Morphology ppt for blackboard


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Morphology ppt for blackboard

  1. 1. morphology Dr. Comfort Pratt
  2. 2. Definition The branch of linguistics that studies the structure of words.
  3. 3. What is a word? The smallest unit of a language that can stand alone as a complete utterance, normally separated from other words by spaces in written language and potentially by pauses in speech. A word may consist of one or more morphemes.
  4. 4. When it consists of only one morpheme, it is known as a Ex: When it consists of two or more morphemes, it is known as a Ex:
  5. 5. What are morphemes? The smallest meaningful elements into which words can be analyzed. The way morphemes operate in language provides the subject matter of morphology.
  6. 6. Examples • Kindness
  7. 7. • unforgettable • Morphology
  8. 8. A morpheme can range from a single sound to many syllables. Ex:
  9. 9. Types of Morphemes Free Morpheme A morpheme which constitutes a word by itself. Ex: Bound Morpheme A morpheme which is not a word by itself but is always part of other words. Ex:
  10. 10. Types of Morphemes Examples of Bound Morphemes • rewrite • thankful • pinkish • unreal • wondrous • happily
  11. 11. Components of a Word Root The morpheme to which affixes are attached and which provides the main component of the meaning of the word.
  12. 12. • Lexical categories • Non-lexical categories
  13. 13. • Content words They denote concepts like objects, ideas, and actions. • Function words They have a grammatical function.
  14. 14. Ex: beautiful dangerous unwind happily
  15. 15. Affix A morpheme which is attached to a base and by so doing modifies the meaning or syntactic category of the base. Base The form to which an affix is added. Sometimes it coincides with the root. Other times it is the root and an affix. Ex: comfort--able un--comfortable
  16. 16. There are four types of affixes. • Prefix An affix which is attached to the beginning of the base. Ex:
  17. 17. • Infix An affix which is inserted into another morpheme.
  18. 18. • Suffix An affix that is attached to the end of a base. Ex:
  19. 19. • Circumfix It is a morpheme which is attached both at the beginning and at the end of a base.
  20. 20. MAIN FIELDS Two main fields are traditionally recognized within morphology: Inflectional Morphology Derivational Morphology
  21. 21. Inflectional morphology The field of linguistics which studies the way in which words vary (inflect) in order to express grammatical contrasts in sentences. Ex: past/present singular/plural
  22. 22. DERIVATIONAL MORPHOLOGY • The way in which words vary in order to form different classes of words. Ex: verb/noun adjective/adverb