Morphology por Diego Duma


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Morphology por Diego Duma

  1. 1. It is the branch of linguistics that studies the internal structure of words.Morphology means the study of morphemes and their combination in words.Morphology involves a research for minimal units, and build up new vocabulary obtaining proficiency and competence as components of the English language. An appropriate pool of words, to learn how to form new ones, to understand their structure is necessary as well as the meaning and the ability to use them correctly in grammatical structures.
  2. 2. Jumpedjump - edbase past tenseBy its MEANING
  3. 3. Jumpedjump - edBy its SPELLING Jumped/dƷʌmp/ /t/By its PHONETIC realization
  4. 4.  A morpheme is a short segment of the language with meaning.  A morpheme is a meaningful unit of meaning.  A morpheme meets three criteria:1. It is a word, or a part of a word that has meaning.2. It cannot divided into smaller meaningful parts without violation of its meaning or without meaningless remainders.3. It appears in different environments with a relatively same meaning.
  5. 5.  It is a word. We can find in the dictionary and it has a denotative meaning. It is an instrument for writing with ink. We can not divide it into smaller meaningful parts. Ex. /pe/ /n/ or /p/ /en/. In this word /en/ does not have meaning, in others can recur as part of a word with meaning. It is not possible to violate its meaning. It recurs in other environments with a stable meaning. Examples: pencil – penmanship – pen name
  6. 6. Boy1. It is a word. We can find in the dictionary and it has a denotative meaning. a male child or young man.2. We can not divide into smaller meaningful parts:Ex. /b/ /oy/3. It recurs in other environments with a stable meaning.Examples: boyish, boyhood, boys
  7. 7. 1. It is a word. We can find in a dictionary To become brighten or happier; to make something brighter (=make it happier)2. We can not divide into smaller meaningful parts.You can divide in meaningless/brigh/ /t/ /e/ /n/3. It recurs in other environments with a stable meaningBright, brighten, brighly, brightfulHarden, shorten, widen
  8. 8. 1. Antedate → before2. Replay → again or back3. Manly → like, having the characteristics of4. Cheapest → most5. Keeper → more6. Unable → opposite7. Rainy → a condition, state, or quality8. Inactive → in, into, toward, within9. Superman → over, above, on10. Plays → plural
  9. 9. Morphemes are of two kinds: free and bound.A free morpheme: A free morphemes is one that can be expressed alone with meaning.It often carries lexical meaning. (The kind of meaning given in a dictionary). It also has the major meaning in the word. Ex. build+erBound morphemes: It is one that cannot be expressed alone with meaning; it cannot appear alone and must attached to another morpheme. Its role is to change the meaning of the original word.
  10. 10. Build = free morpheme rebuild builderBound m. Free m. Free m. Bound m.
  11. 11. Another classification of morphemes is in bases and affixes.A base is the part of word that has the principal meaning. Most of the bases in English are free morphemes, but some are bound morphemes. A free form to witch other morphemes may be attached is called a base or root.
  12. 12. Is the part of the word that has the principalmeaning.Most of the bases in English are free morphemes,but some are bound morphemes.A free form to which other morphemes may beattached is called a base or root
  13. 13. - LovableIn spelling lov=bound morpheme(boundmorpheme. In phonetic transcription: /lavebl/:/la/= base - /free morpheme) /ebl/ = affixe
  14. 14. An affix is bound morpheme that occurs, withi orafter a base.There are three kinds of affixes:1. Prefixes2. Suffixes3. Infixes
  15. 15.  These morphemes occur before the base. Example: Import prefix base
  16. 16. They are bound morphemes whitch are insertedwithin a word.However, infixes are considered replacements.They occur in a few noun plurals, like the –ee- ingeese, replacing the –oo- of goose, in the pasttense and past participles of verb, like the –o- ofchose replacing the –oo- of choose, therefore, theyare called «replacive allomorphs».
  17. 17.  Foot - feet /fut/ /fit/ /u/ /iy/ Mouse - mice /maus/ /mays/ /au/ /ay/
  18. 18. They are bound morphemes that occur after thebase. The limit is three or four and they have aspecial order. First the derivational and after theinflectional
  19. 19.  Teachers = teach = base – er = suffix- s = suffix Moralizars = mor=base – al= suffix – ize= suffix-er = suffix – s= suffix