostile Jokes Employee “You can’t be serious! The report isn’t that important.” Deception Employee “I gave it to the secretary. Did she lose it?”11/9/2011 27
  28. 28. Tips for Effective Communication
  29. 29. Thank You11/9/2011 29