Agricultue issue Pakistan new

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Agricultue issue Pakistan new

  1. 1. CROP YIELD ANALYSIS
  2. 2. Sequence of Presentation• Introduction• Major Crop Yields Analysis – Comparison with Developed countries• Factors Affecting the Crop Yield• Reasons Of Low Yield• Major Agricultural Issues• A Case study• State’s Responsibility to improve Crop Yield• How to Increase Crop Yield• Conclusion & Recommendations
  3. 3. Introduction• Economic Structure – Agriculture – Manufacturing – Others ( Including Services & Trade) GDP Contribution 2009-10 0% Agriculture 21% Manufacturing 18% Other (Inc. 61% Services)
  4. 4. Shift in Economic Structure 1949/50- 2009/10706050403020 1949/5010 2009/2010 0 Column1 Sources: 1. Issues in Pakistan’s Economy by S. Akbar Zaidi. 2. Economics of Pakistan by Prof. M. Saeed Nasir
  5. 5. MAJOR CROPS OF PAKISTAN• Wheat• Rice• Maize• Grams• Pulses• Cotton• Sugarcane• Tobacco• Mustard
  6. 6. Pakistan Agriculture• Annual growth rate – 1959-60 to 2001-02: 3.7 percent – 1999-2000 to 2005-06: 2.6 percent• Major crops (35 percent of agric GDP): 2.8 percent• Livestock (50 percent of agric GDP): 3.5 percent
  7. 7. Contribution of Major and Minor Crops in Agriculture Sector Crop wise contribution 1960-65 Sugar cane 3% Rice Crop wise contribution 2002/3 Cotton 8% 9% Sugar Cotton All others others caneAll14% 4% (major+mi (major+ Rice nor) minor) 10% 48% 35% Wheat 32% Wheat 37% Source: Issues in Pakistan’s Economy by S. Akbar Zaidi
  8. 8. Agricultural Sector of Pakistan• Total area 79.6 million hectares• Population depends 70%• Labor force employment 44%• Share in GDP 26%• Total cultivated land area 22 million hectares• Total exports 80%
  9. 9. • Agriculture as Mainstay of Pakistan economy• Provides foods and nutrition• Provides raw material• Provides base for foreign trade and exchange• Provides market for industrial outputs
  10. 10. Agriculture Contribution to GDP (%)Description 1980/1 2009/10Major Crops 51.87 40.64Minor Crops 17.22 15.90Livestock 26.36 38.85Fisheries 3.53 3.48Forestry 1.02 1.13 Source: Ministry of food, agriculture and livestock- Federal Bureau of Statistics
  11. 11. Yield Comparison (Year wise) Yield of major crops (kg/hectare)Years Wheat Rice Sugar cane Maize Gram Cotton1950-1955 776.6 878.4 29,180 - - 2121960-65 831.8 929.6 33,580 - - 254.61971-75 1251 1549 35,508 1,160 544 3461980-85 1,596 1,684 37,460 1,267 476 3431990-95 1,950 1,623 44,000 1,407 452 5942009-2010 2,384 2,012 47,927 1,812 615 621 Source: Pakistan economic survey, 2009
  12. 12. Area, Production and Yield of CottonYear Area (000 Production Yield Hec.) (000 bales) Kgms/Hec.2004-05 3193 14265 7602005-06 3103 13019 7142006-07 3075 13000 7122007-08 3054 11655 7132008-09 2820 11819 7132009-10 3106 12698 695 Source: Ministry of Food
  13. 13. Area, Production and Yield of RiceYear Area (000 Production Yield Hec.) (000 tons) Kgms/Hec.2004-05 2519 5025 19952005-06 2620 5547 21162006-07 2581 5438 21072007-08 2515 5563 22112008-09 2963 6952 23962009-10 2883 6883 2387 Source: Ministry of Food
  14. 14. Crop yield• Pakistan has good, abundant sunshine and excellent farmers• Yet crop yield per ha and cubic meter is much lower than international benchmarks
  15. 15. Wheat Yield comparison with foreign countries
  16. 16. 1. Water logging and Salinity…. 38 percent of Pakistan’s irrigated lands are waterlogged 14 percent saline Only 45 percent of cultivable land is under cultivation at a given time Salt accumulation in the Indus basin Saline water intrusion into mined aquifers
  17. 17. 2. Inefficiency of agricultureresearch institutes in Pakistan
  18. 18. General factorsOvercrowding in agriculture 65% of population depends on Agriculture Area of cultivated land per cultivator declined Small size of holding, modern techniques could not be applied.
  19. 19. Cont…Socio-economic factors farmers conservative outlook Illiterate Superstitions Reluctant to adopt modern technology.
  20. 20. Cont…Natural factors Agriculture is the gamble of rain Timely rain If no rain, Pests attack
  21. 21. Cont…Lack of adequate finance ZTBL, Cooperative banks loan facilities are not adequate Hence farmers depend on alternate sources.
  22. 22. Institutional factorsDefective pattern of land tenure Zamindari System led to miseries to tenets Landlords charge high rents. Tenants are not independent to improve productivity
  23. 23. Cont……Technological factors– High ratio of labour to land– Under utilization of cultivable land– Lack of mechanization– Inadequate supply of inputs– Inadequate agriculture research– Poor extension service– Lack of infrastructure facilities– Problem of land reforms
  24. 24. REASONS OF LOW YIELD• Poor moisture conservation practices.• Differences in soil quality, even with in one embanked field.• Non-availability of suitable certified seed with higher germination percentage.• Un-scientific methods of sowing instead of improved methods.• Lack of fertilizer application.• Un-awareness about insect/pest control.
  25. 25. Major Agricultural Issues• Scarcity of moisture/rainfall.• High temperature.• Soil erosion.• Salinity, alkalinity and water logging.• Low soil fertility.• Poor quality of under-ground water.• Low yielding crop varieties and range management.
  26. 26. How to achieve high yield of Wheat Crop by using scientific method…. A Case Study
  27. 27. 1. Hybrid (High yield) Seeds2. Planting wheat from October 15 to November increased the yield 50 % over early planting of October.3. Use of mold/disc plough appeared best for weed control, water conservation and increased the yield of wheat 53 % over traditional cultivator.4. Drill sowing of wheat increased the yield 50 % over broad- cast.5. The Quality (bold) seed of wheat increased the yield (33 %) over poor shrinkle seed.
  28. 28. 6. Seeding rate in wheat 100 kg ha-1 increased the yield 18 % over 70 kg ha-1.7. Fertilizer rate of 50-25 kg NP ha-1 was found optimum for maximum grain yield of wheat.8. Weedicide Buctril-M @ 1 lit ha-1 showed the best broad- leaf weeds control in wheat crop which increased the yield 28% over control.
  29. 29. 9. Recommended package of practices resulted in increased seed yield of wheat (25 %) over traditional practices.10. Application of 60 kg ha-1 nitrogen when applied in the form of ½ basal and ½ after 30 days increased the seed yield up to 22.58 % over whole application as a basal dose.11. Effect of different fertilizer application methods revealed that side bending application of 60:40:0 (NPK) increased the seed yield up to (21.52 %) of wheat.
  30. 30. Responsibilities of State
  31. 31. Cont….• To provide modern agricultural machinery at subsidized rates• To provide fertilizers at cheaper rates• To educate the illiterate farmers• To increase the efficiency of agricultural research institutes
  32. 32. Mechanization of Agriculture to increase crop yield• Chemical Technology – Plant Protection Measures – Hybrid seeds – Fertilizers• Hydrological Technology – Tube wells – Drip Irrigation system – Embankment of water channels. (NPIW- national program for improvement of watercourses)• Mechanical Technology – Tractor – Thrashers – Bulldozers.
  33. 33. Standard method to achieve better yield• Preparation of bed• Selection of proper seeds• Sowing methods• Watering as per requirements• Use of proper fertilizers• Use of recommended pesticides• Harvest at the prescribed time• Research and development• Use of modern agricultural machinery
  34. 34. Green Revolution 1960s- covering three consecutive five year plans New high yielding varieties of wheat and rice Agricultural growth rate reached 6 percent per annum in the period of third five year plan (1965-1970) Per acre production increased
  35. 35. Cont… Wheat and rice production doubled between 1960-1969 West Pakistan became self-sufficient in food grains Catered to requirements of East Pakistan Started exporting rice
  36. 36. Green Revolution not Sustained Farm practices remained largely unchanged Flood irrigation methods remained unchanged Poor marketing Low storage capacities for agricultural produce Agro-based industries not developed Credits and subsides benefited big farmers and agricultural land ownersSource: Munich Personal RePEc Archive, Why The Green Revolution WasShort Run Phenomena In the Development Process Of Pakistan: ALesson For Future, 2004, http://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/9520
  37. 37. Cont….Ways to increase agricultural production and productivity – Miracle seeds – Fertilizers – Water supply – Plant protection – Mechanization – Agriculture credit
  38. 38. Recommendations• Management of existing natural resources in such a way to uplift the livelihood of farmer• Identification of problems of the arid areas & under taking research for their solution.
  39. 39. Cont…• Development of more production technologies and cropping systems for dry land agriculture.• Demonstration and dissemination of developed technologies to the end users/farmers.
  40. 40. Cont…• Corporate Farming – Liquid Fertilizers – Laser Machines – Hybrid (High Value Yield) Seeds – Proper Land Utilization – Harvesting Machines – Land per farmer• Agriculture Credit
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