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  1. 1. Naseem Akhtar
  2. 2. Knowledge of Words To know a word means to know aspects of a word: sound, meaning, spelling, grammatical properties, collocations, connotations, context, etymology, etc. But what is crucial is to segment from a string of sounds a basic unit of meaning, like Isleptfortenhoursyesterday.☞ To know a word thus means the ability to map a string of sounds with a particular meaning and specific grammatical properties. 2
  3. 3. Two forms of WordsSimple forms: Words that areunable to be analyzed further intosmaller, meaningful segments. e.g. an, the, that, boy, happy, take, dog, but, etc.Complex forms: Words that havemore than one morpheme. e.g.Unhappy, replacement, readability, etc. 3
  4. 4. Open-Class Wordslexical categoriesMajor parts of speech > content words,e.g. nouns, adjectives, verbs, andadverbsThey are changeable from one part ofspeech to anotherThe open classes are open toaffixations 4
  5. 5. Closed-Class WordsThey belong to grammatical orfunctional classes > function wordsThey are not derivable.They are closed to affixations. e.g.auxiliaries, conjunctions, pronouns,determiners, prepositions, andinterjections. 5
  6. 6. What is Morphology?The study of the internal structure andform of words in language.Morphology is the study of systematicformation of meaningful words.Morphology is the study of thecombination of morphemes to yieldwords.The study of words and the rules forword formation in (a) language. 6
  7. 7. Morph-ology Inflection Word formation Derivation Compounding Affixation Other 1or2 free roots redup. conversionprefix suffix infix +/- class-changing 7
  8. 8. Morpheme Morph+emeSmallest unit of language that carriesinformation about meaning or function.e.g. build; build-er; house; houses.The smallest meaningful constituent ofwords that can be identified. e.g.break-ing hope-less re-write, ear-plug-s, 8
  9. 9. Morpheme A meaningful linguistic unit, minimal, unable to be further divided or broken into smaller meaningful parts. e.g.readable = read+able > 2 morphemesunplayful = un+play+ful > 3 morphemes The smallest part of a word with independent meaning. 9
  10. 10. MorphemeProductivityone morpheme: tastetwo morphemes: taste+fulthree morphemes: dis+taste+fulfour morphemes: dis+taste+ful+ly 10
  11. 11. Types of Morphemes 11
  12. 12. Types of MorphemesA) Free morphemes: Morphemes that can occur as an independent words. e.g. careless, lesser, lesson probable,They are of two types:1. Lexical Morpheme: Content words or Open class words.2. Function Morpheme: Function words or closed class words. 12
  13. 13. Types of MorphemesB) Bound morphemes: Morphemes that cannot stand alone. They are dependent and must be attached to other morphemes. They can be further classified according to:1). where they attach, Prefixation: occur at the beginning of a word Un-, pre-, dis- in+ability dis+ability un+able Suffixation: occur at the end of a word -ly, -er, -s, -es judg+ment brief+ly clock+wise Infix: occurs in the middle of a word Circumfix: occurs both initially and finally, Special – especially 13
  14. 14. Types of Morphemes☞ Prefixes change the semantic content But Suffixes change the grammatical category of the word.2). what function they perform, Derivational (change the part of speech and attach to a root) Inflectional (modify the grammatical form and attach to a stem) 14
  15. 15. Root and StemRoot, Stem, or base: The free morpheme to which an affix is attached. Stem (Base): A stem or base is the root or roots of a word, together with any of derivational affixes, to which inflectional affixes are added. tie and untie both are stem Inflectional –s may be added to the stem to form ties and unties 15
  16. 16. Root and StemRoot: Non-affix lexical content morpheme that can not be analyzed into smaller parts Common to set of derived or inflected forms, when all affixes are removed Cannot be analyzed into smaller parts. e.g. system, clean, boy, Chomsky Carries the principle portion of meaning. e.g. Disestablish , Establishment, Establishments 16
  17. 17. Branches of Morphology Morphology Inflectional Derivational 17
  18. 18. Inflectional MorphologyInflectional morphology is the combination ofa word stem with a grammatical morpheme,usually resulting in a word in the same class. Adds: Tense, number, person, mood, aspect Word class doesn’t change Word serves new grammatical role Five verb forms in English Other languages have (lots more)Concerns with the changes in the form andmeaning of words.It does change the form and meaning butdoes not change the word class. 18
  19. 19. Derivational MorphologyDerivational morphology is the combination of aword stem with a grammatical morpheme, usuallyresulting in a word of different class. Nominalization: computerization, appointee, killer, fuzziness Formation of adjectives: computational, clueless, embraceableConcerns with the derivation of new words fromolder ones and essentially changes the word class.Deals with the relationship between morphologicallysimple forms -- roots -- and more complex formswhich are distinct lexemes. 19
  20. 20. English word-formation1.Affixation 7. Blending.2.Conversion 8. Inventions3.Compounding 9. Borrowing4.Reduplication 10. Onomatopoeia/5.Clipping Echoism6.Acronyms 11. Backformation 12. Eponymy 20
  21. 21. English word-formation1) Affixationa: Use of PrefixesNegative: im+possible impossibleNumber: bi+lingual bilingualTime /order: re+examine re-examineLocation: inter+class interclassDegree/size: mini+bus minibusAttitude: anti+social antisocialClass Changing en+able enable 21
  22. 22. English word-formationb: Use of Suffixes a) Class maintaining boy-hood boyhood b) Class changingNoun to Adjective: india-ian indianAdjective to Noun: brave-ry braveryNoun to Verb: length-en lengthenVerb to Noun: drive-er driverVerb to Adverb: sleep-ily sleepilyAdjective to Adverb: nice-ly nicely 22
  23. 23. English word-formation2) Conversion:a) Change of function (without Affixes) Noun: Switch on the light. Verb: Light the lamp.b) Change of accent Noun: present Verb: presentc) Final voiced consonant Noun: Advice / house /s/ verb: Advise / house /z/ 23
  24. 24. English word-formation3) Compounding: Open : paper knife Hyphenated : paper-knife Solid : paperknifea) Noun+Noun: gold+fish goldfishb) Noun+Adjective: duty+free dutyfreec) Adjective+Noun: red+light redlightd) Compounds with Verbs/adverbials/verbal Nouns sight-seeing, easy-going, brain-washing 24
  25. 25. English word-formation4) Reduplication: Words formed by identical or slightly different elements. e.g. criss-cross, pooh-pooh, tip-top, see-saw5) Clipping: Words shortened by subtracting one or more syllables at the beginning or at the end. e.g. photograph photo influenza flu mathematics maths 25
  26. 26. English word-formation6) Acronyms: Words formed by joining together the initial letter(s) of each of the successive parts or major parts of compound terms and are pronounced as words. e.g.radar radio detecting and rangingLaser light amplification (by) stimulated emission of radiationRAM Random Access Memory 26
  27. 27. English word-formation7) Blending: Two words are clipped and the clippings are joined. e.g. brunch = breakfast + lunch nor = not + or smog = smoke + fog8) Inventions/ Coinage: New words have to be given to new inventions. They are arbitrary but, come to stay as apart of the language with time course. e.g. astronaut, x-ray, aspirin, nylon, modem. 27
  28. 28. English word-formation9) Borrowing: Two words are clipped and the clippings are joined. e.g. Samosa from Urdu Admiral from Arabic Dame from French10) Onomatopoeia/ Echoism: Words formed by mimic, imitative, or suggestive sounds. e.g. meow, bow-wow, bang, splash, crash. 28
  29. 29. English word-formation11) Backformation: A process where pseudosuffixes such as –or, -er, and –ar are dropped to arrive at new words. e.g. beggar > to beg pedlar > to peddle12) Eponymy / Proper Names: Names and brand names that are used to refer to as generic terms of other things that belong to the same kind. e.g. Kleenex, Walkman 29
  30. 30. ReferencesJindal, D.V. (2007) An Introduction toLinguistics (Prentice Hall of India) NewDehli.Radford, Andrew. (1999) Linguistics: AnIntroduction (Cambridge UniversityPress)Yule, George. (1985) The Study ofLanguage (2nd ed.). (CambridgeUniversity Press) 30
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