A Brief Introduction of Morphology

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A Brief Introduction of Morphology

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A Brief Introduction of Morphology

  1. 1. University of the Punjab , Department of English Language & Literature.Lahore, Pakistan
  2. 2. Morph = form or shapeOlogy = study of• The study of internal structures of words• How words are constructed out of smaller units(morphemes)– Which have a meanings or grammatical functione.g.– friendly ----- constructed from friend & adjectiveforming -ly• How words can be modified
  3. 3. MorphologyStructure ofwordsWordFormationMorpheme
  4. 4. MorphemeSound UnitMeaningUnitSmallest unitof language
  5. 5. Basic Concept Of Word Structure• The number, order of and type of morphemes– used to make up a particular word is called itsstructure• Morphologists study– the meanings of the various morphemes– their patterns of distribution { the structures}• Morphemes do not combine in arbitrary ways– They have specific patterns to the distribution ofmorphemes– e.g. rewrite = write-re, walks = s-walk• The structure of words can be represented by trees
  6. 6. Classification Of MorphemesFree Morphemes/ rootsif morpheme is able to appear as a word byitselfBound Morphemes/ affixesif morpheme can only appear as part of alarger, multi-morphemic
  7. 7. Basic Concepts and TermsStem (root, base): the morpheme towhich other morphemes areaddedfree (e.g. teacher, dresses, unkind)Stembound (e.g. inept, unkempt)
  8. 8. Stem & AffixStem : carries the basic meaningAffixes /attachments carry additional, often grammaticalmeaningsKINDS OF AFFIXESSuffixes: are attached to the end of the stem;Prefixes: are attached to the front of the stem;Infixes: are put in the middle of the word;Ablaut: is a change in a vowel that carries extra meaning;• Suffixes are the most common e.g.– the past tense : matter of adding -ed to the stem;– the present participle is made by adding -ing;– the plural of a noun is made by adding -s.
  9. 9. AffixPrefix e.g. UnhappyInfix e.g. Mother- in- lawSuffix e.g. HappinessAblaut e.g. Sing Sang
  10. 10. Allomorphs• When a morpheme is pronounced by more than one soundpattern, we call the variations allomorphs e.g.• English plural morpheme –s is pronounced in three ways:– dogs (dog[z]) cats (cat[s]) judges (judg[ɪz])-s [z] -s [s] -s [ɪz] an allomorph of the pluralmorpheme• To describe this situation, we can say:– English has one plural morpheme, -s.– English has three allomorphs of the plural morpheme• Another example: English indefinite article– English has two allomorphs of an indefinite article:– a dog an apple
  11. 11. Types ofMorphemeFreemorphemelexical functionalBoundmorphemederivational inflectional
  12. 12. FreeMorphemelexical(openclass)has lexicalmeaningN, Verb, Adj,Advfunctional(closedclass)functionwordsPro, Prep,Conj, Art.
  13. 13. Bound MorphemeDerivational Inflectionalform new words Different formsof the same wordmay change syntactic class Not change syntacticclass-able, un-, re-, etc ’s, -s, -ing, -ed/-en, -est,er
  14. 14. Word Structure• Words are the fundamental building blocks oflanguage• Intuitively, learning a language learningwords• Words may be the basis for the organization oflanguage in the brain:• sound system words syntaxmeaning
  15. 15. Word Structure• Each word has internal structure– A word is not just a sequence of morphemes• Morphemes are added in a strict order - reflecting a hierarchywithin the word e.g. “unsystematic”The first step– attaches a derivational sufix “atic”– to the (free) root noun– This forms an adjectiveThe second step– takes this adjective,attache a derivational prefix “un”– create a new word, with the same category word“unsystematic”
  16. 16. Tree structureAdjectiveUn Adjective(Derivational)NounSystem -atic(Free root) (derivational)
  17. 17. Some Rules• Noun + atic Adjective (Systematic)• Un + Adjective Adjective (Unhappy)• Adjective + al Adjective(Egotistical, Fantastical)• Noun + al Adjective(Autumnal, National)• Adjective + ly Adverb(Happily, Hopefully)• Using these rules, work out the tree structure for“unsystematically”
  18. 18. Unsystematically (Adverb)unsystematically (adverb)unsystematic (adj) -lyunsystematic (adj) -alun- + systematic (adj)system (noun) + -atic
  19. 19. The Tree Represents• The application of two morphological rules1.Noun+ atic→Adjective systematic2.Un+Adjective→Adjective unsystematic– The rule for -al is as follows3.Adjective+al→Adjective– Another affix is -ly, which is added to adjective toform adverb4. Adjective+ly→ Adverb
  20. 20. More Rules• Verb + able Adjective– (Adorable, Desirable)• Adjective + en Verb– (Darken)• Noun Adjective = ish/esque/ous/ate/ful/ic/like– boyish, picturesque, joyous, affectionate, healthful, alcoholic, lifelike• Verb Noun = al/ance/ation/ence/er/ist/ion/dom– clearance, conference, singer, prediction, freedom• Adjective Adverb = ly (exactly, quietly)• Noun Verb = ize/ate/ish/n– moralize, vaccinate, brandish, hasten
  21. 21. More Rules• Not all derivational morphemes cause a change in grammaticalClass– friend+ship, human+ity, un+do, re+cover, in+flammable• This is often the case with prefixes:– a+moral, auto+biography, ex+wife, super+human, re+print, semi+annual• suffixes:– vicar+age, old+ish, America+n, music+ian• Best to be familiar with a few examples of• Noun Adjective, AdjectiveAdverb, Verb Adjective, AdjectiveVerb,Verb Noun
  22. 22. Types of Word Formation1. Compounding2. Prefixation3. Suffixation4. Conversion5. Clipping6. Blends7. Backformation8. Acronyms9. Onomatopoeia10. Eponyms11. Toponyms12. Reduplication13. Coining
  23. 23. 1. Compounding• Two or more words joined together to form anew word.• Examples:–Pick + pocket  pickpocket–Home + work  homework• The meaning of a compound is not always thesum of the meanings of its parts
  24. 24. Types of compounds–Compound nouns–Compound verbs–Compound adjectives
  25. 25. Compound Nouns1. Boyfriend, hatchback2. Cut-throat, breakfast3. Sunshine, birth control4. Software, fast food5. In-crowd, overkill6. Drop-out, put-on1. Noun + Noun2. Verb + Noun3. Noun + Verb4. Adjective + Noun5. Particle + Noun6. Verb + Particle
  26. 26. Compound Verbs1. Carbon-copy, sky-dive2. Fine-tune3. Overbook4. Bad-mouth1. Noun + Verb2. Adjective + Verb3. Particle + Verb4. Adjective + Noun
  27. 27. Compound Adjectives1. Capital-intensive2. Deaf-mute3. Coffee-table4. Roll-neck5. White-collar6. Before-tax7. Go-go1. Noun + Adjective2. Adjective + Adjective3. Noun + Noun4. Verb + Noun5. Adjective + Noun6. Particle + Noun7. Verb-verb
  28. 28. 2. Prefixation• Class-changing prefixes:– a-  asleep  V to Adj– be-  bewitch  N to V– en-  enslave  N to V• Class-maintaining prefixes:– in-  indefinite  Adj to Adj– fore-  foreman  N to N– Etc.
  29. 29. 3. Suffixation• Suffixes forming Nouns–N from N: -dom  kingdom–N from V: -ee  employee–N from Adj: -ce  dependence
  30. 30. Forming Verbs• Suffixes forming Verbs–V from N: -ify  beautify–V from Adj: -en  shorten
  31. 31. Forming adjective, adverbs• Suffixes forming adjectives–Adj from N: -al  educational–Adj from V: -able  understandable–Adj from Adj: -ish  greenish• Suffixes forming Adverbs: -ly, -ward, and –wise
  32. 32. 4. Conversion• Assigning an already existing word to a newsyntactic category• Types of Conversion– Verb to Noun: to hit  a hit– Adj to N: a final game  a final– N to V: a sign  to sign– Adj to V: an empty box  to empty
  33. 33. 5. Clipping• part of a free morpheme is cut off(i.e., shortening a polysyllabic word); oftenin casual speechprof. autolab adbikedoc sub
  34. 34. 6. Blends• similar to compounding• but parts of the free morphemes involved are lost• (usually 1st part of 1st word + end of 2nd word)brunch (breakfast+ lunch)smog (smoke+ fog)motel (motor+ hotel)newscast (news + broadcast)perma-press (permanent press)
  35. 35. 7. Back-formations• A word (usually a noun) is reduced to formanother word of a different type (usually averb)editor editdonation donateburglar burglezipper ziptelevision televisebabysitter babysit
  36. 36. 8. Acronyms (1)• abbreviate a longer term by taking the initiallettersA. follow the pronunciation patterns of EngNATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization)TOEFL (Test of Eng. as a Foreign Language)AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome)NASA (National Aeronautics & Space Administration)
  37. 37. Acronyms (2)B. If unpronounceable  each letter is sounded outseparatelyATM (automatic teller machine)I.Q. (intelligence quotient)MRT (Mass Rapid Transit)MTV (music television)TVBS (television broadcasting service)VCR (video cassette recorder)
  38. 38. Acronyms (3)C. Customary to sound out each letter even ifthe combined initials can be pronounced.AIT (American Institute in Taiwan)UCLA (Univ. of California at Los Angeles)
  39. 39. 9. Onomatopoeia• words imitate sounds in nature (or in technology)A dog: bow wow or woof-woofA clock: tick-tockA rooster: cock-a-doodle-dooA camera: clickA duck: quackA cat: meowRing of a bell: ding-dongA cow: mooA bee: buzzA snake: hiss
  40. 40. 10. Eponyms• A person after whom adiscovery, invention, place, etc., is named• Examples:–Celcius (Anders Celcius)–Cook Islands (James Cook)
  41. 41. 11. Toponymsa place name, especially one derived from atopographical feature• Examples:– Montana (‘mountains’ in Spanish)– Mississippi (‘big river’ in Chippewa)
  42. 42. 12. Reduplicationfull or partial repetition of a free morpheme; sometimeswith variationfull with variationso-so zigzagbye-bye dilly-dallyhotch potchmishmash
  43. 43. 13. Coining• Creating a completely new freemorpheme, which is unrelated to any existingmorphemes; a rare thinge.g. googolpoochNylon
  44. 44. Morphemeslexicalfree (open classes)Morphemes functional(closed classes)bound derivational(affixes) inflectional
  45. 45. Summary of Morphology• Words consist of meaningful units called morphemes• These, when afixed to a root, can change the meaning orcategory of a word• Two basic forms of word formation– derivation (using derivational morphemes)– inflection• Key to remember is that morphemes are the smallestmeaningful Units• Words have internal structure in a similar way to sentences

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