Processes of Word Formation - Morphology-LANE 333-2012- dr. shadia


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Processes of Word Formation - Morphology-LANE 333-2012- dr. shadia

  1. 1. LANE 333 - MORPHOLOGY + 2012 – Term 1 PROCESSES OF WORD FORMATION 10 By: Dr. Shadia Y. Banjar http://wwwdrshadiabanjar.blogspot.comDr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 1 11/15/2011
  3. 3. English gets new words by means ofeasily definable processes employedby users of English. WORD FORMATION PROCESSES NEW ENGLISH WORDSDr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 3 11/15/2011
  5. 5. A. CompoundingCompounding is the joining of twoor more Words into a Single Word,as in hang glider ,breakfast , long-haired.Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 5 11/15/2011
  6. 6. cont., Compounding•Compounding is the joining of two or more Wordsinto a Single Word,• Such words are called compounds.•They contain two or more words.• Compounds may be written as: One word as in : cornflakes A hyphenated word as in : long-haired Two words as in : high school• compound words may take three forms.•They may be an “open compound”, a “hyphenatedcompound”, or a “closed compound”: Examples:1. sweet potato (open compound)2. mother-in-law (hyphenated compound)3. secondhand (closed compound)Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 6 11/15/2011
  7. 7. B. Derivation Derivation is the forming of new words by combining derivational affixes or bound bases with existing Words , as in: teleplay, re-ask.Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 7 11/15/2011
  8. 8. cont., Derivation •Derivation is the forming of new words by combining derivational affixes or bound bases with existing words. EXAMPLES: disadvise emplane ecosystem coachdom • Usually invented in the heat of speaking and writing. •They are immediately understandable because we know the meaning of the parts.Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 8 11/15/2011
  9. 9. C. InventionNow and then new words are totallyinvented like Kodak and Goof.Few of them find their way in thecommon vocabulary.Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 9 11/15/2011
  10. 10. cont., Invention• Coining is the creation of new words without reference to the existingmorphological resources of the language, that is, solely out of the soundsof the language.• Coining is very rare, but the most typical sources are invented tradenames for commercial products that become general terms (usuallywithout capital letters) for any version of that product.OLDER EXAMPLES: aspirin nylon vaseline zipper MORE RECENT EXAMPLES kleenex teflon tylenol xeroxDr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 10 11/15/2011
  11. 11. D .Echoism Echoism is the formation of words whose sound suggest their meaning like hiss and peewee. The sound is either natural like the roar of a waterfall or artificial like the clang of a bell.Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 11 11/15/2011
  12. 12. cont., Echoism In literature, ECHOISM is referred to as ‘onomatopoeia’. EXAMPLES: click murmur whisperDr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 12 11/15/2011
  13. 13. E. ClippingClipping means cutting off the beginning orthe end of a word or both leaving a part tostand for the whole ;lab , dorm , prof ,exam.The back-clipped words are those words thatlose their forepart , like plane and phone.Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 13 11/15/2011
  14. 14. cont., Clipping• Clipping is the word formation process in which a word is reduced or shortened without changing the meaning of the word.• There are four types of clipping: 1. back clipping, 2. fore-clipping, 3. middle clipping, and 4. complex clipping. Back clipping is removing the end of a word as in gas from gasoline. Fore-clipping is removing the beginning of a word as in gator from alligator. Middle clipping is retaining only the middle of a word as in flu from influenza. Complex clipping is removing multiple parts from multiple words as in sitcom from situation comedy. • Some of the most common products of clipping are names--Liz, Ron, Rob, Sue, and so on. Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 14 11/15/2011
  15. 15. F. AcronoymyAcronomy is the process whereby a word isformed from the initials or beginning segmentsof a succession of words.EXAMPLES: NATO( North Atlantic Treaty Organization) radar (radio detecting and ranging).Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 15 11/15/2011
  16. 16. cont., Acronoymy•Initialisms and Acronyms are shortenings, build from the initial letters in a phraseor name. While acronyms are pronounced as single words (NASA, AIDS),initialisms are pronounced as a sequence of letters (DNA, USA).(Finegan 2007, 48)•Some acronyms even become words of our everyday language, such as laser orzip code. But the most famous word based on a shortening is the initialism OK.•Initialisms and acronyms can be sub-divided into a few groups:1. Acronyms containing non-initial letters (Interpol - International Criminal Police Organization, radar - radio detection and ranging)2. Pronounced as a combination of initialism and acronym (CD-ROM, JPEG)3. Recursive initialisms, in which the abbreviation refers to itself (PHP - PHP hypertext preprocessor)4. Pseudo-initialisms, which consist of a sequence of characters that, when pronounced as intended, invoke other, longer words (IOU – I owe you, CU – See you). This kind of initialism is frequently seen on the internet.5. Initialisms whose last abbreviated word is often redundantly included anyway (PIN number)Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 16 11/15/2011
  17. 17. G. Blending•Blending is the fusion of two words intoone ,usually the first part of one wordwith the last part of another, as ingasohol, from gasoline and alcohol.•The two classes, blends and clippedwords, are not sharply separated, andsome words may be put into either class.Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 17 11/15/2011
  18. 18. cont., BlendingBlending involves taking two or more words,removing parts of each, and joining the residuestogether to create a new word whose form andmeaning are taken from the source words.EXAMPLES:• smog = smoke + fog• brunch = breakfast + lunch• motel = motor + hotel• webinar = (worldwide) web + seminar.• transistor = transfer + resistor• autobus = automobile + omnibus• escalator = escalade + elevator fog smoke smogDr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 18 11/15/2011
  19. 19. H. Back-formationBackformation is the formation of new words by theremoval of an affix. It may be defined as theformation of a word from one that looks like itsderivative. When a backformation becomes established inthe language, we can only tell that it is a backformation if weknow the etymology of the words in question.EXAMPLES:•sculpt (from sculptor),•burgle (burglar),•proofread (proofreading),•scavenge (scavenger)•to vacuum (vacuum cleaner),•air-condition (air- conditioning),•skydive (skydiving),•babysit (babysitting).Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 19 11/15/2011
  20. 20. I. Folk EtymologyChanging a word, in part or in whole, to makeit more understandable and more like familiarwords.EXAMPLES:•Type A (foreign words): Cockroach was borrowed from Spanish cucarachabut was folk-etymologized as cock + roach.•Type B (one part becomes obsolete): sand-blind(as if "blinded by the sand") from OldEnglish sam-blind "half-blind" (sam- is a once-common prefix cognate with "semi-").Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 20 11/15/2011
  21. 21. J. Antonomasia Antonomasia means the formation of common noun, a verb, or an adjective from the name of a person or place. Examples: sandwich(from Sandwich who once spenttwenty-four hours at the gaming table with noother refreshment than some slices of cold beefbetween slices of toast).Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 21 11/15/2011
  22. 22. cont., Antonomasia Frisben (from the Frisbie Bakery in BridgeWater), Connecticut (whose pie tins were used for athrowing game), Vandal (from the vandals a Germanic people whooverran southern Europe 1500 years ago and sackedand looted Rome in the fifth century).• Names from history and literature havegiven us man common nouns: A lover for instance may be called a romeo, adon juan, a casanova.Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 22 11/15/2011
  23. 23. K. Reduplication•Reduplication is the process of forming a newword by doubling a morpheme, usually witha change of vowel or initial consonant, asin pooh-pooh, tiptop, And hanky-panky .•The basic morpheme is the second half, likedilly-dally, but it may be the first half, ticktock, or both halves, like singsong, neitherhalf, like boogie-woogie.Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 23 11/15/2011
  24. 24. cont., Reduplication•The term “REDUPLICATION” involves threemeanings :1.The process.2.The result of the process (that is, the new word).3. The element repeated• The repeated element is the basic ororiginating morpheme.•The new word is called twin-words.Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 24 11/15/2011
  25. 25. teeny-weeny repetition tiptop tick-tick with Change of initial consonant repetition repetition with without Change of change vowel TWIN- WORDSDr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 25 11/15/2011
  26. 26. TYPES OF REDUPLICATION Exact Reduplication e.g. bye-bye REDUPLICATION Ablaut Rhyming Reduplication Reduplication e.g. super- e.g. chitchat duperDr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 26 11/15/2011
  27. 27. Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 27 11/15/2011