Intrapersonal Communication www.humanikaconsulting.com
“Whether youthink you can or think you can’t, you are right.” - Henry Ford-
Analyze yourself as a communicator • Intrapersonal communication • Perceptions • Self concepts • Needs • Communication with others
OBJECTIVES• Reflect upon the values or significance of self-introspection;• Establish the connection between self-concept and intrapersonal communication; and• Arrive at a keener understanding of one’s self-communication prior to acquiring interpersonal communication skills
• Communicating with oneself• Thinking• Self-talk
• In one word describe yourself.• In three words describe yourself.• In ten words describe yourself.• Was one word hard? Yes, because we’re complex people.
1. “How do I see myself?”2. “Do I like or not what I see?”3. “How do I wish to see myself?” “How do I present myself to others?”4. “Who do others say I am?” “What do I imagine others say about me?”5. “How does this affect me?”
Intrapersonal Definition Intrapersonal person is a highly developed self- knowledge, involving accurate knowledge or goals, strength, limitations, mo ods, anxieties desires and motivations.
This takes place within the individual. Sender = Our relevant organ. Receiver = Our brain. Feed back by brain.
Intrapersonal Communication Figure 1-3 Intrapersonal Communication
Self-talk is the inner speech that includes thequestions and comments you make toyourself. It is a powerful influence. You use itwhen you: • Think things through • Interpret events • Interpret messages of others • Respond to your own experiences • Respond to your interactions with others
Research has show than positive self talkincreases focus, concentration andperformance. If you believe you cannot do something, your brain will tell your body and it will shut down. When you stay encouraged and positive, your body will also respond in a positive way.
“In order to successfullycommunicate with others you mustfirst learn to communicate withyourself. Intrapersonalcommunication is the most basiclevel of communication. You mustunderstand who you are and whatyou think of yourself.”
Three steps involved in Perception1. Sensory perception –the physical process oftaking in data throughthe senses. › How do you know when to go to school? › How do you know if you need to wear a jacket?
Three steps involved in Perception2. Selective perception – themental process of choosingwhich data or stimuli to focuson from all that are availableto you at any given time. › This means we have to make decisions on which things we focus on or ignore.
Perception Process• The process you use to assign meaning to data about yourself or the world around you is called perception.• People seldom share precisely the same perceptions because we are unique.
The following can influence you perception choices: Intensity – the more intense or dramatic the stimulus, the more likely we are to notice it. › Example: someone screaming all of a sudden Repetition – the more we are bombarded with messages – the more it sinks in and we believe it. › Advertising messages Uniqueness – things that are new, unusual, unexpected & unique are often noticed. Relevance – noticing things that mirror our own interests, needs & motiviations.
To manage selective perception you should: • 1. Stay alert • 2. Make conscious choices about what is important data. • 3. Screen out distractions & noise that may interfere with concentration. • 4. Monitor the way you select data and improve your weaknesses.
Third step in perception process • 3. Personal perception – your own understanding of reality. It becomes the basis for your judgments and decisions you make. It also determines appropriateness of your communication choices. – How you talk or express yourself (dress, act, perform, etc.) are choices you make based on your perceptions.
Factors that influence personal perception• Values – reflect your priorities and what you think is important.• Beliefs – what one believes to be true that often helps you decide what to accept or reject• Culture – family, community, or organizations to which you belong• Bias – consistent attitude, viewpoint or pattern of perception.• Prejudice – preconceived judgment (to pre-judge on opinion rather than facts)• Attitudes – powerful influences that can be positive or negative.• Expectations – basing a judgment on what is expected rather than what actually happened.• Knowledge – what you know influences how your organize & interpret information.• Communication skills – if you are lacking in part of the communication process, you may have difficulty in understanding and being understood.
Analyzing Perceptions• Two people in the same room can have completely different perceptions of the same event. Varying perceptions can cause conflict and misunderstandings. To overcome this you must continuallly check your own perceptions and make sure they are accurate.
Key – Never assume that what you perceive as the truth is the actual, absolute truth. Intrapersonal perception check: Question your sensory perception Question your selective perception Question you personal perception Interpersonal perception check: Clarify your perception of others messages. Analyze others’ points of view Take responsibility for your own communication.
SELF-CONCEPT FORMATION1. Reflected Appraisals a. Direct Reflections b. Perceived Self c. Generalized other2. Social comparisons3. Self-attribution4. Self-values
Direct Reflections Thorstein Veblen, 1934 The self-concept is largely shaped by the responses of others. You are deeply influenced by people’s attitudes towards you. You are a social being who wants and needs to be with people. You come to view your “self” as you are viewed by others.
Direct Reflections Thorstein Veblen, 1934 According to Veblen, the usual basis of self-respect is the respect by one’s neighbors or fellows. Only individuals with dysfunctional temperaments can in the long run retain their self- esteem in the face of disesteem of their neighbors or colleagues.
Direct Reflections Thorstein Veblen, 1934 “Because it is difficult to arrive at self-knowledge, how others view us is of tremendous importance. We need a consensus from others in order to validate our own self- concepts.” Our own self-evaluation is affected by others’ evaluation of us.
Perceived Self - Cooley, 1912 It came from the concept of the “looking-glass” self wherein we imagine our appearance to the other person and imagine his judgment of that appearance, as well as some self-feeling, such as pride or regret. The crucial question is NOT “What is the other person’s attitude towards me?” but “What do I perceive to be his attitude towards me?”
Generalized Other - Mead The self arises out of social experience, particularly social interaction. The process of communication requires the individual to adopt the attitude of the other toward the self and to see himself from their perspective or standpoint. All the others’ particular attitudes are crystallized in the “me,” in the process giving rise to a single standpoint or attitude called the “generalized other.” Your individual self-concept is shaped by applying to your “self” the attitudes of the society as a whole.
SOCIAL COMPARISONS Pettigrew (1967): “Human beings learn about themselves by comparing themselves to others.” The process of self-evaluation leads to self-ratings that may be positive, neutral, or negative in relation to the standards set by the individuals employed for comparison.
SELF-ATTRIBUTION Simply accepting things as they are is not helpful.
SELF-VALUES What is important to an individual would relate to one’s global self-esteem.
WISEMAN and BARKER MODEL • Intrapersonal communication is the“creating, functioning, and evaluation of symbolicprocesses which operate within the originating or responding communicator.” (1974)
WISEMAN and BARKER MODELExternal Internal StimuliStimuli T R Ideation r Discrimination e a n c Life s e m p Regrouping Incubation Orientation i t s i s o Symbol Symbol i n Decoding Encoding o n Internal Self-Feedback External Self-Feedback
Life Orientation • It plays a vital, underlying function because it affects the various stages as we evaluate and respond to stimuli. • It determines how the messages are sent to and received by ourselves. • The “result of the sum total of social, hereditary, and personal factors which have influenced your development as an individual.”
Stimuli• Internal stimuli are nerve impulses that are received by the brain.• External stimuli, on the other hand, comes from outside your body, from your immediate or proximate environment.• There are two types of external stimuli: overt and covert.
Reception • Happens when the body first receives stimuli. • Receiving can take place singly or in combination of any of the five senses: sight, sound, smell, touch, and taste. • External and internal receptors in the five sensory organs receive stimuli which are transformed into nerve impulses and subsequently transmitted to the brain. • External receptors are found on or near the surface of the body. These receptors react to physical, chemical, and mechanical stimuli. • Internal receptors such as nerve endings provide information about your internal state such as an empty stomach or an itchy throat.
Discrimination and Regrouping• Discrimination determines what stimuli are allowed to stimulate thought.• It screens out the less significant or weaker stimuli.• In regrouping, the strongest and most important stimuli previously selected are arranged in a meaningful sequence.• Although screened previously, the diverse stimuli have not been ranked.
Ideation• Ideation is the stage where the messages are thought out, planned and organized.• This stage draws mainly on the individual’s storehouse of knowledge and experience which may include previous associations with the topic, readings, observation, an d conversation.• The length of time depends on the availability of material.
Incubation and Symbol Encoding• Incubation is the process of allowing your ideas to grow and develop further.• Often referred to as the “jelling or hatching period.”• Allows you time to weigh, evaluate, reorganize and reflect on your messages.• In Symbol Encoding, the symbols of thought are transformed into words and gestures or actions.
Transmission and Feedback • The destination is the communicator himself. • The origin or point of initiation is likewise himself. • The self-communicator’s message is composed of words and gestures are thus transmitted via air or light waves. • Feedback in intrapersonal communication is called self- feedback. • External is the self-communicator’s response through airwaves. • Internal self-feedback is felt through bone conduction and muscular movement.
4 words to know of self1. self-awareness: the ability to reflect on and monitor one’s own behavior2. self-concept: everything one thinks and feels about oneself3. self-image: the sort of person one perceives oneself to be4. self-esteem: how well one likes and values oneself
Self-Concept is the self-perception or view you have of yourself. It is the person you think you are, formed in your beliefs and attitudes. It is influence by how others see you, how you were in your past, are today, and would like to be in the future.Real self – your “core” self; who you really Intellectual self – who you are as aare. student and a learner; the part of youPerceived self – who you see yourself to be. that acquires and uses knowledge.Ideal self – who you want to be now or in Emotional self – the part of you thatthe future. processes feelings.Public self – the self you freely disclose to Physical self – who you are physically;others or in public situations. including the concept of your ownPrivate self – the self you do not share with body, athletic ability, gracefulness andothers; who you are in private. coordination, level ofProfessional self – who you are in your job attractiveness, physical health and wellor profession. being.Social self – who you are when you interact Artistic self – the part of you that iswith other individuals, groups, in society or creative or artistic.social situations.
How you perceive that you are seen and treated by others. Your own expectations and the standards that you set for yourself How you compare yourself to others Self-concept lays the foundation for your communication with others one to one, in groups, or one-to-group.
Can give you confidence you need to communicate effectively Must draw from your strengths Must know where you need to improve Set goals for change
Self-fulfilling prophecy – a prediction or expectation of an event that shapes your behavior, making the outcome more likely to occur. It comes from your own self-concept and the expectations you establish for yourself. It also come from what you think others expect of you. Self-disclosure – is the deliberate revelation of a significant information about yourself that is not readily apparent to others. It can be tricky because it can either be appropriate or inappropriate for a particular time, place or circumstance. Must know what facts, opinions, or feelings are appropriate to reveal under the circumstances. Consider the purpose of self-disclosure and your communication goals.
Known to self Not known to self 1 2 Open Known Blind Knownto others It is called open because many to others of a person’s You are blind to what others behaviors, motivations, feelings, li perceive about you. Feedback kes and dislikes are openly can make you aware of this communicated to others. information, but you may or may not decide to adapt or change. 3 4 Not Hidden Unknown Not Known Knownto others It represents the things you know Things that neither you nor others know or acknowledge. It could to others or believe about yourself but that be subconscious fears or things you do not choose to share with you do not remember. others. Known to self Not known to self
• Factors that influence our self- presentation: the other, situation or interaction environment, and motivation.• Others determine the way we present ourselves.• “A man has as many different social selves as there are distinct groups of persons about whose opinion he cares.” (William James, 1892)• Different situations or environment bring about shifts in identity primarily because they offer cues for maximization of reward.• Motives of the self in undertaking a relationship determine self- presentation.
3 Ways self-concept affectsintrapersonal communication – Problem solving and decision making – Behavior – Processing of feedback
William Schutz’s three basic Interpersonal needs 1. The need to give or receive affection 2. The need to include other or be included in relationships. 3. The need to control others or relinquish control to them.
Communication with othersAffect on attitude for communicating with others 2 types of people » Extroverted Social individuals who are relationship orientated people » Introverted People who are more focused on themselves rather than on the needs of others.
How we makepredictions about others based onfirst impressions • Physical characteristics • Social traits • Emotional states • Stereotyping
Confirming Perceptions • Checking perception – Seek more information to verify perceptions – Recognize that even if your original perceptions were accurate, people can change over time – Talk with people about whom you are forming perceptions – Check perceptions verbally• Perception check – Verbal statement that reflects your understanding