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  2. 2. COMMUNICATION QUIZTest Your Communication Skills?
  3. 3. OUTLINE OF PRESENTATION• Introduction• Communication Process• Forms of Communication• Organizational Communication• Direction of Communication• Barriers To Effective Communication• Conclusion
  4. 4. IntroductionCommunication is a natural process that involves at least two living things.Communication skills are some of the most important skills that we need to succeed in the workplace.Communication in an organization, therefore, is a process that involves at least two people – a sender and a receiver. For it to be successful, the receiver must understand the message in the way that the sender intended.
  5. 5. Communication Process
  7. 7. The Source Cont’dTo Plan your communication:• Understand your objective. Why are you communicating?• Understand your audience. With whom are you communicating? What do they need to know?• Plan what you want to say, and how youll send the message.• Good communicators use the KISS ("Keep It Simple and Straightforward") principle. They know that less is often more, and that good communication should be efficient as well as effective.
  8. 8. ENCODING
  9. 9. ENCODING CREATING A CLEAR, WELL-CRAFTED MESSAGE The source/sender initiates the process by encoding a thought. When you know what you want to say, decide exactly how youll say it. Youre responsible for sending a message thats clear and concise. The message is the actual physical product of the sender’s encodingPRODUCT – Speech; Written words; Gestures
  10. 10. CHOOSING THE RIGHT CHANNELAlong with encoding the message, it is important to choose the best communication channel to send it.You have to be efficient, and make the most of your communication opportunity.In determining the best way to send a message, we should consider the following:• The sensitivity and emotional content of the subject.• How easy it is to communicate detail.• The receivers preferences.• Time constraints.• The need to ask and answer questions.
  12. 12. DECODING – RECEIVING AND INTERPRETING A MESSAGE The Recipient/Decoder is the person/people for whom the message is intended. They receive the message and decode it. For an effective communication to take place, it is necessary that the recipient of the message understands the message the way the sender intended. Both the sender and the recipient do have important roles to play in completing the process of effective communication.
  13. 13. FEEDBACKFeedback is response from the receiver. Without it, you cant be sure that people have understood your message.Feedback can be verbal or non-verbal, including body language .By watching the facial expressions, gestures, and posture of the person youre communicating with, you can spot:• Confidence levels.• Defensiveness.• Agreement.• Comprehension (or lack of understanding).• Level of interest, e.t.c
  14. 14. KEY NOTESAs either a speaker or a listener, or as a writer or a reader, youre responsible for making sure that the message is communicated accurately. Pay attention to words and actions, ask questions, and watch body language. These will all help you ensure that you say what you mean, and hear what is intended.A properly encoded message should be correctly decoded by the recipient.A properly decoded message is clear, complete and not be confusing.An important aspect of encoding is knowing your audience.
  15. 15. FORMS OF COMMUNICATIONHow do group members transfer meaning between and among each other?(Interpersonal Communication)How do we communicate?• We talk to people face to face, and we listen when people talk to us; oral communication• We write emails, memos, letters, newsletters and reports, and we read the documents that are sent to us; written communication• Nonverbal Communication
  16. 16. DIRECTION OF COMMUNICATONCommunication can flow vertically or laterally.• Vertical Communication: This is information flow in a downward or upwards direction• Lateral Communication: This is information flow amongst members of the same work group, managers at the same level, or any other horizontally equivalent workers.
  17. 17. ORGANISATIONAL COMMUNICATIONThe exchange of information may be over formaland informal channels/network. Formal networkscan however be very complicated, includinghundreds of people and a lot of hierarchical levelsdepending on the size of organization.
  19. 19. ORGANISATIONAL COMMUNICATIONFormal Small-Group Networks Chain: this usually follows the formal chain of command Wheel: this relies on a central figure to act as a means of conveying all group’s communication, usually a team with a strong leader.
  20. 20. ORGANISATIONAL COMMUNICATION All channel: this network permits all group members to actively communicate with each other The Grapevine: this is the informal communication network in a group or organization Recent studies shows that word-of-mouth information from peers about a company has a significant impact on the company.
  21. 21. ELECTRONIC COMMUNICATIONCommunication in most organizations today is through electronic meansElectronic communication: E-mail, instant messaging, text messaging, video-conferencing.Advantages of e-mail messages E-mail messages can be written quickly, edited and stored Distributed to one person or thousands of people same time Recipients can read at their own convenience Relatively cheaper than conventional methods
  22. 22. ELECTRONIC COMMUNICATIONE-mail messages has its own drawback and as managers, there is the need to note the following key limitationsDisadvantages of using e-mail messaging Misinterpreting the message Communicating negative messages Time-consuming nature of e-mails • Don’t check e-mail in the morning • Check in batches • Unsubscribe • Stop sending email
  23. 23. BARRIERS TO COMMUNICATION• Filtering• Selective Perception• Information Overload• Emotions• Language• Silence• Communication Apprehension/Social Anxiety• Complex organizational structure
  24. 24. RESULTS OF COMMUNICATION FAILURE• Loss of Business/goodwill• Waste of money and time• Lowered productivity• Poor co-ordination and control• Frustration and hostility• Dissatisfaction with others• Lowered morale and loss of team spirit• Conflict and arguments• High employee turnover
  25. 25. CONCLUSIONCommunication Trilogy
  26. 26. CONCLUSIONSeven Cs of good informationClearConciseConcreteCorrectConsistentCompleteConsidered Cross Cultural Factors
  28. 28. References• Robbins S.P. & Judge T.A. (2012). Essentials of Organizational Behavior. (11 th ed.). Edinburgh Gate, Pearson Education Limited•
  29. 29. THANK YOU

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