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  1. 1. Analysis of the English Word and Sentence Structure
  2. 2. Objectives <ul><li>1. Recognize different types of morphemes and their functions </li></ul><ul><li>2. State the form, meaning and rule of combination for the morphemes </li></ul><ul><li>3. Analyze the internal structure of the English words in order to know their formations and meanings. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Specify each unit within words correctly. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Look at this Video. Warm Up
  4. 4. What are you thinking? Warm Up
  5. 5. Doubt is often the beginning of wisdom.
  6. 6. Morphology
  7. 7. Morphology <ul><li>Morph (form) + ology (science of) </li></ul><ul><li>-- > Morphology (the science of word forms) </li></ul><ul><li>The study of the internal structure of words, and </li></ul><ul><li>The rules by which words are formed </li></ul>
  8. 8. Morphemes <ul><li>Look at the following words </li></ul><ul><li>Likely unlikely developed undeveloped </li></ul><ul><li>un- is a prefix means No. </li></ul><ul><li>-ly in ‘likely’ is a adverbial suffix. </li></ul><ul><li>-ed in ‘developed’ is a suffix morpheme. </li></ul>
  9. 9. What is morpheme?
  10. 10. What is morpheme? <ul><li>Dictionary: </li></ul><ul><li>Morpheme </li></ul><ul><li>  (môr ' fēm') </li></ul><ul><li>n. </li></ul><ul><li>A meaningful linguistic unit consisting of a word, such as man, or a word element, such as -ed in walked, that cannot be divided into smaller meaningful parts. </li></ul><ul><li>morphemic mor·phem'ic adj. </li></ul><ul><li>morphemically mor·phem'i·cal·ly adv. </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  11. 11. What is morpheme? <ul><li>Definitions: </li></ul><ul><li>A morpheme is the minimal unit of meaning. </li></ul><ul><li>Example:       un+system+atic+al+ly </li></ul><ul><li>Note: morphemes ≠ words </li></ul>
  12. 12. Examples of Morphemes <ul><li>One morpheme         boy  (one syllable)                                  desire, lady, water  (two syllables)                                  crocodile (three syllables)                                  salamander (four syllables), or more syllables </li></ul><ul><li>Two morpheme        boy + ish                                   desire + able </li></ul><ul><li>Three morpheme       boy + ish + ness                                   desire + able + ity </li></ul><ul><li>Four morpheme         gentle + man + li + ness                                   un + desire + able + ity </li></ul><ul><li>More than four           un + gentle + man + li + ness                                   anti + dis + establish + ment + ari + an + ism </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>In all language, discrete linguistic units combine rule-governed ways to form larger units </li></ul><ul><li>Sound units combine to form morphemes, </li></ul><ul><li>morphemes combine to form from words </li></ul><ul><li>word combine to form phrases </li></ul><ul><li>phrases combine to form sentences </li></ul>
  14. 14. What is the relationship between morphemes and words?
  15. 15. <ul><li>Humans can understand words that </li></ul><ul><li>have never been heard before </li></ul><ul><li>Human can also create new words </li></ul><ul><li>For example , a writ able CD </li></ul><ul><li>a re writ able CD </li></ul><ul><li>an un re writ able CD </li></ul>What is the relationship between morphemes and words?
  16. 16. How many types of morphemes are there? <ul><ul><li>Bound morphemes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Free morphemes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Root morphemes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stem morphemes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Derivational morphemes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inflectional morphemes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Affixes: prefixes and suffixes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grammatical morphemes </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Classification of some (English) morphemes <ul><li>(English) Morphemes </li></ul><ul><li>Bound Free </li></ul><ul><li>Affix Root Open Class Closed Class </li></ul><ul><li>Derivational Inflectional </li></ul><ul><li>Prefix Suffix Suffix gruntle Nouns ( girl ) Determiners ( the , a(n) ) </li></ul><ul><li>pre - -ly -ing -en mit Verbs ( kick ) Conjunctions ( and ) </li></ul><ul><li>un- -ist -er -est fer Adjectives ( happy ) Prepositions ( of , in ) </li></ul><ul><li>con- </li></ul><ul><li>-ment -ed Adverbs ( quickly ) Pronouns ( I , he , you ) </li></ul><ul><li>Auxiliary Verbs ( is ) </li></ul>
  18. 19. Bound morphemes <ul><ul><li>Bound morphemes (affixes) must be attached to the word. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They are prefixes, infixes, suffixes and circumfixes. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Such as {clude} as in include , exclude , preclude ) or they may be grammatical (such as {PLU} = plural as in boys , girls , and cats ). </li></ul></ul>
  19. 20. Free morphemes <ul><li>Free morphemes are those that can stand alone as words. </li></ul><ul><li>Example:     girl, system, desire, hope, act, phone, happy </li></ul>
  20. 21. Root morphemes <ul><li>A root is a morphemes that cannot be analyzed into smaller parts. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: cran (as in cranberry), act, beauty, system, etc..  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Free Root  Morpheme: run, bottle, phone, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bound Root  Morpheme: receive, remit, uncount, uncouth, nonchalant, etc.  </li></ul></ul>
  21. 22. <ul><ul><li>A stem is formed when a root morphemes is combined with an affix. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other affixes can be added to a stem to form a more complex stem.  </li></ul></ul>Stem morphemes
  22. 23. Example of word formation <ul><li>Root      believe (verb) </li></ul><ul><li>Stem    believe + able (verb + suffix) </li></ul><ul><li>Word     un + believe + able </li></ul><ul><li> (prefix +verb + suffix)   </li></ul>
  23. 24. Example of word formation <ul><li>Root system </li></ul><ul><li>Stem system + atic </li></ul><ul><li>Stem un + system + atic </li></ul><ul><li>Stem un + system + atic + al </li></ul><ul><li>Word un + system + atic + al + ly </li></ul>
  24. 25. It’s time to relax Are you tried? Let’s listen to the song
  25. 26. Derivational morphemes <ul><ul><li>Root + Derivational Morpheme --> a new word with a new meaning. (usually change grammatical class) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>N + Derivational Morpheme --> Adj. Ex. Boy + ish, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Verb + Derivational Morpheme --> Noun Ex. Acquitt + al, clear + ance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adj. + Derivational Morpheme --> Adverb Ex. Exact + ly, quiet + ly </li></ul></ul>
  26. 27. Inflectional morphemes <ul><li>Inflectional morphemes have grammatical meaning or function in the sentence. </li></ul><ul><li>They never change part of speech. </li></ul><ul><li>For example, </li></ul><ul><li>Bound Morpheme : Ex. ‘to’ in connection with a verb (‘ an infinitive with to’) </li></ul><ul><li>Bound Morphemes: Ex. –s, -ed </li></ul><ul><li>He sails the ocean blue. </li></ul><ul><li>He sailed the ocean blue. </li></ul>
  27. 28. Eight English Inflectional Morphemes <ul><li>-s third-person singular present </li></ul><ul><li>- ed past tense </li></ul><ul><li>-ing progressive </li></ul><ul><li>-en past participle </li></ul><ul><li>-s plural </li></ul><ul><li>-’s possessive </li></ul><ul><li>- er comparative </li></ul><ul><li>-est superlative </li></ul><ul><li>She wait s at home. </li></ul><ul><li>She wait ed at home. </li></ul><ul><li>She is eat ing the donuts. </li></ul><ul><li>Mary has eat en the donuts. </li></ul><ul><li>She ate the donut s . </li></ul><ul><li>Lisa ’s hair is short. </li></ul><ul><li>Lisa has short hair than Kate. </li></ul><ul><li>Lisa has the shor test hair. </li></ul>
  28. 29. The major differences between derivational and inflectional morphology predictable (often) unpredictable meaning? (usually) yes (often) no productive? no yes changes stem? not in English yes  addable on to?  further from stem  closer to stem  position  Inflectional   Derivational   
  29. 31. Affixes: prefixes and suffixes <ul><li>Affix : a morpheme that comes at the beginning (prefix) or the ending (suffix) of a base morpheme.  </li></ul><ul><li>Note : An affix usually is a morpheme that cannot stand alone.  </li></ul><ul><li>Examples : -ful , -ly , -it y, -nes s. A few exceptions are able , like , and less . </li></ul>
  30. 32. Affixes: prefixes and suffixes <ul><li>Prefix : an affix that comes before a base morpheme.  The in in the word inspect is a prefix. </li></ul><ul><li>Suffix : an affix that comes after a base morpheme.  The s in cats is a suffix. </li></ul>
  31. 33. Affixes (prefix, suffix, infix and circumfix) are all bound morphemes. Bound morphemes that are attached to a root or stem morpheme both initially and finally. Example: chokma &quot;he is good&quot;  ik + chokm + o &quot;he isn?t? good&quot;                         (Chickasaw Language) Bound morphemes which are inserted into other morphemes. Example: Fikas &quot;strong&quot;  fumikas &quot;to be strong&quot;  (Bontoc Language) Bound morphemes which occur  following other morphemes. Examples: -er ( singer, performer) -ist (t ypist, pianist) -ly ( manly, friendly) Bound morphemes which occur only before other morphemes. Examples: un- ( uncover, undo ) dis- ( displeased, disconnect), pre- ( predetermine, prejudge ) Circumfixes Infixes Suffixes Prefixes
  32. 34. Grammatical morphemes <ul><li>What is the difference in meaning between apple and apples ? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the difference in form? </li></ul><ul><li>What does this tell you about these two words? </li></ul>
  33. 35. Grammatical morphemes <ul><li>Words can have an internal structure much like the syntax of phrases. </li></ul><ul><li>Morphemes such as the , -s , and re- near the grammatical end of the continuum are called grammatical morphemes . </li></ul><ul><li>Note that grammatical morphemes include forms that we can consider to be words like the , a , and , and of and others that make up parts of words like –s and -ed . </li></ul><ul><li>Examples. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>pencil s walk ed </li></ul></ul>
  34. 36. What are the differences between each type of morphemes?
  35. 37. What is the function of each type of morphemes?
  36. 38. What is the relationship among each type of morphemes?
  37. 39. What is the difference between content/lexical words and function/grammatical words?
  38. 40. Content Words <ul><li>Content words denote concepts such as subjects, actions, and ideas ( noun, verb, adjective, adverb ) </li></ul><ul><li>Content words are open class words ( new words can be added ) </li></ul><ul><li>Example of new words : Steganography ( the art of hiding information in electronic text ) </li></ul>
  39. 41. Function Words <ul><li>Function words express Grammatical Functions ( e.g., preposition, article, conjunctions, pronouns ) </li></ul><ul><li>Function words connect the content words to the larger grammatical context. </li></ul><ul><li>Functions words are also called ‘closed class’ words ( no new words assed to this class. ) </li></ul>
  40. 42. Exercise “ I know you can do it”
  41. 43. &quot;First say to yourself what you would be, and then do what you have to do.&quot;
  42. 44. How are English words formed?
  43. 45. Different types of words from different formations. <ul><ul><li>Derived words </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lexical gaps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compounds: also how to differentiate compounds from noun phrases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Acronyms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Back formations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Abbreviations/Truncation/Clipping </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eponyms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blends </li></ul></ul>
  44. 46. Derived words <ul><li>= new words with new meanings formed from </li></ul><ul><li>root + derivational morpheme </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. ir+regular = irrigular </li></ul>
  45. 47. Lexical Gaps <ul><li>Well-formed but nonexisting word </li></ul><ul><li>Reason : a permissible sequence has no meaning attached to it <like “blick” or “slarm” or “krobe”> </li></ul><ul><li>Possible comniations of morpheme never come into use ( Ex. “disobvious” ,“linguisticism” ) </li></ul><ul><li>Word like *bnick is not a lexical gaps in English because English does not allow the sequence of ‘bn’ </li></ul>
  46. 48. Compounds <ul><li>Word + word = compound word ( meaning may or may not change ) </li></ul><ul><li>When the two word are in the same grammatical category, compound will be in this category. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex. Home ( n. ) + Work ( n. ) = homework ( noun ) Pick ( v. ) + pocket ( n. ) = pickpocket ( noun ) </li></ul>
  47. 49. <ul><li>Compounds can be more than two words: </li></ul><ul><li>Two-word compounds are the most common in English. </li></ul><ul><li>Three – word compounds: three-time loser </li></ul><ul><li>Four– word compounds: four-dimensional space-time </li></ul>
  48. 50. Compounds have internal structure <ul><li>N. </li></ul><ul><li>N. N. </li></ul><ul><li>Adj. N. rack </li></ul><ul><li>top hat </li></ul>N. Adj. N. top N. N. hat rack
  49. 51. <ul><li>Rack </li></ul><ul><li>top hat </li></ul><ul><li>Hat rack </li></ul><ul><li>top </li></ul>
  50. 52. Meaning of compounds <ul><li>Same meaning as the parts : a boathouse = ( a house for boats ) </li></ul><ul><li>New meaning but relate to the meaning of the individual parts : </li></ul><ul><li>a blackboard ( can be in other colors, not just black ) </li></ul><ul><li>a Redcoat ( slang for British soldier during American Revolutionary War ) </li></ul>
  51. 53. For example black bird ( turdus merula ) blackbird
  52. 54. For example hot dog hotdog
  53. 55. For example red wood ( Giant Sequoia ) redwood
  54. 56. Acronyms <ul><li>Acronyms are word derived from he initials of several word </li></ul><ul><li>NASA <National Aeronautics and Space Agency> </li></ul><ul><li>UNESCO <United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization> </li></ul>
  55. 57. Back formations <ul><li>A new word may entry the language because of an incorrect morphological analysis. </li></ul><ul><li>Example, peddle was derived from peddler on the mistaken assumption that the – er was suffix. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>stoke --> stoker </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>edit --> editor </li></ul></ul>
  56. 58. Abbreviations <ul><li>Abbreviations of longer words or phrases can become lexicalized </li></ul><ul><li>Fax <facsimile> </li></ul><ul><li>Telly ( The British word for ‘television’ ) </li></ul>
  57. 59. <ul><li>Eponyms are word form proper names. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: sandwich, robot, jumbo </li></ul>Eponyms
  58. 60. Blends <ul><li>Similar to compounds but parts of the words that are combined are deleted. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: smog <from ‘smok + fog’>, motel <from ‘motor + hotel’> </li></ul>
  59. 61. The hierarchical structure of words represented by the tree diagram <ul><li>A word is not a simple sequence of morphemes. </li></ul><ul><li>It has an internal structure as shown in the following tree diagram: </li></ul>
  60. 62. T ree diagrams <ul><li>N. </li></ul><ul><li>Adj. ness </li></ul><ul><li>un Adj. </li></ul><ul><li>happy </li></ul>Morphological Rules 1. un + happy --> Adj. 2. adj. + ness --> N.
  61. 63. Other terms according to word formation: <ul><ul><li>Rule productivity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Universality of compounding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Suppletive Exception </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expletive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allomorphs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Default/elsewhere </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Homophonous morphemes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduplication </li></ul></ul>
  62. 64. Rule productivity <ul><li>Morphological Rules are Productive because: </li></ul><ul><li>They can be used freely to form new words from the list of free and bound morpheme. </li></ul><ul><li>Some morphemes are more productive than others. </li></ul><ul><li>Productive morphemes: Ex. -able or -er </li></ul><ul><li>Not Productive morphemes: Ex. –let (piglet) </li></ul>
  63. 65. Universality of compounding <ul><li>Universality compounding is a common and frequent process for enlarging the vocabulary of all language. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex . In Thai, the word ‘cat’ is m єє w, ‘watch’ is fân, and ‘house’ is bâan. The word for ‘watch cat’ is the compound m єє wfânbâan – literally, ‘catwatchhouse’ </li></ul>
  64. 66. Suppletive Exception <ul><li>Suppletive are treated separately in the grammar, that cannot use the regular rules of inflectional morphology to add affixes to word the exception. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex. child --> children </li></ul><ul><li>woman --> women </li></ul>
  65. 67. Allomorph <ul><li>Different form of morphemes that have the same meaning </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. ir_, il_, im_, in_ = not </li></ul><ul><li>_en, _ø = to make to become … </li></ul><ul><li>to bright en our mind </li></ul><ul><li>to brown ø the garlic </li></ul>
  66. 68. Zero morpheme/ default/elsewhere <ul><li>A zero morpheme is a morpheme, consisting of no form, that is proposed in some analyses as an allomorph of a morpheme that is ordinarily realized by a morph having some phonetic form. </li></ul><ul><li>brown (adj) + Ø > brown (verb) </li></ul><ul><li>= &quot;to make to become brown (er) &quot; </li></ul><ul><li>dark (adj) + _en > darken (verb) </li></ul><ul><li>= “to make to become dark (er) ” </li></ul>
  67. 70. Homophonous morphemes <ul><li>Homophones : morphemes that sound alike but have different meanings and spellings.  </li></ul><ul><li>Examples : bear , bare ; plain , plane ; cite , sight , site . </li></ul>
  68. 71. Reduplication <ul><li>• R eduplication is the morphological process by which all or part of a word is copied or duplicated </li></ul><ul><li>• S ome examples from Lakhota: </li></ul>‘ to be yellow’ zizí zí ‘ to be blue or green’ thothó thó ‘ to be red’ shashá shá ‘ to be white’ skaská ská ‘ to be rusty brown’ gigí gí gloss Reduplicated form base
  69. 72. Last Exercise Good luck
  70. 73. A great person is an ordinary who decides to do the great thing.
  71. 74. References <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  72. 75. References <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> ling001/morphology2.html </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  73. 76. References <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>