Flow of communication


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  • - one person passes information to the others, who then pass it on
    - e.g. Civil Service
    - advantage: leader at the top of the hierarchy who can oversee communications
    - disadvantage: isolation felt by those at the bottom of the network, less motivation
  • Structures within the organization charts
    e.g. „the y“ in the organization chart
    some of the possible configurations of connections between people
    - the way communication networks are actually planned
    - circles represent individuals
    - lines represent two-way lines of communication
    - example of formal communication within a hierarchy such as in the police force or civil force
  • - one group, person or department occupies a central position
    - e.g. head office communicating with salespeople in different regions
  • - sections or departments can communicate with only two others
    - e.g. between middle managers from different departments at the same level of the organisation
    - problem: decision-making can be slow or poor because of a lock of coordination
  • - may be used for small working groups
    - open communication system
    - good for brainstorming
    - disadvantage: slow
  • - Informal Networks:
    - consist of interaction patterns that are not designed by management
    can be based on physical proximity, shared career interests or personal friendships
    article about the exchange of email in an organization (E-mail reveals real leaders)
    used e-mail exchanges to build a map of the structure of an organization
    The map shows the teams in which people actually work, as opposed to those they are assigned to
    unofficial de facto leaders can also emerge
    big institutions tend to divide organically into informal collaborative networks, called communities of practice
    -> companies‘ informal structure
    the communities often crossed the formal departmental boundaries defined by the company
    - chain:
    every member passes on information, but to just one person
    - gossip
    one person passes on information to all the others that he encounters
    - probability chain
    no structure
    A is very talkative and outgoing type, passes on information to random contacts
    - cluster
    information is passed on to selected persons
    most common pattern
    selectivity: pass on information to people with whom you are in close contact
  • Flow of communication

    2. 2. Communication structure in Organization 1. The organization structure lays down the relationship between various positions in the company. 2. The different levels in the structure have to communicate with each other in a systematic manner to avoid confusion, misunderstanding or chaos.
    3. 3. Communication structure in Organization 3. No organization can survive without a network which maintains the flow of information. 4. The formal channel determines the effectiveness and efficiency of the organization.
    4. 4. Communication structure in Organization Formal channels include the paths of communication which are institutionally determined by the organization.
    5. 5. Communication Types of communicationTypes of communication METHOD DIRECTIONCHANNEL 1 Formal 2. Informal 1. Downward 2. Upward 3. Horizontal 4. Diagonal 1. Oral 2. Written 3. Gestural
    6. 6. Direction or Flow of Communication Diagonal HORIZONTAL COMMUNICATION UPWARD DOWN WARD
    7. 7. On the basis of organization There are two types of communication- 1.Formal 2.Informal
    8. 8. Direction or Flow of Communication Diagonal HORIZONTAL COMMUNICATION UPWARD DOWN WARD
    9. 9. Formal vs. informal communication Formal • Formal communication follows the officially established chain of command and lines of communication. • It is a slow moving process. • It is easy to pin point the responsibility with respect to formal communication. Informal • Informal communication is independent of the authority relations in the organization. • It carries messages at a fast speed. • It is not possible to fix the responsibility of informal communication.
    10. 10. Formal vs. informal communication Formal It is task oriented. It consists mainly of work related matters. It is orderly and systematic as regards direction of flow. It serves organizational needs. Informal • It is people oriented. • It may consist of work related as well as social messages. • It is erratic and unsystematic as regards direction of flow. • It serves not only organizational needs but also social needs of the people.
    11. 11. Formal vs. informal communication Formal • It flows in vertical, horizontal and diagonal directions. • It can be both oral and written. • The message is very accurate and authentic. Informal It flows in every possible direction. It can be mostly oral. The message can not be considered authentic unless it is supplemented by formal channels.
    12. 12. Formal communication Formal communication refers to the communication that follows the official hierarchy. A precise communication channel following a fixed pattern than occurring with out control. Formal channel is the systematic ,authorized and structured movement of messages that determine the effectiveness and efficiency of organization.
    13. 13. HIERARCHY LEVEL Executive Director Vice President A.G.M. Manager Supervisor Forman Supervisor 3Supervisor 1 Supervisor 2 Manager Horizontal Comm.
    14. 14. Formal Communication The flow of communication may take place vertically along the chain of command or horizontally between persons holding similar status in the organizational hierarchy. Formal communication enforces a relationship between different positions whereas informal channel represents communication among people through informal or personal contacts.
    15. 15. Formal Communication 11/18/2003 Formal and Informal Channels of Communication President Vice President Vice President Manager Manager Manager Manager Efforts at coordination Information Instructionsanddirectives © Copyright 2002 by Prentice Hall, Inc.
    16. 16. Formal communication is both oral and written but mostly written. Written communication is used usually for matters that are highly important to the management or to the firm. Memos, letters, reports ,policies, procedural changes, orders , instructions and confidential reports come under formal communication. This type of communication can flow in various directions.
    17. 17. FORMAL COMMUNICATION “Formal communication means exchange of ideas and information which is done under the planned organizational structure .” ‘ It means an exchange of idea which passes through a definite channel.’ ‘ Formal communication is deliberately designed and represent authority responsibility relationships between different position in the organization.’
    18. 18. TYPOLOGY OF COMMUNICATION Communication in organizations can be studied under the following leadings : A CHANNEL OR NETWORK i Formal ii Informal
    19. 19. DIRECTION OF MESSAGE I Downward II Upward III Horizontal IV Diagonal
    21. 21. CHANNELS OF COMMUNICATION A channel of communication is the path through which information is transmitted throughout the organization. Channels of communication may be divided into two categories. a.Formal b. Informal
    22. 22. Characteristics of formal communication 1.written or oral 2.formal relation 3.prescribed path 4.organisational message 5.deliberate effort 6. Authentic information 7. Identified source
    23. 23. Advantages of formal communication 1. Maintenance of authority of the officers- Formal communication maintains constant relations among the superiors and the subordinates. It provides support to the authority of superiors over sub-ordinates.
    24. 24. Advantages of formal communication 2.Clear and effective communication-  With the help of formal communication superiors and subordinates understand the capability, habits, feelings, etc. Control is facilitated by formal communication providing information about work performance.
    25. 25. 3.Orderly flow of information- The information has to pass through a definite route from one person to another. The source of communication can be easily located. It is an officially recognized path of communication and therefore it is presumed to be authentic.
    26. 26. Limitations of formal communication 1.Rigid and slow 2.Distortion of information 3. Lack of personal touch
    27. 27. This type of communication follows the scalar chain of authority and so it is a slow moving process. Formal communication is mostly conveyed in an impersonal manner. Personal warmth and involvement may be lacking. Accurate information may not be transmitted. Even the information may be distorted in the process of transmission through different levels in the organization. Limitations of formal communication
    28. 28. Communication Structure • C 11/18/2003 Formal and Informal Channels of Communication Chain
    29. 29. Chain Network or Single Strand One person communicates with one person only. It represents a vertical hierarchy in which communication can flow only upward or downward. The flow of communication takes place through the formal channels, from a superior to subordinate or vice-versa. There is no horizontal communication in the chain network. The first and the last person have no direct contact .
    30. 30. 2. Communication Structures Centralized 11/18/2003 Formal and Informal Channels of Communication Y
    31. 31. Y type network It’s a combination of horizontal and vertical flow of communication. If we turn the Y upside down, we see two sub- ordinates reporting to one senior, with 2 levels of authority above the latter.
    32. 32. 3.Communication Structures Centralized 11/18/2003 Formal and Informal Channels of Communication Wheel
    33. 33. Wheel Network The wheel network refers to several sub-ordinates reporting to a superior. It is a combination of horizontal and diagonal flow of communication All the sub-ordinates are of equal rank, all of them report to one superior and interact between themselves. All the workers receive instruction and guidance from one person.
    34. 34. 4. Communication Structures Decentralized • Circle Network 11/18/2003 Formal and Informal Channels of Communication Circle
    35. 35. Circle Network The message moves in circle. Each person can communicate with his two neighborhood colleagues but not further. The communication is very slow in this network.
    36. 36. 5. Communication Structures Decentralized F 11/18/2003 Formal and Informal Channels of Communication Common
    37. 37. Free flow or all channel network • There is no restriction in the flow of communication. • Everyone is free to communicate with anyone and everyone in the organization. • This network is informal and unstructured. • It is very flexible. • All are equal and everybody’s views are equally and openly shared.
    38. 38. Informal communication Communication between individuals and groups which are not officially recognized is known as informal communication. Side by side with the formal channel of communication, every organization has an effective channel of communication – i.e., informal channel. It consists of exchange of ideas and information resulting from social interaction among the members of an organization.
    39. 39. This communication is based on informal relations . It is free from all the organizational formalities. The exchange of information usually takes place on the occasions of community meals, social occasions, parties ,etc. informal communication is also called “grapevine communication”.
    40. 40. What is grapevine • The network or pathway of informal communication is known as grapevine. • Grapevine cuts across formal channels of communication. • The origin and direction of the flow of informally conveyed messages cannot be easily traced.
    41. 41. Features of grapevine communication • It transmits the information in every direction throughout the organization laterally and diagonally. • In it the chain of command needs not be followed. • The information flows rapidly. • It can occur off the job. • Grapevine generally occurs orally.
    42. 42. • Grapevine is based on people rather than task. •Grapevine does not follow a fixed pattern as in the case with formal communication. •Information travelling in grapevine does not follow an orderly path. •Managers should not eliminate the grapevine, and thereby ignore it. •Wise managers remain tuned to the grapevine. •They obtain useful information.
    43. 43. advantages of grapevine communication • Social relations • Satisfaction • Speed • Feedback • Supporting the formal channel • Better human relations
    44. 44. Social relations • Informal communication gives opportunity to people to form social groups and communicate with one another.
    45. 45. Satisfaction • Informal communication satisfies an important urge of people to know what is happening in the other parts of the organization. • They also come to know about the latest information.
    46. 46. Speed • Informal communication is very useful when information is required to be communicated very rapidly. • It works faster than formal information.
    47. 47. Feedback Informal communication is very fast. It can be used by managers to get quick feedback from the sub-ordinates.
    48. 48. Supporting the formal channel Whatever cannot be communicated through formal channel because of time or official constraints, can be successfully transmitted through informal channels.
    49. 49. Better human relations • Informal channels develop healthy relations amongst people in the organization as it cuts across official positions and hierarchical relationships.
    50. 50. Disadvantages • Incomplete information • Distortion • Misunderstanding • Incredible • Damage to the organization • Unreliable information • Unsystematic communication
    51. 51. Incomplete information • There are occasions when grapevine does not carry complete information.
    52. 52. Distortion • Information communicated through grapevine may get distorted. • People add their personal interpretations and thus distort the facts.
    53. 53. Unreliability • Informal communication is generally unreliable. • It can’t be depended upon for sending urgent messages.
    54. 54. Leakage • Confidential information often leaks out through informal communication.
    55. 55. Lack of authenticity • Informal communication spreads by word of mouth. • Informal communication may not be supported by tangible (concrete, substantial) facts.
    56. 56. Problem in fixing responsibility • Origin of information can not be ascertained. • It is difficult to hold anybody responsible for spreading false information.
    57. 57. Types of grapevine communication There are four types of grapevine or informal communication. 1.Single strand network 2.Gossip network 3.Probability network 4.Cluster network
    58. 58. Types of informal communication Informal communication clusterGossip wheel probabilitySingle strand
    59. 59. Informal Networks 11/18/2003 Formal and Informal Channels of Communication Y D C B A Chain A JB D H I K F G E C Gossip A F B D J H C E K G I X Probability A C D F J IB Cluster McGraw-Hill © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    60. 60. 1.Single strand w p s h r q
    61. 61. Single strand • In this type, information flows through a long line of person to the ultimate receiver. • This chain is least accurate in passing on the information.
    62. 62. 2.Gossip wheel S P U B A w H x
    63. 63. Gossip wheel • It involves passing of information from a person in the centre to all the other around him. • The chain is often used when information or a message regarding is an interesting one but non-job related nature is being conveyed.
    64. 64. 3. Probability chain p l o a u r c w q s
    65. 65. Probability chain • Here p communicates randomly with others according to the law of probability. • In this type of chain, individuals are indifferent to, or not really interested in, the persons to whom they are passing some information. • The chain is found when the information is somewhat interesting but not really significant.
    66. 66. 4. Cluster t r n m l k q w j p e
    67. 67. Cluster • It involves selective communication in a group. • The individual communicates with only those individuals whom he trusts. • Out of these informal networks, the cluster network is the most popular.
    68. 68. Formal Channel Within the network of formal organizational communication structure there are four types of directional flow. 1. Downward Communication 2. Upward Communication 3. Horizontal Communication 4. Diagonal Communication
    69. 69. Direction or Flow of Communication Diagonal HORIZONTAL COMMUNICATION UPWARD DOWN WARD
    70. 70. On the basis of direction • Downward Communication • Upward Communication • Horizontal Communication • Diagonal Communication
    71. 71. HIERARCHY LEVEL Executive Director Vice President A.G.M. Manager Supervisor Forman Supervisor 3Supervisor 1 Supervisor 2 Manager Horizontal Comm.
    72. 72. Vertical/Lateral Communication Organisation chart shows vertical (black arrows) and lateral (green arrows) Finance Marketing Production Board of Directors Finance Officers Marketing Assistants Factory Operatives
    73. 73. VERTICAL COMMUNICATION The upward communication is just opposite to the downward communication. The function of upward communication is to supply information to the upper levels about what is happening at the lower level. This type of communication includes progress report, suggestions and request for aid .
    74. 74. VERTICAL COMMUNICATION • Vertical communication consists of communication up and down the organization's chain of command. • Downward communication starts with top management and flows down through management levels to line workers.  Purpose:  Advise  Inform  Direct  Instruct
    75. 75. VERTICAL COMMUNICATION • Disadvantages: Downward communication is likely to be filtered, modified or halted at each level as managers decide what should be passed down to their employee. This will lead to confusion.
    76. 76. VERTICAL COMMUNICATION • Disadvantages: Upward communication is likely to be filtered, condensed or modified by the middle level management to protect upper level management from non-essential data originating at the lower levels.
    78. 78. Downward communication vs. Upward communication Downward Communication • It represents the flow of information from top level to lower levels. • Its purpose is to communicate policies, procedures, orders and instructions to the sub- ordinates. Upward Communication • It represents the flow of information from lower level to top level . • Its purpose is to keep the superiors informed about the progress of work and difficulties faced in the execution of orders.
    79. 79. Downward communication vs. Upward communication Downward Communication • It is used to get things done through the sub- ordinates. • It takes the form of written and oral instructions , letters, memos, company publication etc. Upward Communication • It is used to give reports and convey reactions of sub-ordinates to the management. • It takes the form of activity reports, suggestions, grievances etc.
    80. 80. Downward Communication • Downward communication moves from top to bottom, i.e., from the CEO to downwards. • It travels through senior executives to junior level functionaries. • Examples: Notices, circulars etc.
    81. 81. Objectives of Downward communication 1. To give instructions about what to do and how to do. 2. To explain organizational policies, programs and procedures. 3. To know how effectively a person is performing his job. 4. To motivate employees to improve their performance. 5. To train subordinates in performing their jobs.
    82. 82. Highly Directive, from Senior to subordinates, to assign duties, give instructions, to inform, to offer feedback, etc.
    83. 83. Merits of Downward communication • Mission and Goals • Plans and Policies • Duty and authority • Job Satisfaction
    84. 84. Mission and Goals • It informs the employees about the organization mission, goals and how they should contribute their best to accomplish these goals.
    85. 85. Plans and Policies • It provides the employees with information regarding organizational plans and policies.
    86. 86. Duty and authority • It facilitates the employees in knowing what is expected from them and the extent of their authority.
    87. 87. Job Satisfaction • It increases employees’ job satisfaction by communicating them about their better performance.
    88. 88. Problems of Downward communication • Information is quite often lost or distorted in the course of its journey. • It is a one way traffic, which must be flexible but in reality it is very rigid. • For any communicative purpose to be served, it is essential to find out whether the receiver of the message or information has understood it.
    89. 89. •It is time consuming. •The more the levels the more the chances of delay or dilution of information. •Downward communication is more likely to be filtered, modified or distorted at any or each level as managers decide what should be passed down to their employees.
    90. 90. •Filtration occurs because of lack of trust and confidence between employees. •Sometimes managers withhold information in order to keep the employees dependent on them which results in incomplete information, employees may feel confused, uninformed or powerless and might fail to carry out their tasks properly .
    91. 91. Effective Downward communication • Be well informed and complete. • Be short so that there is minimum distortion. • Use simple language • Keep in view the skill and competence of sub-ordinates to comprehend and follow instructions.
    92. 92. Effective Down ward communication • Follow hierarchical structure of organization. • Encourage feedback through upward communication.
    93. 93. Modes of downward communication • Handbooks and pamphlets • Posters and bulletins • House journal • Direct mail • Annual reports • Special meetings
    94. 94. Handbooks • The employee handbook is a document compiled by an organization that is used to inform employees of rules, regulations, and policies.
    95. 95. Handbooks • Employee handbooks are likely to include information on the following topics: employee compensation and benefits, performance appraisal procedures, smoking restrictions, leave policies, dress codes, disciplinary procedures etc.
    96. 96. Orientation • Orientation is a training program that introduces new employees to the company, their work units, and their particular jobs; it is used to familiarize employees with the organization's rules, policies, and procedures.
    97. 97. Bulletins • Information concerning the firm is often communicated on bulletin boards. • Bulletin boards always help everybody know all the important things and events that is going on within an organization.
    98. 98. Bulletins • A good bulletin board can also solve problems before they begin. • Posting rules and requirements can prevent a lot of future interpersonal conflicts between employees and management.
    99. 99. House journal • Many firms have their own newsletters or newspapers, often referred to as house journals. • Organizations publish quarterly or monthly in-house magazines to keep employees updated about the latest development in the business, activities conducted in the company like social or cultural and achievements by the sales team.
    100. 100. House journal • A great deal of information regarding the organization can be communicated through these newsletters. • They often contain information about new products, about its policies.
    101. 101. House journal • It provides complete information of the organization with details on nature of the business, its customers, products, policies, benefits and services available to its employees.
    102. 102. Direct mail • When the top management wants to communicate matters of importance, it can use direct mail intended to employees.
    103. 103. Special meetings • The management may schedule special meetings with the employees to explain them the new policies and procedures and to obtain feedback from them. • Thus, special meetings can be used for both downward and upward communication.
    104. 104. Upward Communication • Upward Communication is just the reverse of the downward communication. • It flows upward from a subordinate to the superior through middle managerial levels along the line. • Examples: Reports, meetings, informal discussion etc.
    105. 105. • It is non directive in nature from down below, to give feedback, to inform about progress/probl ems, seeking approvals.
    106. 106. •The main function of upward communication is to supply information to the superiors about what is happening at the lower levels. •The purposes of upward communication are to keep the superiors informed about the progress of the work and difficulties faced in executing orders, suggest measures for improvement, communicate grievances etc.
    107. 107. This communication keeps the managers aware of how employees feel about their jobs and the organization in general. It helps managers in taking certain decisions. Upward communication can flourish only in democratic organizational environment. It helps in knowing the attitude of people.
    108. 108. Problems in upward communication • Superiors do not like to be ‘told’ or even like to hear from their juniors against their wishes. • Hence the piece of communication may quite often not even be allowed to go up. • It may be distorted or misinterpreted. • The employees may feel let down or become shy and reluctant to express themselves.
    109. 109. Effective Upward Communication The initiative rests with the superiors who should: • Actively encourage feedback. • Be open minded and receptive to new ideas. • Listen attentively and empathetically. • Remove awe of authority.
    110. 110. Effective Upward Communication • Create opportunities for superior- subordinate interaction like meetings, open door policy, etc. • Provide suggestion boxes. • Assure that adverse ideas will not cause victimization.
    111. 111. Merits of Upward Communication • Feedback— It helps managers in receiving feedback from the lower levels that helps them in carrying out the controlling function. • It also helps them in knowing the working attitude of employees.
    112. 112. Creative ideas • It provides managers with creative ideas and suggestions which probably they could not have thought of.
    113. 113. Better relations • It strengthens superior sub-ordinate relationship and improves harmonious industrial relations.
    114. 114. Overcomes resistance to change • It overcomes resistance to change on the part of the employees as they are allowed to present their fears and apprehensions before the management.
    115. 115. Increases motivation • It increases employees’ motivation to work. • Employees feel morally committed to their work if their grievances, ideas, suggestions are considered by top managers.
    116. 116. Limitations of upward communication • Fears and apprehensions— Sub- ordinates do not always report the matters the way they want, for the fear of being reprimanded by their bosses.
    117. 117. Filtration • A substantial part of communication gets filtered when it flows upward. • Each level filters that part of information which it feels will present an unfavorable picture of their superiors.
    118. 118. Time consuming • Too many levels in the official chain of command result in delayed transmission from the lower levels to the top level.
    119. 119. Inattention by Superiors • Inattention by superiors may even discourage the sub-ordinates to speak to higher levels.
    120. 120. Low morale • The employees may feel morally depressed when their grievances and suggestions to the higher authorities do not get the required attention.
    121. 121. Medium of Upward communication • Suggestion System • Grievance procedure • Open-door policy • Questionnaires • Ombudsperson
    122. 122. Suggestion System • Many firms have formal suggestion system. • They provide for suggestion boxes for putting in suggestions by the workers. • They encourage workers to fill suggestion forms regularly. • In this system every suggestion should receive sincere consideration.
    123. 123. Grievance Procedure • Grievance procedure gives the sub- ordinates an opportunity to settle their disputes within the organization.
    124. 124. Open-door Policy • Open-door policy allows workers to bypass immediate supervisors and talk to the top executives in regard to important matters without fear of reprisal. • This communication reduces tension and improves trust in sub-ordinates.
    125. 125. Open-door policy has disadvantages too. It creates a sense of insecurity in managers when they know that sub-ordinates may lodge complains directly to upper level managers.
    126. 126. Questionnaires • Sometimes, anonymous questionnaires are given to workers to fill in with a view to identify problem areas in the organization. • When a large number of workers rate a firm low in a given area, the management should deal with it immediately and find solutions thereof.
    127. 127. Ombudsperson • The organizations having no union can have a complaint officer called an ombudsperson. • He hears employees’ complaints, investigates them and recommends appropriate actions to the top management. • This form of grievance resolution channel resolves the problems swiftly.
    128. 128. Vertical/Lateral Communication Divisional Manager (Steel) Divisional Manager (Cement) Managing Director Deptt head( Fina Deptt Head (Pro) Deptt. head markt Deptt head pro Deptt Head Fina Deptt head mkt
    129. 129. Horizontal Communication • This type of communication refers to communication between various department or units representing the same level, or people within the same or different departments without having a superior- subordinate relationship. • It flows between persons at the same hierarchical level.
    130. 130. • It is known by various other names like sideways communication, lateral communication, inter-scalar communication. •This form of communication takes place among peer groups or hierarchically equivalent employees.
    131. 131. Merits of Horizontal communication • It speeds up the flow of work in organization. • It facilitates problem-solving amongst members at the same level and brings about co-ordination. • It develops mutual trust and confidence amongst similar position holders of different departments.
    132. 132. • It relieves top managers of the burden of solving problem of the lower levels if they can manage to solve them on their own.
    133. 133. Limitations of Horizontal Communication • In the modern age, functional heads are so highly specialized in managing activities of their departments that they lack knowledge of other functional areas. • This hampers communication at the horizontal level.
    134. 134. For example:- marketing manager may not appreciate the problem of the finance manager in collecting payments from the debtors and insist on liberal credit to customers. 2. Personal likes and dislikes amongst members of different work groups can obstruct free flow of information among them. 3. Differences in perceptions and attitudes of functional heads can be counter-productive in horizontal communication.
    135. 135. For example:- If the chief executive of the company directs functional heads to cut down costs, finance manager may want marketing manager to cut selling expenses while marketing manager may want production manager to cut production costs. This might lead to inter-departmental conflicts.
    136. 136. The best example of lateral communication can be seen in the interaction of production and marketing departments. Strategies of marketing cannot be fruitful unless its plans are communicated to the production department.
    137. 137. Objectives of lateral communication • To co-ordinate among various individuals or departments. • To resolve conflicts among various employees of the department. • To exchange information among various employees of the department. • To promote social relations among employees in the organization.
    138. 138. Diagonal or Crosswise Communication Diagonal or Crosswise Communication cuts across different functions and levels in an organization. Diagonal Communication travels from sub- ordinates to supervisors. The increased use of e-mails also encourages cross wise communication.
    139. 139. For Example:- when a sales manager directly communicates with the Vice-President (production) who is not only in a different division but also at a higher level in the organization, they are engaged in diagonal communication. Any employee can communicate via e-mail with another employee, regardless of the receiver’s function or status. It is also called radial or circular communication. The major problem with diagonal communication is that it departs from the normal chain of command.
    140. 140. Oral Communication • It involves exchange of messages with the help of spoken words. • Oral communication may take place (i) by face to face contacts (ii) through mechanical devices ex:-telephones, intercom system, mobile etc.
    141. 141. Face to face conversation is the most natural way of transmitting the message. Oral orders, personal interviews, lectures, group discussions , social gatherings etc. are frequently used in our daily life.
    142. 142. Advantages of oral communication • It is relatively less expensive as compared to written communication. • It is more effective because of direct contact. • It helps in getting quick response from the receivers. • Face to face contacts can be made effective by supporting them with gestures.
    143. 143. Oral communication is faster as compared to written communication. Oral communication is very useful for discussing problems in groups. It is very much helpful when the time available is very short. It also helps in knowing the reactions of the receivers quickly.
    144. 144. Disadvantages of oral communication • Oral communication is not possible when parties to communication are at distant places and no electronic means of communication is available. • Communication through the electronic device may not be reliable because of the possibility of the breakdown in the transmission system.
    145. 145. It cannot serve as an authentic piece of record unless the conversation is audio or video recorded. Oral communication may give rise to conflicts in certain situations because of immediate response from the listener. Even if there is a slip of tongue by a person, the words spoken once can’t be taken back. Oral communication may be ignored by the receiver of the message. This would delay action.
    146. 146. Two Sides of Oral Communication • Listening • Presenting
    147. 147. Listening • Any discussion of oral communication is incomplete without considering listening as an important tool of communication. • No oral communication can be effective without proper listening. • The recipient of the message must be attentive and receptive. • Poor listening may defeat the very purpose of oral communication.
    148. 148. Effective Listening Skills • Stop talking as you can not listen effectively during talking. • Free your mind from presumptions and preconceived ideas by being aware of them. • Avoid any external distraction. • Put the talker at ease with smiling face and sweet words, so that he can communicate frankly and fearlessly.
    149. 149. Effective Listening Skills • Demonstrate your interest in the talker’s speech. • Be patient and allow the talker sufficient time to clarify his point. • Do not interrupt him unnecessarily. • Do not be selective and partial in listening. • Avoid premature evaluation and judgment.
    150. 150. Presenting • Ability to present one’s viewpoint is also important for effective oral communication. • In order to be an effective presenter, one should present facts and not opinions. • Keep to the point. • Keep the listener’s interest in mind. • Ask for feedback. • Answer questions honestly.
    151. 151. Face to face communication • The most natural way of transmitting the message. • Helps in achieving greater co-operation and understanding because the communicator can convey the message both by words and expressions or gestures. • Listener can make queries if he has any doubt or if he is not able to understand the message.
    152. 152. Advantages • Listener’s attention • Effect of facial expressions • Suitable for discussions
    153. 153. Listener’s Attention • It has the advantage of exercising control over the listener’s attention. • The speaker can effectively capture the listener’s attention by making his message clear and interesting.
    154. 154. Effect of facial expressions • Speaker can make his speech more vivid and forceful by conveying through facial expressions, tone and pitch of the voice.
    155. 155. Inattentive listening • For effective communication, listening skill plays important role. • Most of the persons seem listening, but do not listen because of wandering of mind to other matters, using or selective perceptions, egoism etc. • The communication does not take place because of inattentive listening.
    156. 156. Unproductive in unhealthy relations • At times face to face communication proves counter-productive when the relations between the parties are unhealthy. • It may lead to further conflicts and confrontation.
    157. 157. Principles of successful oral communication • Clarity of Expression • Be precise • Choice of words • Avoid hackneyed phrases • Avoid communication overload • Listener’s interest • Easy flow • sequence • Strong conviction
    158. 158. Clarity of expression • The speaker should speak clearly and slowly. • Pronunciation and accent of the speaker are also important.
    159. 159. Be precise • There should be precision in the statements. • For ex:- increase the prices by 10% this statement is specific instead of saying increase the prices.
    160. 160. Choice of Words • Use of familiar words is better than unfamiliar words. • Ambiguous words should be avoided.
    161. 161. Avoid hackneyed phrases • Do not use the phrases which have lost their impact and have become dull. • For ex:- so then, you see, you know
    162. 162. Listener’s interest • A good speaker should know his audience, their culture, education, level of intelligence. • A speaker must take into consideration the listeners around him.
    163. 163. Easy flow • There should be natural style which is more effective than complicated style. • The speaker should cultivate an impressive voice. • Harsh, shrill voice and artificial style become repulsive and therefore the purpose of communication is defeated.
    164. 164. Sequence • The speaker should arrange various ideas in a logical sequence. • Rambling thoughts and irrelevant ideas are never effective.
    165. 165. Strong Conviction • The speaker should think carefully, speak sincerely, plan intelligently in order to make his speech effective. • He must have strong conviction about what he says.
    166. 166. Written Communication • Written communication is transmitted by written words in the form of letters, memos, circulars, bulletins, reports, instruction cards, manuals, magazines, handbooks etc. • It generally moves downward. • Upward communication in the written form is generally discouraged, or the workers are reluctant to use it.
    167. 167. Management style Dynamic management should encourage it by installing a suitable suggestion system under which workers are allowed to write their grievances and suggestions freely.
    168. 168. Modes of written communication • Letters • Notice • Memo or memorandum • Telegram • Telex
    169. 169. Letters • The message is transmitted from the sender to the receiver through a letter.
    170. 170. Notice • Notice is one of the best methods when many people within an organization are to be contacted. • Notice is a common method of mass communication.
    171. 171. Memo or Memorandum • It is a message between members of a company, pertaining to routine matters.
    172. 172. Telegram • For contacting people at distant places telegrams can be used. • It gives an impression of urgency to the receiver. • To convey the matters urgently and to take quick actions, telegrams are used.
    173. 173. Telex • It is a telegraphic device which has a facility to type out the messages simultaneously on the senders machine and the receivers machine. • It is used to send as well as receive messages.
    174. 174. Advantages of Written communication • Written communication can be used to issue instructions and orders to the sub-ordinates. • It is very difficult to alter the contents of the written message so it can’t be distorted. • Written communication is a cheaper means of communication when parties to communication are situated at distant place.
    175. 175. Written messages are more formulated than oral communication. That is why they are more specific and clear. One can think adequately before writing anything. Response to written communication is generally well thought out because the receiver gets sufficient time to understand and evaluate the message. Written communication serves as a reliable record for future reference and can be used in legal proceedings.
    176. 176. Disadvantages of Written Communication • Written communication is more expensive for transmitting short messages. • It also takes time to convey the message. • Written communication is generally formal in nature, it does not involve personal touch between the parties.
    177. 177. Once a written message has been dispatched, there is little scope left for making amendments for the inaccuracy that might have crept into it. If the written communication is poorly drafted, it may create misunderstanding and confusion in the mind of the receiver.
    178. 178. Comparison of Oral and Written communication Oral Communication • It is expressed through spoken words. • It takes less time. • It may not be precise. • It may not be complete. It may be difficult to understand it. • It is generally informal in nature. Written communication • Communication is expressed in writing. • It takes more time. • It can be precise. • It is not difficult to understand written communication if it is expressed in unambiguous terms. • It is generally formal in nature.
    179. 179. Comparison of Oral and Written communication Oral Communication • Oral message may be taken casually. • Oral message may not be verifiable. Written communication • Written message is generally taken seriously. • Written message can be verified from the records.
    180. 180. Gestural Communication • Communication through gestures or postures is often used as a means to supplement verbal communication. • If there is a face to face conversation between two persons, they can better understand the feelings, attitudes and emotions of each other. • Gestural communication is very helpful to motivate the sub-ordinates.
    181. 181. For example:- handshake with the sub-ordinate or pat on the back of the sub-ordinate. Gesture is a movement of the head, hand, body etc. to express an idea, feeling, emotion. As gestures have meanings so they should be coordinated with proper intensity of speech. A presenter while facing the audience is advised to keep positive gestures, since it indicates his positive personality.
    182. 182. Adroit gestures can add to the impact of a speech. An ungainly gesture (like playing with your key chain or button) can mar the effectiveness of message. For example:- arms spread apart convey the meaning of “wide”. ii. Shuffling from one leg to another means “nervous”
    183. 183. Gestures should not divert the attention of the listener and distract from your message. Gestures can be divided into following types: Enumerative -- Numbers Descriptive -- Size of the objects Symbolic -- abstract concepts Locative -- location of an object Emphatic -- emphasis