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Simple Model of Transformer using LTspice

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Simple Model of Transformer using LTspice

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Simple Model of Transformer using LTspice

  1. 1. Saturable transformer model Simplified SPICE Behavioral Model Bee Technologies Inc. All Rights Reserved Copyright (C) Bee Technologies Corporation 2012
  2. 2. Contents <ul><li>Model Overview </li></ul><ul><li>Concept of the Model </li></ul><ul><li>Parameter Settings of Saturable Core </li></ul><ul><li>Saturable core SUBCKT using LTspiceIV <<-- Netlist is not open(If you buy this model , you can show netlist) </li></ul><ul><li>Saturable Core Parameter Setting (Example) </li></ul><ul><li>5.1 Curve fitting: RLOSS </li></ul><ul><li>5.2 Curve fitting: LM </li></ul><ul><li>5.3 Curve fitting: BEXP </li></ul><ul><li>6. Dynamic Magnetizing Curves Characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>7. Basic Ideal Transformers and Their Parameters </li></ul><ul><li>7.1 Parameter settings of 1:1 ideal transformer </li></ul><ul><li>7.2 Parameter settings of 2:1 ideal transformer </li></ul><ul><li>7.3 Parameter settings of 1:2 ideal transformer </li></ul><ul><li>8. Saturable transformer SUBCKT Using LTspiceIV <<-- Netlist is not open(If you buy this model , you can show netlist) </li></ul><ul><li>9. 1:1 Saturable transformer model (Example) </li></ul><ul><li>10. 1:1 Saturable transformer model (Example) (Phase reverse) </li></ul><ul><li>11. 2:1 Saturable transformer model (Example) </li></ul><ul><li>12. 1:2 Saturable transformer model (Example) </li></ul><ul><li>13. 1:2 Saturable transformer model (Example) (Center tap) </li></ul><ul><li>14. Application Circuit Example: Flyback converter </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Library Files and Symbol Files Location </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Library Files Index </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Simulation Index </li></ul></ul>All Rights Reserved Copyright (C) Bee Technologies Corporation 2012
  3. 3. <ul><li>This Saturable Transformer Simplified SPICE Behavioral Model is for users who require the model of the core loss and hysteresis as a part of their system. </li></ul><ul><li>The model focuses on the hysteresis loop behavior in their operation area, which user can shape the B-H curve. </li></ul>1) Model Overview All Rights Reserved Copyright (C) Bee Technologies Corporation 2012 Saturation Flux Density B S H (A-turns/m) B (Teslas) Coercive Field H C Remanent Flux Density B r Saturation Field H S Figure 1 , Hysteresis Loop and Magnetic Properties.
  4. 4. 2) Concept of the Model <ul><li>The Saturable core is characterized by parameters: BSAT, RLOSS, LM and BEXP, which represent the Flux density vs. Magnetic field characteristics of the Saturable core. </li></ul><ul><li>The Ideal transformer is characterized by parameters: N, R P , R S and L P . </li></ul><ul><li>Saturable Core Simplified SPICE Behavioral Model </li></ul><ul><li>[Model parameters: BSAT, RLOSS, LM and BEXP] </li></ul>Ideal Transformer Simplified SPICE Behavioral Model [Model parameters: N, R P , R S and L P ] All Rights Reserved Copyright (C) Bee Technologies Corporation 2012
  5. 5. 3) Parameter Settings of Saturable Core <ul><ul><li>BSAT  The saturation flux density (in teslas). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. 100mT, 350mT, 500mT </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Value = <BSAT> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RLOSS  The resistor RLOSS represents a loss when a voltage is applied. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. 0.5 Ω , 1 Ω , 100K Ω </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Value = <RLOSS> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LM  Magnetizing inductance of the core inductor (in henry). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. 1uH, 5uH, 50uH </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Value = <LM> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>BEXP  The exponent in the expression for coupling factor K C . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. 2, 4, 8 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Value = <BEXP> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>From the Saturable Core specification, the model is characterized by setting parameter BSAT, then adjust the parameters RLOSS, LM and BEXP to shape the dynamic magnetic curve. </li></ul>All Rights Reserved Copyright (C) Bee Technologies Corporation 2012 Model Parameters: B-H Curve test points Figure 2 , Saturable core model (Default parameters).
  6. 6. 4) Saturable core SUBCKT using LTspiceIV All Rights Reserved Copyright (C) Bee Technologies Corporation 2012 Figure 3 , Saturable core subcircuit SPICE compatible, the key parameters are shown in bold. Information of Netlist
  7. 7. 5) Saturable Core Parameter Setting (Example) <ul><li>Material: NC-2H </li></ul><ul><li>Manganese Zinc Ferrite Cores with </li></ul><ul><li>B S = 500(mT) </li></ul><ul><li>B r = 140(mT) </li></ul><ul><li>H C = 15.9(A/m) </li></ul><ul><li>Conditions: </li></ul><ul><li>F = 10(KHz) </li></ul><ul><li>T C = 23(  C) </li></ul>All Rights Reserved Copyright (C) Bee Technologies Corporation 2012 Figure 4 , Dynamic Magnetization Curves. Specification   The data is provided in the datasheet Input the parameter BSAT=500m
  8. 8. 5.1) Curve fitting: RLOSS <ul><li>Condition: F=10KHz, Vin=80V P </li></ul><ul><li>Parametric sweep: RLOSS=0.5 Ω , 1 Ω , 100K Ω </li></ul>All Rights Reserved Copyright (C) Bee Technologies Corporation 2012 0.5 Ω --- 1 Ω --- 100K Ω --- Figure 5 , The magnetizing line difference, RLOSS. H (A-turns/m) B (Teslas)
  9. 9. 5.2) Curve fitting: LM <ul><li>Condition: F=10KHz, Vin=80V P </li></ul><ul><li>Parametric sweep: LM=1uH, 5uH, 50uH </li></ul>All Rights Reserved Copyright (C) Bee Technologies Corporation 2012 1uH --- 5uH --- 50uH --- Figure 6 , The magnetizing line difference, LM . H (A-turns/m) B (Teslas)
  10. 10. 5.3) Curve fitting: BEXP <ul><li>Condition: F=10KHz, Vin=80V P </li></ul><ul><li>Parametric sweep: BEXP=2, 4, 8 </li></ul>All Rights Reserved Copyright (C) Bee Technologies Corporation 2012 2 --- 4 --- 8 --- Figure 7 , The magnetizing line difference, BEXP. H (A-turns/m) B (Teslas)
  11. 11. 6) Dynamic Magnetizing Curves Characteristics - Evaluation Circuit and Setting <ul><li>Sine wave excitation </li></ul><ul><li>Square wave excitation </li></ul><ul><li>Condition: F=10KHz, Vin=80V P , T C =23°C </li></ul><ul><li>.tran 0 200u 100u 10n </li></ul><ul><li>.lib score.sub </li></ul>All Rights Reserved Copyright (C) Bee Technologies Corporation 2012
  12. 12. 6) Dynamic Magnetizing Curves Characteristics - Simulation Result <ul><li>The saturable core model is completed with both sine and square wave (above) excitation as shown in these LTspiceIV simulations. </li></ul>All Rights Reserved Copyright (C) Bee Technologies Corporation 2012 Figure 8 , Sine wave excitation Figure 9 , Square wave excitation
  13. 13. 7) Basic Ideal Transformers and Their Parameters <ul><li>The relationship between the Voltage and current are defined as equations below. </li></ul><ul><li>V P is the primary voltage. </li></ul><ul><li>V S is the secondary voltage. </li></ul><ul><li>I P is the primary current. </li></ul><ul><li>I S is the secondary current. </li></ul><ul><li>N P is the turns number of primary winding. </li></ul><ul><li>N S is the turns number of secondary winding. </li></ul>All Rights Reserved Copyright (C) Bee Technologies Corporation 2012 Figure 10 , Symbol of basic ideal transformer with The voltage to current relationships. N P N S I P I S V P V S 1 : N + - + - (7.2) (7.3) (7.1) N is the turns ratio of Ideal transformer (above).
  14. 14. 7.1) Parameter settings of 1:1 ideal transformer <ul><ul><li>LP  Inductance of primary winding (in henry). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. 100uH, 250uH, 500uH </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Value = <LP> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>N  is the turns ratio of Ideal transformer. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. 0.1, 0.5, 1 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Value = <N> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RP  A series resistance of primary winding (in ohm). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. 1m Ω , 10m Ω , 100m Ω </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Value = <RP> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RS  A series resistance of secondary winding (in ohm). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. 1m Ω , 10m Ω , 100m Ω </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Value = <RS> </li></ul></ul>All Rights Reserved Copyright (C) Bee Technologies Corporation 2012 Model Parameters: Figure 11 , 1:1 Ideal transformer (Default parameters). Figure 12 , 1:1 Phase reverse ideal transformer (Default parameters).
  15. 15. 7.2) Parameter settings of 2:1 ideal transformer <ul><ul><li>LP  Inductance of primary winding (in henry). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. 100uH, 250uH, 500uH </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Value = <LP> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>N  is the turns ratio of Ideal transformer. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. 0.1, 0.5, 1 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Value = <N> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RP1  A series resistance of primary winding 1 (in ohm). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. 1m Ω , 10m Ω , 100m Ω </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Value = <RP1> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RP2  A series resistance of primary winding 2 (in ohm). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. 1m Ω , 10m Ω , 100m Ω </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Value = <RP2> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RS  A series resistance of secondary winding (in ohm). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. 1m Ω , 10m Ω , 100m Ω </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Value = <RS> </li></ul></ul>All Rights Reserved Copyright (C) Bee Technologies Corporation 2012 Model Parameters: Figure 13 , 2:1 Ideal transformer (Default parameters).
  16. 16. 7.3) Parameter settings of 1:2 ideal transformer <ul><ul><li>LP  Inductance of primary winding (in henry). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. 100uH, 250uH, 500uH </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Value = <LP> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>N  is the turns ratio of Ideal transformer. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. 0.1, 0.5, 1 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Value = <N> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RP  A series resistance of primary winding (in ohm). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. 1m Ω , 10m Ω , 100m Ω </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Value = <RP> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RS1  A series resistance of secondary winding 1 (in ohm). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. 1m Ω , 10m Ω , 100m Ω </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Value = <RS1> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RS2  A series resistance of secondary winding 2 (in ohm). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. 1m Ω , 10m Ω , 100m Ω </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Value = <RS2> </li></ul></ul>All Rights Reserved Copyright (C) Bee Technologies Corporation 2012 Model Parameters: Figure 14 , 1:2 Ideal transformer (Default parameters). Figure 15 , 1:2 Center tap ideal transformer (Default parameters).
  17. 17. 8) Saturable transformer SUBCKT Using LTspiceIV All Rights Reserved Copyright (C) Bee Technologies Corporation 2012 Figure 17 , Saturable transformer equivalent circuit. Figure 16 , Saturable transformer symbol, the key parameters are shown in bold. Information of Netlist
  18. 18. <ul><li>Condition: F=10KHz, V IN =50V P , V OUT =5V P , R OUT =10 Ω </li></ul><ul><li>.tran 0 2500u 0 50n </li></ul><ul><li>.lib tfmr1.sub </li></ul>9) 1:1 Saturable transformer model (Example) - Simulation Circuit and Setting All Rights Reserved Copyright (C) Bee Technologies Corporation 2012 Saturable transformer model Primary current Output Voltage 1 : {N} Secondary current
  19. 19. 9) 1:1 Saturable transformer model (Example) - Simulation Result All Rights Reserved Copyright (C) Bee Technologies Corporation 2012 Input voltage Output voltage Input Current Output Current Figure 18 , The Input–Output Characteristics of 1:1 Saturable transformer.
  20. 20. <ul><li>Condition: F=10KHz, V IN =50V P , V OUT =5V P , R OUT =10 Ω </li></ul><ul><li>.tran 0 2500u 0 50n </li></ul><ul><li>.lib tfmr1_rev.sub </li></ul>10) 1:1 Saturable transformer model (Example) - Simulation Circuit and Setting (Phase reverse) All Rights Reserved Copyright (C) Bee Technologies Corporation 2012 1 : {N}
  21. 21. 10) 1:1 Saturable transformer model (Example) - Simulation Result (Phase reverse) All Rights Reserved Copyright (C) Bee Technologies Corporation 2012 Figure 19 , The Input–Output Characteristics of 1:1 Saturable transformer (Phase reverse). Input voltage Output voltage Input Current Output Current
  22. 22. <ul><li>Condition: F=10KHz, V IN =25V P , V OUT =5V P , R OUT =10 Ω </li></ul><ul><li>.tran 0 2500u 0 50n </li></ul><ul><li>.lib tfmr2prim.sub </li></ul>11) 2:1 Saturable transformer model (Example) - Simulation Circuit and Setting All Rights Reserved Copyright (C) Bee Technologies Corporation 2012 1 : {N}
  23. 23. 11) 2:1 Saturable transformer model (Example) - Simulation Result All Rights Reserved Copyright (C) Bee Technologies Corporation 2012 Figure 20 , The Input–Output Characteristics of 2:1 Saturable transformer. Input voltage 1 Input Current 1 Output voltage Output Current Input voltage 2 Input Current 2
  24. 24. <ul><li>Condition: F=10KHz, V IN =50V P , V OUT1 =V OUT2 =5V P , R OUT =10 Ω </li></ul><ul><li>.tran 0 2500u 0 50n </li></ul><ul><li>.lib tfmr2.sub </li></ul>12) 1:2 Saturable transformer model (Example) - Simulation Circuit and Setting All Rights Reserved Copyright (C) Bee Technologies Corporation 2012 1 : {N}
  25. 25. 12) 1:2 Saturable transformer model (Example) - Simulation Result All Rights Reserved Copyright (C) Bee Technologies Corporation 2012 Input voltage Output voltage 1 Input Current Output Current 1 Figure 21 , The Input–Output Characteristics of 1:2 Saturable transformer. Output voltage 2 Output Current 2
  26. 26. <ul><li>Condition: F=10KHz, V IN =50V P , V OUT1 =V OUT2 =5V P , R OUT =10 Ω </li></ul><ul><li>.tran 0 2500u 0 50n </li></ul><ul><li>.lib tfmr2_ct.sub </li></ul>13) 1:2 Saturable transformer model (Example) - Simulation Circuit and Setting (Center tap) All Rights Reserved Copyright (C) Bee Technologies Corporation 2012 1 : {N}
  27. 27. 13) 1:2 Saturable transformer model (Example) - Simulation Result (Center tap) All Rights Reserved Copyright (C) Bee Technologies Corporation 2012 Figure 22 , The Input–Output Characteristics of 1:2 Saturable transformer (Center tap). Input voltage Output voltage 1 Input Current Output Current 1 Output voltage 2 Output Current 2
  28. 28. <ul><li>Condition: F=40KHz, V IN =24V, V OUT =5V, R L =5 Ω , C L =200uF, L P =500uH </li></ul><ul><li>.tran 0 10m 0 100n startup </li></ul><ul><li>.lib tfmr1_rev.sub </li></ul>14) Application Circuit Example: Flyback converter - Simulation Circuit and Setting All Rights Reserved Copyright (C) Bee Technologies Corporation 2012 1 : {N}
  29. 29. 14) Application Circuit Example: Flyback converter - Simulation Result All Rights Reserved Copyright (C) Bee Technologies Corporation 2012 Secondary voltage of transformer Output voltage= 5Vdc Figure 23 , Flyback converter with Saturable transformer model. Output ripple voltage Secondary current of transformer V RIPPLE Input voltage= 24Vdc
  30. 30. Library Files and Symbol Files Location All Rights Reserved Copyright (C) Bee Technologies Corporation 2012 … Simulations C:Program FilesLTCLTspiceIVlibsub C:Program FilesLTCLTspiceIVlibsym Copy/Paste into Copy/Paste into <ul><li>Copy the library files (.lib) from the folder …Simulations .lib, then paste into the folder C:Program FilesLTCLTspiceIVlibsub </li></ul><ul><li>Copy the symbol files(.asy) from the folder …Simulations .asy, then paste into the folder C:Program FilesLTCLTspiceIVlibsym </li></ul>
  31. 31. Library Files Index All Rights Reserved Copyright (C) Bee Technologies Corporation 2012 Model Library Symbol <ul><li>Saturable Core……....................................................... </li></ul><ul><li>1:1 Saturable transformer model………………….......... </li></ul><ul><li>1:1 Saturable transformer model (Phase reverse)……. </li></ul><ul><li>2:1 Saturable transformer model..…………….………… </li></ul><ul><li>1:2 Saturable transformer model..…….………………… </li></ul><ul><li>1:2 Saturable transformer model (Center tap)……....... </li></ul>score.sub tfmr1.sub tfmr1_rev.sub tfmr2prim.sub tfmr2.sub tfmr2_ct.sub SCORE.asy TFMR1.asy TFMR1_REV.asy TFMR2PRIM.asyTFMR2.asy TFMR2_CT.asy
  32. 32. Simulation Index All Rights Reserved Copyright (C) Bee Technologies Corporation 2012 Simulations Folder name <ul><li>Curve fitting: RLOSS…………………………………………........ </li></ul><ul><li>Curve fitting: LM………………………………………………........ </li></ul><ul><li>Curve fitting: BEXP………………………………………………… </li></ul><ul><li>Dynamic Magnetizing Curves Characteristics…….................... </li></ul><ul><li>1:1 Saturable transformer model (Example)…………………….. </li></ul><ul><li>1:1 Saturable transformer model (Example) (Phase reverse)… </li></ul><ul><li>2:1 Saturable transformer model (Example)..…………….…….. </li></ul><ul><li>1:2 Saturable transformer model (Example)..…….…………….. </li></ul><ul><li>1:2 Saturable transformer model (Example) (Center tap)……... </li></ul><ul><li>Application Circuit Example: Flyback converter……………….... </li></ul>Curve fitting Curve fitting Curve fitting Sat_Core Sat_Trans1 Sat_Trans2 Sat_Trans3 Sat_Trans4 Sat_Trans5 Appl

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