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FILIPINO
PSYCHOLOGY
CONCEPTS AND
METHODS
WHAT IS FILIPINO
PSYCHOLOGY?
■ It is an Indigenous Psychology
The scientific study of the ethnicity, society and
culture of a people and the application to
psychological practice of indigenous knowledge
rooted in the people’s ethnic heritage and
consciousness.
Virgilio G. Enriquez (1994). Pagbabangong-Dangal: Indigenous Psychology
& Cultural Empowerment. Akademya ng Kultura at Sikolohiyang Pilipino:
Lungsod ng Quezon.
DISTINCTIONS AMONG THE
FORMS OF PSYCHOLOGY IN
THE PHILIPPINES
■ Sikolohiya sa Pilipinas
Psychology in the Philippines
■ Sikolohiya ng mga Pilipino
Psychology of Filipinos
■ Sikolohiyang Pilipino
Filipino Psychology
Virgilio G. Enriquez (1976) in Sikolohiyang Pilipino: Teorya, metodo at
gamit. Rogelia Pe-Pua (Ed.) (1989) University of the Philippines Press:
Quezon City.
SIKOLOHIYA SA
PILIPINAS
■ Psychology in the Philippines
• refers to a series of events related to the field of psychology
in the Philippines.
• (e.g. number of degree programs and journals,
the amount of research conducted)
• ang pinakamalaki o kabuuang anyo
ng sikolohiya sa kontekstong Pilipino.
SIKOLOHIYA NG
MGA PILIPINO
■ Psychology of Filipinos
• refers to any theories or knowledge of Filipino
nature regardless of source, Western or local
• Palasak na anyo sapagkat pinakakaraniwan
o madaling makita.
SIKOLOHIYANG
PILIPINO
■ Filipino Psychology
refers to a psychology based on the Filipino’s
true thoughts, feelings, behaviors and must
derive from indigenous Filipino sources,
language, and methods.
nilalayong anyo, sikolohiyang bunga ng
karanasan, kaisipan at oryentasyong Pilipino
LIMITS OF WESTERN
CONCEPTS & METHODS
■ Issue
Applicability of the Western theories and
principles taught as well as the research
concepts and methods used in the
Philippine setting.
Timothy Church (1985) in Indigenous Psychology: A Book of
Readings. V.G. Enriquez (Ed.) Akademya ng Sikolohiyang Pilipino:
Quezon City.
LIMITS OF WESTERN
CONCEPTS & METHODS
■ The limits of Western social research methods in
rural Philippines: The need for innovation
Gloria D. Feliciano (1965) in Sikolohiyang Pilipino: Teorya, Metodo at
Gamit. Rogelia Pe-Pua (Ed.) (1989) University of the Philippines Press:
Quezon City.
LIMITS OF WESTERN
CONCEPTS & METHODS
■ The limits of applicability of Western concepts,
values and methods in the social sciences to the
concrete realities of Asian societies.
Augusto C. Espiritu (1968) in Indigenous Psychology: A Book of Readings.
V.G. Enriquez (Ed.) (1990) Akademya ng Sikolohiyang Pilipino: Quezon
City.
SIKOLOHIYANG PILIPINO
FROM A MOVEMENT TO AN ACADEMIC
DISCIPLINE
■ Principal emphasis in psychology
Identity and national consciousness
Social awareness and involvement
Psychology of language and culture
Applications & bases of Filipino psychology
(health practices, agriculture, art, religion)
Virgilio G. Enriquez (1992). From colonial to liberation psychology: The
Philippine experience. University of the Philippines Press. QC
PRIMARY AREAS OF PROTESTS OF
SIKOLOHIYANG
PILIPINO
■ It is against
a psychology that perpetuates the colonial
status of the Filipino mind
a psychology used for the exploitation of the
masses
the imposition of psychologies developed in
foreign countries
POSITIONS OF SIKOLOHIYANG
PILIPINO
■ On psychological practice
conceptualization of psychological practice in a
Philippine context (industriya vs. kabuhayan;
klinika vs. kalusugan)
concerned with folk practices, indigenous
techniques of healing, popular religio-political
movements
POSITIONS OF SIKOLOHIYANG
PILIPINO
■ On Science – Humanism issue
utilizes scientific methodology in the study of
psychological phenomena
concerned not only with the universal validity of
psychological science but also in utilizing such
for the purpose of serving the interest of all
mankind, affording protection to the
disadvantaged
POSITIONS OF SIKOLOHIYANG PILIPINO
■ On Mentalism - Behaviorism issue
• uses both phenomenological & behavioristic concepts,
but lesser emphasis on individual experience and
greater emphasis on the collective experience
• attaches greater importance to kamalayan, subsidiary
importance to ulirat
POSITIONS OF SIKOLOHIYANG
PILIPINO
■ On Analysis – Wholeness Issue
methodologically leans on the side of analysis
but interprets the result of analysis with a bias
for wholeness
(social context, political implications, cultural
meaning of the study)
SIKOLOHIYANG PILIPINO
IS A ‘TAONG-BAHAY’
■ Metaphor
Sikolohiyang Pilipino can be explained through a
metaphor: (a characteristic way of clarifying
concepts) – difference between tao sa bahay
(person in the house) and taong-bahay (house
person).
SIKOLOHIYANG PILIPINO IS A CALL
■ for the exercise of care in the adoption of foreign
theories… “uncritical rejection is just as
dangerous as uncritical acceptance of Western
theories”
■ for example: psychological problems are the
same anywhere however, the sources of such
problems differ greatly
LINES OF FILIATIONS IN
PHILIPPINE PSYCHOLOGICAL
THOUGHT
■ Academic-scientific psychology: Western
■ Academic-philosophical psychology: Clergy
■ Ethnic psychology: Indigenous psychology
■ Psycho-medical system: Religion - cohesive
element and explanation.
Zeus A. Salazar (1981) in Sikolohiyang Pilipino: Isyu, pananaw, at
kaalaman. Allen Aganon at Ma. Assumpta David (1985). National
Bookstore, Inc.: Manila.
PSYCHOLOGY: THE
WESTERN TRADITION
■ Academic-scientific psychology:
Wilhelm Wundt, the German tradition
University of the Philippines (1908)
and other American traditional schools
■ Academic-philosophical psychology:
Thomistic philosophy and psychology
University of Santo Tomas (1611)
ETHNIC
PSYCHOLOGY NATIVE
PSYCHOLOGICAL
THOUGHT
■ Indigenous psychology: kinagisnan and
katutubong sikolohiya.
■ Psychology of Filipinos - perceived ethnic traits,
as observed by foreigners or as felt and
expressed by Filipinos.
■ The practice of psychology by Filipinos –
techniques of enculturation, socialization.
PSYCHOLOGY: THE
FILIPINO TRADITION
Ethnic psychology
■ Kinagisnang sikolohiya
the subconscious psychology imbedded in the
native language, art, music, culture and religion
(one has been born into; unaware).
e.g. kaluluwa at ginhawa
Zeus A. Salazar (1977) in Sikolohiyang Pilipino: Teorya, metodo, at gamit.
Rogelia Pe-Pua (Ed.) (1989). University of the Philippines Press: Quezon
City.
PSYCHOLOGY: THE
FILIPINO TRADITION
Ethnic psychology
■ Katutubong sikolohiya
psychology worked out by Filipinos with
indigenous elements as basis (innate to the
Filipino) e.g. Kartilya of the Katipunan, Jose
Rizal, Hermano Pule, Isabelo de los Reyes.
Katutubong sikolohiya and Kinagisnang
sikolohiya constitute Katutubong sikolohiya
PSYCHOLOGY: THE
FILIPINO TRADITION
Ethnic psychology
■ Psychology of Filipinos- based on mainly
Western system of thought e.g. Spanish:
Pigafetta’s quite objective observation of the
Filipinos in the Visayas (impressed by them);
American: Worcester’s view of the Filipinos as
distinct ethnic groups different from one another
as Christian and non-Christian (pagans and
Moros).
PSYCHOLOGY: THE
FILIPINO TRADITION
Ethnic psychology
■ Practice of psychology by Filipinos:
a. indigenous techniques of enculturation/
socialization, e.g. myths for social control, or as
affected by Christianity or Islam.
b. proto-clinical practice, e.g. tagapayo,
manghuhula, ancient techniques of group
therapy that are still present (alternating chants
during wakes, poetry, consensus).
PSYCHOLOGY: THE
FILIPINO TRADITION
■ Ethnic psychology
• Psycho-medical system: religion as cohesive
element and explanation.
• (1565) Babaylan or Catalonan techniques
of healing; disease theory, causation, therapy.
• (1650) Messianic movements
• (1730) Herbolaryo
• (1900) Espiritista
FILIPINO
PSYCHOLOGICAL
KNOWLEDGE
■ Filipino Language
use as a tool for identifying/rediscovering
indigenous concepts
e.g. study of diwa (psyche), refers to the wealth
of ideas implied by the philosophical concept of
“essence”
FILIPINO
LANGUAGE
“Enriquez does his theorizing in Filipino and
does his writing in Pilipino; merely as a heuristic
device, a discovery procedure… returning to the
‘deep structure’ of the language… Enriquez
worked in an area where Filipinos are most
adept, where the language has a rich vocabulary
of feeling and sentiment.”
Andrew B. Gonzales (1982) in Indigenous Psychology: A book of readings.
V.G. Enriquez (Ed.) Akademya ng Sikolohiyang Pilipino: Quezon City.
LANGUAGE, A
HEURISTIC TOOL
Analysis,
■ Methods: Ethnography, Language
Semantics, Introspection
Language provided the instrument to refine the
tools of research so as to discover categories
and subcategories which would be lost to a
Western English-speaking researcher…
FILIPINO, THE PHILIPPINE
LINGUA FRANCA
The issue of national language has long been
resolved by the Filipino masses through their
use and propagation of a language based on the
Manila lingua franca, Manila being the seat of
government, the business hub, melting pot,
center of history.
Virgilio G. Enriquez & Elizabeth P. Marcelino (1984). Neo-colonial politics
and language struggle in the Philippines. Akademya ng Sikolohiyang
Pilipino: Quezon City.
LANGUAGE &
KNOWLEDGE
■ System of communication
summing-up our lived experiences
■ Social interaction
expressing our thoughts and feelings
■ Spoken language
from bodily gestures to linguistic acts
specialized speech apparatus
primary medium of communication
THINKING & LANGUAGE
■ Interdependence of knowledge & language, i.e.
the thinking process cannot work independently
of language
■ Language is not a neutral system of signs nor is
it value-free, i.e. it is partisan to the values,
perspectives, and rules of cognition of a
particular class or society
LANGUAGE, HISTORY, AND SOCIO-
ECONOMIC-CULTURAL LIFE
■ Specific historical features and socio-economic-
cultural conditions shape the thinking and
language of a people, giving distinctive
meanings and value judgments to their words.
■ Indigenous language, genuine vehicle of the
innermost thoughts and intimate feelings of a
people bound by a common historical heritage
and a specific socio-economic-cultural
environment.
PSYCHOLOGICAL CONCEPTS AND
HUMAN BEHAVIOR
■ The formation of psychological concepts is the
more important stage in the entire process of
understanding human behavior.
■ These concepts lay the foundation for the
formation of indigenous psychological theories
and models of analysis that correspond more
fully to the realities of the life and culture of a
society.
DEVELOPMENT OF TECHNICAL
TERMINOLOGY IN FILIPINO
PSYCHOLOGY
■ System of affixation in the Filipino language a
resource for terminology development
■ The meaning changes because of the use of
affixes (suffixes, prefixes, infixes, postfixes)
paki, mang, mapa, ika, ipang, ma, ka, maka
Zeus A. Salazar (1981) in Sikolohiyang Pilipino: Isyu, pananaw, at
kaalaman. Allen Aganon at Ma. Assumpta David (1985). National
Bookstore, Inc.: Manila
DEVELOPMENT OF TECHNICAL
TERMINOLOGY IN FILIPINO
PSYCHOLOGY
■ Direct borrowing (saling-angkat)
perception (L) persepsyon
psicologia (S) sikolohiya
■ Surface assimilation (saling-paimbabaw)
reinforcement - reimporsment
■ Grammatical translation
(saling-panggramatika)
social interaction – interaksyong sosyal
DEVELOPMENT OF TECHNICAL
TERMINOLOGY IN FILIPINO
PSYCHOLOGY
■ Loan translation (saling-hiram)
defense mechanism
mekanismong pananggalang
■ Word invention (salitang likha)
masturbation – mag-isang pagpaparaos
■ Abbreviated words (salitang daglat)
STM short term memory
PUP Panukat ng Ugali at Pagkatao
DEVELOPMENT OF TECHNICAL
TERMINOLOGY IN FILIPINO
PSYCHOLOGY
■ Parallel translation (salitang-tapat)
relationship = pakikisalamuha
■ Indigenous-concept oriented translation
(salitang taal)
kapwa: hindi ibang-tao, ibang-tao
■ Amalgamated translation (salitang sanib)
mahay (Cebuano), nagmamahay
DEVELOPMENT OF TECHNICAL
TERMINOLOGY IN FILIPINO
PSYCHOLOGY
Categorization of words and concepts
■ Foreign concepts (konseptong banyaga)
home for the aged
■ Superficial assimilation
(paimbabaw na asimilasyon)
reinforcement – gantimpala, ‘may napala’
■ Labeling (pagbibinyag)
utang-na-loob - reciprocity
hiya - shame
pakikisama - comradeship
Categorization of words and concepts
■ Semantic indigenization (pag-aandukha)
paniniyansing, tambayan (stand by)
■ Semantic delimitation (pagtatakda)
gunita – recall, alaala – memory
personality is personalidad not pagkatao
■ Indigenous concepts (katutubong konsepto)
saling-pusa (informal member)
pagka-pikon (to be peeved)
KAPWA, A CORE CONCEPT IN FILIPINO
PSYCHOLOGY
■ The Filipino language provides a conceptual
distinction in several levels and modes of social
interaction (antas ng pagtutunguhan).
■ Eight behaviorally recognizable levels under two
general categories in Filipino were identified
(ibang-tao; hindi ibang-tao).
Carmen E. Santiago and Virgilio G. Enriquez (1976) in Sikolohiyang Pilipino:
Teorya, metodo at gamit. Rogelia Pe-Pua (Ed.) (1989) University of the
Philippines Press: Quezon City.
KAPWA, A CORE CONCEPT IN
FILIPINO PSYCHOLOGY
■ Ibang-tao (outsider)
pakikitungo (amenities, civility)
pakikisalimuha (‘mixing’)
pakikilahok (joining, participating)
pakikibagay (conforming)
pakikisama (adjusting)
■ Hindi ibang-tao (one-of-us)
pakikipagpalagayang-loob (mutual trust)
pakikisangkot (getting involved)
pakikiisa (full trust, oneness, fusion)
KAPWA, THE SHARED INNER SELF
■ Kapwa (English: both, fellow being, others)
others is used in opposition to the ‘self’
implies the recognition of the ‘self’
‘self’ as a separate identity
■ Kapwa in Filipino
a recognition of shared identity
an inner self shared with others
the ‘ako’ (ego) and the ‘iba sa akin’ (others) are
one and the same in kapwa psychology
KAPWA, A CORE CONCEPT IN
FILIPINO PSYCHOLOGY
■ Pakikitungo, pakikipagkapwa are mutually
replaceable in taxonomic analysis, either
covers the entire lexical domain.
■ Pakikipagkapwa, more theoretically fertile
concept when analyzed semantically; much
deeper and profound in its implications as it
means accepting and dealing with the other
person as an equal.
PAKIKIRAMDAM:
THE PIVOTAL ASPECT OF KAPWA
■ refers to heightened awareness, sensitivity
■ ‘feeling for another’
■ a kind of emotional a priori
■ an active process involving great care and
deliberation manifested in ‘hesitation to react,
inattention to subtle cues, and non-verbal
behavior in mental role-playing
Rita H. Mataragnon (1987) in From colonial to liberation psychology: The
Philippine Experience. Virgilio G. Enriquez (Ed) (1992) UP Press.
PAKIKIRAMDAM:
THE PIVOTAL ASPECT OF KAPWA
■ Pakiramdam is necessarily tied to the operation
of all Filipino surface values:
pakikisama, hiya, utang na loob
■ The improvisatory character of pakikiramdam is
operative in bahala na
lakas ng loob, pakikibaka
■ The centrality of pakiramdam in behavioral and
interpersonal domains:
biro-lambing-tampo.
THE DEVELOPMENT OF
SIKOLOHIYANG PILIPINO
KNOWLEDGE
Major goals of Sikolohiyang Pilipino
■ pagsasakatutubo (indigenization)
■ pagka-agham (science)
■ pagka-Pilipino (Filipino identity)
Mario San Buenaventura (1983) in Sikolohiyang Pilipino: Isyu, pananaw, at
kaalaman. Allen Aganon at Ma. Assumpta David (1985). National
Bookstore, Inc.: Manila
THE DEVELOPMENT OF
SIKOLOHIYANG PILIPINO
KNOWLEDGE
The project of Sikolohiyang Pilipino
■ development of indigenous psychological
concepts
■ utilization of indigenous research methods
■ creation of authentic and appropriate social
scientific psychology
Steven Rood (1985) in Sikolohiyang Pilipino: Isyu, pananaw, at kaalaman.
Allen Aganon at Ma. Assumpta David (1985). National Bookstore, Inc.:
Manila
RESEARCH
APPROACHES
■ Experimental - adherence to predetermined set
of procedures
■ Survey – conform to an informal agreement with
respondents
■ Participatory – negotiate issues jointly as they
arise
■ Indigenous – seek to enhance awareness as
one-with-the-other
INDIGENOUS
RESEARCH
■ Cross-Indigenous Psychology fuses the modern
and the traditional i.e. using scientific methods
and ensuring that they are culturally appropriate.
■ Sikolohiyang Pilipino utilizes and borrows
concepts from both the modern and traditional
cultural systems.
APPROACHES IN THE
DEVELOPMENT &
UTILIZATION OF
INDIGENOUS
VIEWPOINTS
■ Indigenization from within
basis: the indigenous
direction: outwards
culture-as-source
■ Indigenization from without
basis: the exogenous
direction: inwards
culture-as-target
INDIGENIZATION
FROM WITHOUT
■ Content indigenization
translation of imported materials
■ Theoretic indigenization
■ Indigenization as strategy
■ Culture assimilation
indigenous versions of imported systems
INDIGENIZATION
FROM WITHIN
■ Identification of indigenous concepts, methods,
theories
■ Semantic elaboration
■ Indigenous codification re-codification
■ Systematization/explication of implied theoretical
frameworks
■ Application/use
USING THE CULTURE
AS SOURCE
need for cultural
■ Indigenization from within
necessarily implies the
revalidation
a demand for concepts and methods which are
culturally appropriate, scientifically valid
TRADITIONAL FILIPINO
INDIGENOUS
PSYCHOLOGY AND
CULTURE
■ Language
ethnolingguistic groups, multilingual people
■ Leisure
laro, laruan, palaro (patintero, sipa, piko)
■ Cuisine
adobo, bistik, dinuguan at puto, halo-halo
■ Law
TRADITIONAL FILIPINO
INDIGENOUS
PSYCHOLOGY AND
CULTURE
■ Religion
belief in a supreme being (Batlaya)
respect for nature (spirits dwell in nature)
reverence for ancestry (bulol, anito, ninuno)
■ Religion
underscores the importance of establishing
close interpersonal relations with one’s family,
relatives and fellowmen (kapwa)
highly-developed sense of values: courage,
cleanliness, courtesy, control and the family
■ Religion
indigenous morality: profound concept of
pagkamakatao
babaylan (priestess), dambana (shrine)
rituals and symbols for good (benevolent diwata)
and evil (malevolent aswang)
■ Manuscripts, memories, mummies lost
bell of Balangica, baybayin (alibata),
burial grounds in Sagada
■ Misa, mesa, mamimista, mamimis kita
Foreign words subsumed in the structure
of the Filipino language
■ Names: Sinag Liwayway (T), Dawani Paros (B),
Janatyan Ahaddas (Y), Hamili Ayo (C), Sudi
Amor (I)
■ Literature: Francisco Balagtas, Ka Amado
■ Theater and Film: Fernando Poe Jr.
Tagalog movies shown in theaters from Batanes
to Jolo
■ Medicine
lason vs. gamot, synthetic pesticides have gone
semantic transformation- result of massive
promotion during the Marcos’ Green Revolution
project
herbal medicine, medicinal plants, hilot,
concepts attributing illness to displaced organs
that have to be massaged back into its correct
position
■ Music and Arts: Sarong Banggi (B), Ati Cu Pung
Singsing (P), Pamulinawen (I), Pobreng
Alindahaw (C), Dandansoy (H), Salidumay (S);
Kulilal Ensemble of Palawan, Kutyapi Artists of
Maguindanao
■ Rituals and Ceremonies: agimat (talisman),
mutya (charm), gayuma (spell), anting-anting
(amulet); bulong (whisper); sapi (spirit
possession)
■ Methods: doing diagnosis
psychodiagnostician determine culturally-defined
cause of affliction through patawas,
pagbatbat/pag-usisa, pagpakot, pamulso.
beliefs in sapi, matanda, nuno, dwende.
■ Meanings:
Hiyang – (compatible, suited) in indigenous
medical practice, it means compatibility of the
treatment and medicine with the individual.
Lagnat laki (‘growing-up’ fever); Lugaw is
perceived as ‘food for the sick’
■ Genetic diversity of indigenous plants
e.g. varieties of rice grains nurtured through
centuries by indigenous people
■ Herbal knowledge
e.g. pito-pito, herbal tea from seven leaves:
bayabas, banaba, alagao, kulantro, mango,
pandan – use to detoxify the body.
PHILIPPINE
CULTURAL STUDIES
■ Perspectival and Interpretive Models
• absolutist position - assumes the basic
congruence of psychological phenomena across humankind
• relativist position – assumes differences across cultures, if
not the uniqueness of each one
PHILIPPINE
CULTURAL STUDIES
pangkami (reactive relativist), assumes the utility
of an alien frame of reference
pantayong pananaw (ethnocentric), assumes the
absolutist indigenous perspective
universalist position implied by the kapwa and
cross indigenous orientation of Sikolohiyang
Pilipino
PHILIPPINE
CULTURAL STUDIES
■ Universalist position
assumes that basic psychological processes are
likely to be common features of human life
everywhere, yet their manifestations are likely to
be influenced by culture
PHILIPPINE
CULTURAL STUDIES
■ Emic approach (phonemic)
the need to understand a culture from its own
perspective (using natural taxonomies)
■ Etic approach (phonetic)
the discovery of psychological universal
FILIPINO INTELLECTUAL
TRADITION
■ Philosophical traditions and paradigms of
science as neither Eastern nor Western
■ The West does not have a monopoly of scientific
standards, in fact science evolved from Eastern
intellectual traditions
■ Filipino intellectual traditions: the Ma’aram, si
Pilosopong Tasyo
FILIPINO INTELLECTUAL
TRADITION
■ Filipino philosophy of science incorporates the
demands of empirical validation from reliability
and validity to affirmability and authenticity.
■ Levels of validity & scientific standards
katatagan (replicability, reliability)
katapatan (multiple operationism, validity)
patibay (certification)
patotoo (affirmability, attestability)
patunay (authenticity)
FILIPINO INDIGENOUS
THEORIES
■ Filipino concepts and models of personality
The five elements of the Ma’aram concept of
pagkatawo (personhood):
ginhawa (vital principle)
buot (perception)
isip (mind)
dungan (sleep spirit)
kalag (life spirit)
FILIPINO INDIGENOUS
THEORIES
■ Filipino concepts and models of personality
Three elements in Baltazar’s model:
bait (sanity)
muni (reflection)
hatol (judgment)
FILIPINO INDIGENOUS
THEORIES
■ Filipino concepts and models of personality
The four elements in Covar’s concept of Filipino
personhood:
kaluluwa (spirit)
budhi (conscience)
katauhang panlabas, external appearance
katauhang panloob (innermost being)
■ Filipino social interaction theory
Levels and modes of social interaction rooted in
Filipino collectivist culture which have been
identified using ethnoscientific field methods.
■ Kapwa, a core concept in Filipino social
psychology. Pakikipagkapwa is accepting,
dealing with the other person as an equal.
■ Filipino concept of justice
Tagalog, Ilongos, Cebuanos, Pampangos use a
common word for justice, katarungan, derived
from the Visayan root tarong means straight,
upright, appropriate, correct, and for right, we
use karapatan, whose root is dapat signifying
fitting, appropriate, correct i.e. justice is related
to right
Jose W. Diokno (1983) in Sikolohiyang Pilipino: Isyu, pananaw, at
kaalaman. Allen Aganon at Ma. Assumpta David (1985). National
Bookstore, Inc.: Manila
RESEARCH
MODELS
■ Models of data collection
Self-orientation
Experimenter-orientation
Reactive-orientation
Mutual-orientation
Linda L. Viney (1988) in Pagbabangong-dangal: Indigenous psychology and
cultural empowerment. Virgilo G. Enriquez (Ed.) 1994. Akademya ng
Sikolohiyang Pilipino. Quezon City.
RESEARCH
MODELS
■ Models of data collection
Self-orientation Model:
the data collector and contributors relate to the
other only to the extent of waiting until the other
stops responding, e.g. laboratory-based studies
of memory. Communication is not taking place
between them through socially shared
interpretations or common constructs.
RESEARCH
MODELS
■ Models of data collection
Experimenter-orientation Model:
the data collectors appear to influence while only
the data contributors appear to be influenced,
e.g. Asch’s person perception study; an
imbalance of power in favor of data collectors
who appear to define the experimental situation.
RESEARCH
MODELS
■ Models of data collection
Reactive-orientation Model:
the participants in the data collection are
reacting to what is currently taking place
between them, e.g. verbal conditioning research;
yet the capacities of both data contributors and
collectors to construe are assumed to be
unimportant and are ignored.
RESEARCH
MODELS
■ Models of data collection
Mutual-orientation Model:
the data collector and contributor give something
to, and gain something from the data collection,
e.g. Piaget’s early research on conservation.
Indigenous psychology research uses this model
as the cultural researcher is a culture bearer
himself.
RESEARCH
MODELS
Researcher-Researchee Relationship Model
■ Scale of the Researcher
Iskala ng Mananaliksik
■ Scale of the Relationship or Interaction between
the Researcher and the Researchee
Iskala ng Pagtutunguhan ng Mananaliksik at
Kalahok
Carmen E. Santiago & Virgilio G. Enriquez (1975) in Sikolohiyang Pilipino:
Teorya, metodo, at gamit. Rogelia E. Pe-Pua (Ed.). UP Press.
SANTIAGO-ENRIQUEZ
RESEARCH MODEL
Researcher-Researchee Relationship Model
■ Scale of the Researcher
Iskala ng Mananaliksik
These are methods used by the researcher in
generating data that are tried and tested and are
culturally sensitive and appropriate in doing
research with Filipinos.
SANTIAGO-ENRIQUEZ
RESEARCH MODEL
Researcher-Researchee Relationship Model
■ Scale of the Relationship or Interaction between
the Researcher and the Researchee
Iskala ng Pagtutunguhan ng Mananaliksik at
Kalahok
The level of interaction between the researcher
and the researchee significantly determines the
quality of data obtained.
SANTIAGO-ENRIQUEZ
RESEARCH MODEL
Researcher-Researchee Relationship Model
■ Levels of Relationship
There are eight levels of interaction which range
from the relatively uninvolved civility of
pakikitungo to the total sense of identification in
pakikiisa. These eight levels of interaction can
be divided into two categories: the ibang-tao
(outsider) and the hindi ibang-tao (one-of-us).
Researcher-Researchee Relationship Model
■ Levels of Relationship
Ibang-tao category (outsider)
pakikitungo (amenities, civility)
pakikisalimuha (interaction)
pakikilahok (participation, joining)
pakikibagay (conforming)
pakikisama (adjusting, being along with)
SANTIAGO-ENRIQUEZ
RESEARCH MODEL
Researcher-Researchee Relationship Model
■ Levels of Relationship
Hindi ibang-tao category (one-of-us)
pakikipagpalagayang-loob (mutual trust)
pakikisangkot (active involvement)
pakikiisa (full trust)
FILIPINO INDIGENOUS
RESEARCH METHODS
Collective indigenous method
■ partakes of the characteristics of:
a community dialogue
focused group discussion
natural cluster interview
group attestation
■ puts premium on:
cultural appropriateness
an ordinary get-together
FILIPINO INDIGENOUS
RESEARCH METHODS
Approaches & Techniques
■ Pakapa-kapa (‘groping,’ a field method)
■ Pagtatanong-tanong (asking questions)
■ Pakikiramdam (shared sensitivities)
■ Pakikialam (concerned interference)
■ Pakikilahok (participation)
■ Pakikisangkot (integral involvement)
■ Pagdalaw-dalaw (casual but repeated visits)
SIKOLOHIYANG PILIPINO RESEARCH
APPROACHES AND
TECHNIQUES
■ Pakapa-kapa
an approach characterized by groping,
searching, probing into an unsystematized mass
of social and cultural data to be able to obtain
order, meaning, and directions for research.
Carmen E. Santiago (1975) in Sikolohiyang Pilipino: Teorya, metodo, at
gamit. Rogelia R. Pe-Pua (Ed.) (1989) UP Press
Amaryllis T. Torres in Sikolohiyang Pilipino: Teorya, metodo, at gamit.
Rogelia R. Pe-Pua (Ed.) (1989) UP Press
Pakapa-kapa
■ implies an exploration into cultural, social or
psychological data without the chains of
overriding theoretical framework borrowed from
observations outside the focus of investigation.
■ can be related to unobtrusive techniques
because the actual procedures for collecting
information may range from observation,
documentation, intervention, participation.
Panunuluyan approach
■ interaction techniques, levels of relationship
mula paninimbang hanggang malalimang
pakikipagpalagayang-loob.
Erlinda Nicdao-Henson (1977) in Sikolohiyang Pilipino: Teorya, metodo, at
gamit. Rogelia R. Pe-Pua (Ed.) (1989). UP Press: QC.
Josefina B. San Juan & Resurrecion Soriaga (1985) in Sikolohiyang Pilipino:
Isyu, pananaw, at kaalaman. Allen Aganon & Ma. Assumpta David (Ed.)
(1985) National Bookstore Inc.: Manila.
Panunuluyan approach
■ Panunuluyan: ang kontekstong pisikal at
teknolohikal.
■ Pakikipagkapwa: ang batayang panlipunan ng
pakikipanuluyan.
Panunuluyan approach
■ Makataong pakikipag-ugnayan: pagdalaw,
paninirahan, pananahanan, pakikisuno.
■ Pakikibagay: pakikitulog at pakikikain.
■ Pakikiramdam at paninimbang: paraan at
batayan ng pakikipagpalagayang-loob.
SIKOLOHIYANG PILIPINO RESEARCH
APPROACHES AND
TECHNIQUES
Panunuluyan approach
■ Pakikiramdam, paggamit ng damdamin, mata at
pandinig upang maintindihan o mabasa ang ibig
ipahiwatig ng kausap na ipinahahayag sa
pamamagitan ng kilos, parinig at matalinhagang
salita (talas ng pakiramdam).
SIKOLOHIYANG PILIPINO RESEARCH
APPROACHES AND
TECHNIQUES
Panunuluyan approach
■ Pakikiramdam could serve as a personality
disposition, as a situational behavior, as a
coping mechanism; closely related to many
general psychological concepts such as
empathy and sensitivity.
Rita Mataragnon (1982) in Sikolohiyang Pilipino: Isyu, pananaw, at
kaalaman. Allen Aganon and Ma. Assumpta David (Ed.) (1985). National
Bookstore Inc.: Manila
SIKOLOHIYANG PILIPINO RESEARCH
APPROACHES AND
TECHNIQUES
Panunuluyan approach
■ Paninimbang: damdamin at isipan (sentido
komon) ang pinaiiral dito at anuman ang
namasid, nadama, o napakiramdaman ay
aangkupan ng tugong-kilos, subalit iniisip ang
kahalagahan at kabutihang maidudulot ng
katugunang ito (pagtutumbas).
SIKOLOHIYANG PILIPINO RESEARCH
APPROACHES AND
TECHNIQUES
Panunuluyan approach
■ Pamamaraan
panimulang pagsasanay
paglalakbay at pakikisuno
paghimpil sa pook
pagtingin-tingin sa maaaring panuluyan
paghanap ng tulay
pagdalaw sa pakikipanuluyan
SIKOLOHIYANG PILIPINO RESEARCH
APPROACHES AND
TECHNIQUES
Panunuluyan approach
■ Pagsasakatuparan
pagbati at pagpapakilala
pag-aayos ng mga dala-dalahan
pakikipagpalagayan
pagtulong-tulong
pagpalit-palitang paggamit ng mga metodo
paggawa ng pananaliksik
pamamaalam at pasasalamat
SIKOLOHIYANG PILIPINO RESEARCH
APPROACHES AND
TECHNIQUES
Panunuluyan approach
■ Suliraning etikal
pagsasabi ng layunin ng pananaliksik
pagkasangkapan sa pagkakaibigan
pagsasabi sa kinalabasan ng pananaliksik
paghingi ng pahintulot
pagtanaw ng utang na loob/pamemerwisyo
pagbubunyag ng natuklasang katiwalian
SIKOLOHIYANG PILIPINO RESEARCH
APPROACHES AND
TECHNIQUES
Pagtatanong-tanong Method
■ Pagtatanong-tanong, Filipino word for “asking
questions,” the repetition of ‘tanong’ to ‘tanong-
tanong’ indicates seriousness of purpose, one is
truly determined to get answers to ones
questions.
■ Rogelia R. Pe-Pua (1989). International Journal of Intercultural Relations,
Vol. 13, pp 147-163. Pergamon Press: USA
SIKOLOHIYANG PILIPINO RESEARCH
APPROACHES AND TECHNIQUES
Pagtatanong-tanong Method
Major Characteristics
– Participatory in nature
– Equality of status
– Appropriate and adaptive
– Integrated with other indigenous methods
SIKOLOHIYANG PILIPINO RESEARCH
APPROACHES AND
TECHNIQUES
Pagtatanong-tanong Method
■ Preparation: pagtatanong-tanong is part of
everyday casual interaction, researcher must
plan very well for certain conditions, consider
convenience and comfort of informants, their
background
differences,
language, norms, values, and
(history, within/between group
activities, policies).
SIKOLOHIYANG PILIPINO RESEARCH APPROACHES
AND TECHNIQUES
Procedure of pagtatanong-tanong
Get to know the people, place, lifestyle
Greet informants, give credentials (name the go-
between)
Go tell them the purpose of the study
Give an estimate of the expected length of the
session
Guide questions are used when necessary
Goodbye and thank you is not abrupt
SIKOLOHIYANG PILIPINO RESEARCH
APPROACHES AND
TECHNIQUES
Principles of pagtatanong-tanong
The level of the relationship that exists between
the researcher and the informant significantly
influences the quality of data obtained
(Santiago-Enriquez Model).
The language of the respondent is used in the
conduct of pagtatanong-tanong.
SIKOLOHIYANG PILIPINO RESEARCH
APPROACHES AND
TECHNIQUES
Principles of pagtatanong-tanong
The use of pakikiramdam as ‘feeling for another’
(cultural sensitivity), through this the researcher
knows when to ask or avoid questions, interprets
a ‘yes’ for a ‘no’.
The equality of status is maintained, as it is a
dialogue (informant is a kausap or person
spoken with) not an interview.
SIKOLOHIYANG PILIPINO RESEARCH
APPROACHES AND
TECHNIQUES
Principles of pagtatanong-tanong
The issue of reliability: consistency of response
can be checked by repeating the question in a
different way.
The problem of investigator bias and data
contamination can be solved by having more
than one person do the pagtatanong-tanong.
SIKOLOHIYANG PILIPINO RESEARCH
APPROACHES AND
TECHNIQUES
Principles of pagtatanong-tanong
Repeated sampling from as many informants as
possible can produce commonalities of lexical
domain which can then constitute a ‘construct.’
Familiarity with the language, values, cultural
norms, will optimize accuracy and relevance of
interpretations.
Pakikipagkwentuhan Method
Kuwentuhan is an occasion for exchange of
information, ideas, insights, and opinions also it
is a sharing of beliefs, thoughts, and
experiences.
Roberto E. Javier Jr. (2004). Methodological Properties of
Pakikipagkwentuhan. DLSU-URCO Research Project Report.
Pakikipagkwentuhan Method
Oral (pasalita)
Written (pasulat)
Transmitted (pasalin-salin) through time
Request (paki – paghingi ng pahintulot)
Pakikipagkwentuhan Method
Pakikipagkwentuhan is an informal, free, as well
as a social process of exchanging information,
thoughts, and knowledge that is part of human
daily activities.
Grace O. Oteza (1997). Pakikipagkwentuhan: Isang pamamaraan ng sama-
samang pananaliksik, pagpapatotoo, at pagtulong sa Sikolohiyang Pilipino.
PPRTH Occasional Papers Series 1997, No. 1.
Procedure of pakikipagkwentuhan
■ initially make visits (padalaw-dalaw) before
living-in the community (panunuluyan)
■ introduce yourself to the community
■ invite yourself to community gatherings
■ initiate a conversation when in a natural
cluster
■ invest time in story sharing sessions
■ Principles of pakikipagkwentuhan
may pakikipagkapwa sa kwentuhan
may ‘paki’ ang kalahok sa kwento
may pakinabang sa kwentuhan
libangan
linangan ng kaalaman
lunas sa karamdaman
■ Principles of pakikipagkwentuhan
collective orientation
(pananaliksik na sama-sama)
contains the process of validation
(pagpapatotoo)
construction of social reality (pagbubuo)
cluster as unit of analysis
(pagsali sa likas na umpukan)
■ Principles of pakikipagkwentuhan
with a topic to talk about but without a theme
(may pakay pero walang paksa)
worth or value of story produced from the
kwentuhan session (kwenta ng kwento)
■ Principles of pakikipagkwentuhan
Validity: trustworthiness not truth
(mapagkakatiwalaan kaysa makatotohanan)
Reliability: certification not consistency
(process of pakikipagkwentuhan-indicator)
(pagpapatotoo, pagpapatibay)
SIKOLOHIYANG PILIPINO RESEARCH
APPROACHES AND
TECHNIQUES
■ Ginabayang Talakayan Method
collective discussion technique
‘sama-sama’ orientation
Roberto Galvez

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FILIPINO PSYCHology sikolohiyang pilipino

  • 2. WHAT IS FILIPINO PSYCHOLOGY? ■ It is an Indigenous Psychology The scientific study of the ethnicity, society and culture of a people and the application to psychological practice of indigenous knowledge rooted in the people’s ethnic heritage and consciousness. Virgilio G. Enriquez (1994). Pagbabangong-Dangal: Indigenous Psychology & Cultural Empowerment. Akademya ng Kultura at Sikolohiyang Pilipino: Lungsod ng Quezon.
  • 3. DISTINCTIONS AMONG THE FORMS OF PSYCHOLOGY IN THE PHILIPPINES ■ Sikolohiya sa Pilipinas Psychology in the Philippines ■ Sikolohiya ng mga Pilipino Psychology of Filipinos ■ Sikolohiyang Pilipino Filipino Psychology Virgilio G. Enriquez (1976) in Sikolohiyang Pilipino: Teorya, metodo at gamit. Rogelia Pe-Pua (Ed.) (1989) University of the Philippines Press: Quezon City.
  • 4. SIKOLOHIYA SA PILIPINAS ■ Psychology in the Philippines • refers to a series of events related to the field of psychology in the Philippines. • (e.g. number of degree programs and journals, the amount of research conducted) • ang pinakamalaki o kabuuang anyo ng sikolohiya sa kontekstong Pilipino.
  • 5. SIKOLOHIYA NG MGA PILIPINO ■ Psychology of Filipinos • refers to any theories or knowledge of Filipino nature regardless of source, Western or local • Palasak na anyo sapagkat pinakakaraniwan o madaling makita.
  • 6. SIKOLOHIYANG PILIPINO ■ Filipino Psychology refers to a psychology based on the Filipino’s true thoughts, feelings, behaviors and must derive from indigenous Filipino sources, language, and methods. nilalayong anyo, sikolohiyang bunga ng karanasan, kaisipan at oryentasyong Pilipino
  • 7. LIMITS OF WESTERN CONCEPTS & METHODS ■ Issue Applicability of the Western theories and principles taught as well as the research concepts and methods used in the Philippine setting. Timothy Church (1985) in Indigenous Psychology: A Book of Readings. V.G. Enriquez (Ed.) Akademya ng Sikolohiyang Pilipino: Quezon City.
  • 8. LIMITS OF WESTERN CONCEPTS & METHODS ■ The limits of Western social research methods in rural Philippines: The need for innovation Gloria D. Feliciano (1965) in Sikolohiyang Pilipino: Teorya, Metodo at Gamit. Rogelia Pe-Pua (Ed.) (1989) University of the Philippines Press: Quezon City.
  • 9. LIMITS OF WESTERN CONCEPTS & METHODS ■ The limits of applicability of Western concepts, values and methods in the social sciences to the concrete realities of Asian societies. Augusto C. Espiritu (1968) in Indigenous Psychology: A Book of Readings. V.G. Enriquez (Ed.) (1990) Akademya ng Sikolohiyang Pilipino: Quezon City.
  • 10. SIKOLOHIYANG PILIPINO FROM A MOVEMENT TO AN ACADEMIC DISCIPLINE ■ Principal emphasis in psychology Identity and national consciousness Social awareness and involvement Psychology of language and culture Applications & bases of Filipino psychology (health practices, agriculture, art, religion) Virgilio G. Enriquez (1992). From colonial to liberation psychology: The Philippine experience. University of the Philippines Press. QC
  • 11. PRIMARY AREAS OF PROTESTS OF SIKOLOHIYANG PILIPINO ■ It is against a psychology that perpetuates the colonial status of the Filipino mind a psychology used for the exploitation of the masses the imposition of psychologies developed in foreign countries
  • 12. POSITIONS OF SIKOLOHIYANG PILIPINO ■ On psychological practice conceptualization of psychological practice in a Philippine context (industriya vs. kabuhayan; klinika vs. kalusugan) concerned with folk practices, indigenous techniques of healing, popular religio-political movements
  • 13. POSITIONS OF SIKOLOHIYANG PILIPINO ■ On Science – Humanism issue utilizes scientific methodology in the study of psychological phenomena concerned not only with the universal validity of psychological science but also in utilizing such for the purpose of serving the interest of all mankind, affording protection to the disadvantaged
  • 14. POSITIONS OF SIKOLOHIYANG PILIPINO ■ On Mentalism - Behaviorism issue • uses both phenomenological & behavioristic concepts, but lesser emphasis on individual experience and greater emphasis on the collective experience • attaches greater importance to kamalayan, subsidiary importance to ulirat
  • 15. POSITIONS OF SIKOLOHIYANG PILIPINO ■ On Analysis – Wholeness Issue methodologically leans on the side of analysis but interprets the result of analysis with a bias for wholeness (social context, political implications, cultural meaning of the study)
  • 16. SIKOLOHIYANG PILIPINO IS A ‘TAONG-BAHAY’ ■ Metaphor Sikolohiyang Pilipino can be explained through a metaphor: (a characteristic way of clarifying concepts) – difference between tao sa bahay (person in the house) and taong-bahay (house person).
  • 17. SIKOLOHIYANG PILIPINO IS A CALL ■ for the exercise of care in the adoption of foreign theories… “uncritical rejection is just as dangerous as uncritical acceptance of Western theories” ■ for example: psychological problems are the same anywhere however, the sources of such problems differ greatly
  • 18. LINES OF FILIATIONS IN PHILIPPINE PSYCHOLOGICAL THOUGHT ■ Academic-scientific psychology: Western ■ Academic-philosophical psychology: Clergy ■ Ethnic psychology: Indigenous psychology ■ Psycho-medical system: Religion - cohesive element and explanation. Zeus A. Salazar (1981) in Sikolohiyang Pilipino: Isyu, pananaw, at kaalaman. Allen Aganon at Ma. Assumpta David (1985). National Bookstore, Inc.: Manila.
  • 19. PSYCHOLOGY: THE WESTERN TRADITION ■ Academic-scientific psychology: Wilhelm Wundt, the German tradition University of the Philippines (1908) and other American traditional schools ■ Academic-philosophical psychology: Thomistic philosophy and psychology University of Santo Tomas (1611)
  • 20. ETHNIC PSYCHOLOGY NATIVE PSYCHOLOGICAL THOUGHT ■ Indigenous psychology: kinagisnan and katutubong sikolohiya. ■ Psychology of Filipinos - perceived ethnic traits, as observed by foreigners or as felt and expressed by Filipinos. ■ The practice of psychology by Filipinos – techniques of enculturation, socialization.
  • 21. PSYCHOLOGY: THE FILIPINO TRADITION Ethnic psychology ■ Kinagisnang sikolohiya the subconscious psychology imbedded in the native language, art, music, culture and religion (one has been born into; unaware). e.g. kaluluwa at ginhawa Zeus A. Salazar (1977) in Sikolohiyang Pilipino: Teorya, metodo, at gamit. Rogelia Pe-Pua (Ed.) (1989). University of the Philippines Press: Quezon City.
  • 22. PSYCHOLOGY: THE FILIPINO TRADITION Ethnic psychology ■ Katutubong sikolohiya psychology worked out by Filipinos with indigenous elements as basis (innate to the Filipino) e.g. Kartilya of the Katipunan, Jose Rizal, Hermano Pule, Isabelo de los Reyes. Katutubong sikolohiya and Kinagisnang sikolohiya constitute Katutubong sikolohiya
  • 23. PSYCHOLOGY: THE FILIPINO TRADITION Ethnic psychology ■ Psychology of Filipinos- based on mainly Western system of thought e.g. Spanish: Pigafetta’s quite objective observation of the Filipinos in the Visayas (impressed by them); American: Worcester’s view of the Filipinos as distinct ethnic groups different from one another as Christian and non-Christian (pagans and Moros).
  • 24. PSYCHOLOGY: THE FILIPINO TRADITION Ethnic psychology ■ Practice of psychology by Filipinos: a. indigenous techniques of enculturation/ socialization, e.g. myths for social control, or as affected by Christianity or Islam. b. proto-clinical practice, e.g. tagapayo, manghuhula, ancient techniques of group therapy that are still present (alternating chants during wakes, poetry, consensus).
  • 25. PSYCHOLOGY: THE FILIPINO TRADITION ■ Ethnic psychology • Psycho-medical system: religion as cohesive element and explanation. • (1565) Babaylan or Catalonan techniques of healing; disease theory, causation, therapy. • (1650) Messianic movements • (1730) Herbolaryo • (1900) Espiritista
  • 26. FILIPINO PSYCHOLOGICAL KNOWLEDGE ■ Filipino Language use as a tool for identifying/rediscovering indigenous concepts e.g. study of diwa (psyche), refers to the wealth of ideas implied by the philosophical concept of “essence”
  • 27. FILIPINO LANGUAGE “Enriquez does his theorizing in Filipino and does his writing in Pilipino; merely as a heuristic device, a discovery procedure… returning to the ‘deep structure’ of the language… Enriquez worked in an area where Filipinos are most adept, where the language has a rich vocabulary of feeling and sentiment.” Andrew B. Gonzales (1982) in Indigenous Psychology: A book of readings. V.G. Enriquez (Ed.) Akademya ng Sikolohiyang Pilipino: Quezon City.
  • 28. LANGUAGE, A HEURISTIC TOOL Analysis, ■ Methods: Ethnography, Language Semantics, Introspection Language provided the instrument to refine the tools of research so as to discover categories and subcategories which would be lost to a Western English-speaking researcher…
  • 29. FILIPINO, THE PHILIPPINE LINGUA FRANCA The issue of national language has long been resolved by the Filipino masses through their use and propagation of a language based on the Manila lingua franca, Manila being the seat of government, the business hub, melting pot, center of history. Virgilio G. Enriquez & Elizabeth P. Marcelino (1984). Neo-colonial politics and language struggle in the Philippines. Akademya ng Sikolohiyang Pilipino: Quezon City.
  • 30. LANGUAGE & KNOWLEDGE ■ System of communication summing-up our lived experiences ■ Social interaction expressing our thoughts and feelings ■ Spoken language from bodily gestures to linguistic acts specialized speech apparatus primary medium of communication
  • 31. THINKING & LANGUAGE ■ Interdependence of knowledge & language, i.e. the thinking process cannot work independently of language ■ Language is not a neutral system of signs nor is it value-free, i.e. it is partisan to the values, perspectives, and rules of cognition of a particular class or society
  • 32. LANGUAGE, HISTORY, AND SOCIO- ECONOMIC-CULTURAL LIFE ■ Specific historical features and socio-economic- cultural conditions shape the thinking and language of a people, giving distinctive meanings and value judgments to their words. ■ Indigenous language, genuine vehicle of the innermost thoughts and intimate feelings of a people bound by a common historical heritage and a specific socio-economic-cultural environment.
  • 33. PSYCHOLOGICAL CONCEPTS AND HUMAN BEHAVIOR ■ The formation of psychological concepts is the more important stage in the entire process of understanding human behavior. ■ These concepts lay the foundation for the formation of indigenous psychological theories and models of analysis that correspond more fully to the realities of the life and culture of a society.
  • 34. DEVELOPMENT OF TECHNICAL TERMINOLOGY IN FILIPINO PSYCHOLOGY ■ System of affixation in the Filipino language a resource for terminology development ■ The meaning changes because of the use of affixes (suffixes, prefixes, infixes, postfixes) paki, mang, mapa, ika, ipang, ma, ka, maka Zeus A. Salazar (1981) in Sikolohiyang Pilipino: Isyu, pananaw, at kaalaman. Allen Aganon at Ma. Assumpta David (1985). National Bookstore, Inc.: Manila
  • 35. DEVELOPMENT OF TECHNICAL TERMINOLOGY IN FILIPINO PSYCHOLOGY ■ Direct borrowing (saling-angkat) perception (L) persepsyon psicologia (S) sikolohiya ■ Surface assimilation (saling-paimbabaw) reinforcement - reimporsment ■ Grammatical translation (saling-panggramatika) social interaction – interaksyong sosyal
  • 36. DEVELOPMENT OF TECHNICAL TERMINOLOGY IN FILIPINO PSYCHOLOGY ■ Loan translation (saling-hiram) defense mechanism mekanismong pananggalang ■ Word invention (salitang likha) masturbation – mag-isang pagpaparaos ■ Abbreviated words (salitang daglat) STM short term memory PUP Panukat ng Ugali at Pagkatao
  • 37. DEVELOPMENT OF TECHNICAL TERMINOLOGY IN FILIPINO PSYCHOLOGY ■ Parallel translation (salitang-tapat) relationship = pakikisalamuha ■ Indigenous-concept oriented translation (salitang taal) kapwa: hindi ibang-tao, ibang-tao ■ Amalgamated translation (salitang sanib) mahay (Cebuano), nagmamahay
  • 38. DEVELOPMENT OF TECHNICAL TERMINOLOGY IN FILIPINO PSYCHOLOGY Categorization of words and concepts ■ Foreign concepts (konseptong banyaga) home for the aged ■ Superficial assimilation (paimbabaw na asimilasyon) reinforcement – gantimpala, ‘may napala’ ■ Labeling (pagbibinyag) utang-na-loob - reciprocity hiya - shame pakikisama - comradeship
  • 39. Categorization of words and concepts ■ Semantic indigenization (pag-aandukha) paniniyansing, tambayan (stand by) ■ Semantic delimitation (pagtatakda) gunita – recall, alaala – memory personality is personalidad not pagkatao ■ Indigenous concepts (katutubong konsepto) saling-pusa (informal member) pagka-pikon (to be peeved)
  • 40. KAPWA, A CORE CONCEPT IN FILIPINO PSYCHOLOGY ■ The Filipino language provides a conceptual distinction in several levels and modes of social interaction (antas ng pagtutunguhan). ■ Eight behaviorally recognizable levels under two general categories in Filipino were identified (ibang-tao; hindi ibang-tao). Carmen E. Santiago and Virgilio G. Enriquez (1976) in Sikolohiyang Pilipino: Teorya, metodo at gamit. Rogelia Pe-Pua (Ed.) (1989) University of the Philippines Press: Quezon City.
  • 41. KAPWA, A CORE CONCEPT IN FILIPINO PSYCHOLOGY ■ Ibang-tao (outsider) pakikitungo (amenities, civility) pakikisalimuha (‘mixing’) pakikilahok (joining, participating) pakikibagay (conforming) pakikisama (adjusting) ■ Hindi ibang-tao (one-of-us) pakikipagpalagayang-loob (mutual trust) pakikisangkot (getting involved) pakikiisa (full trust, oneness, fusion)
  • 42. KAPWA, THE SHARED INNER SELF ■ Kapwa (English: both, fellow being, others) others is used in opposition to the ‘self’ implies the recognition of the ‘self’ ‘self’ as a separate identity ■ Kapwa in Filipino a recognition of shared identity an inner self shared with others the ‘ako’ (ego) and the ‘iba sa akin’ (others) are one and the same in kapwa psychology
  • 43. KAPWA, A CORE CONCEPT IN FILIPINO PSYCHOLOGY ■ Pakikitungo, pakikipagkapwa are mutually replaceable in taxonomic analysis, either covers the entire lexical domain. ■ Pakikipagkapwa, more theoretically fertile concept when analyzed semantically; much deeper and profound in its implications as it means accepting and dealing with the other person as an equal.
  • 44. PAKIKIRAMDAM: THE PIVOTAL ASPECT OF KAPWA ■ refers to heightened awareness, sensitivity ■ ‘feeling for another’ ■ a kind of emotional a priori ■ an active process involving great care and deliberation manifested in ‘hesitation to react, inattention to subtle cues, and non-verbal behavior in mental role-playing Rita H. Mataragnon (1987) in From colonial to liberation psychology: The Philippine Experience. Virgilio G. Enriquez (Ed) (1992) UP Press.
  • 45. PAKIKIRAMDAM: THE PIVOTAL ASPECT OF KAPWA ■ Pakiramdam is necessarily tied to the operation of all Filipino surface values: pakikisama, hiya, utang na loob ■ The improvisatory character of pakikiramdam is operative in bahala na lakas ng loob, pakikibaka ■ The centrality of pakiramdam in behavioral and interpersonal domains: biro-lambing-tampo.
  • 46. THE DEVELOPMENT OF SIKOLOHIYANG PILIPINO KNOWLEDGE Major goals of Sikolohiyang Pilipino ■ pagsasakatutubo (indigenization) ■ pagka-agham (science) ■ pagka-Pilipino (Filipino identity) Mario San Buenaventura (1983) in Sikolohiyang Pilipino: Isyu, pananaw, at kaalaman. Allen Aganon at Ma. Assumpta David (1985). National Bookstore, Inc.: Manila
  • 47. THE DEVELOPMENT OF SIKOLOHIYANG PILIPINO KNOWLEDGE The project of Sikolohiyang Pilipino ■ development of indigenous psychological concepts ■ utilization of indigenous research methods ■ creation of authentic and appropriate social scientific psychology Steven Rood (1985) in Sikolohiyang Pilipino: Isyu, pananaw, at kaalaman. Allen Aganon at Ma. Assumpta David (1985). National Bookstore, Inc.: Manila
  • 48. RESEARCH APPROACHES ■ Experimental - adherence to predetermined set of procedures ■ Survey – conform to an informal agreement with respondents ■ Participatory – negotiate issues jointly as they arise ■ Indigenous – seek to enhance awareness as one-with-the-other
  • 49. INDIGENOUS RESEARCH ■ Cross-Indigenous Psychology fuses the modern and the traditional i.e. using scientific methods and ensuring that they are culturally appropriate. ■ Sikolohiyang Pilipino utilizes and borrows concepts from both the modern and traditional cultural systems.
  • 50. APPROACHES IN THE DEVELOPMENT & UTILIZATION OF INDIGENOUS VIEWPOINTS ■ Indigenization from within basis: the indigenous direction: outwards culture-as-source ■ Indigenization from without basis: the exogenous direction: inwards culture-as-target
  • 51. INDIGENIZATION FROM WITHOUT ■ Content indigenization translation of imported materials ■ Theoretic indigenization ■ Indigenization as strategy ■ Culture assimilation indigenous versions of imported systems
  • 52. INDIGENIZATION FROM WITHIN ■ Identification of indigenous concepts, methods, theories ■ Semantic elaboration ■ Indigenous codification re-codification ■ Systematization/explication of implied theoretical frameworks ■ Application/use
  • 53. USING THE CULTURE AS SOURCE need for cultural ■ Indigenization from within necessarily implies the revalidation a demand for concepts and methods which are culturally appropriate, scientifically valid
  • 54. TRADITIONAL FILIPINO INDIGENOUS PSYCHOLOGY AND CULTURE ■ Language ethnolingguistic groups, multilingual people ■ Leisure laro, laruan, palaro (patintero, sipa, piko) ■ Cuisine adobo, bistik, dinuguan at puto, halo-halo ■ Law
  • 55. TRADITIONAL FILIPINO INDIGENOUS PSYCHOLOGY AND CULTURE ■ Religion belief in a supreme being (Batlaya) respect for nature (spirits dwell in nature) reverence for ancestry (bulol, anito, ninuno)
  • 56. ■ Religion underscores the importance of establishing close interpersonal relations with one’s family, relatives and fellowmen (kapwa) highly-developed sense of values: courage, cleanliness, courtesy, control and the family
  • 57. ■ Religion indigenous morality: profound concept of pagkamakatao babaylan (priestess), dambana (shrine) rituals and symbols for good (benevolent diwata) and evil (malevolent aswang)
  • 58. ■ Manuscripts, memories, mummies lost bell of Balangica, baybayin (alibata), burial grounds in Sagada ■ Misa, mesa, mamimista, mamimis kita Foreign words subsumed in the structure of the Filipino language
  • 59. ■ Names: Sinag Liwayway (T), Dawani Paros (B), Janatyan Ahaddas (Y), Hamili Ayo (C), Sudi Amor (I) ■ Literature: Francisco Balagtas, Ka Amado ■ Theater and Film: Fernando Poe Jr. Tagalog movies shown in theaters from Batanes to Jolo
  • 60. ■ Medicine lason vs. gamot, synthetic pesticides have gone semantic transformation- result of massive promotion during the Marcos’ Green Revolution project herbal medicine, medicinal plants, hilot, concepts attributing illness to displaced organs that have to be massaged back into its correct position
  • 61. ■ Music and Arts: Sarong Banggi (B), Ati Cu Pung Singsing (P), Pamulinawen (I), Pobreng Alindahaw (C), Dandansoy (H), Salidumay (S); Kulilal Ensemble of Palawan, Kutyapi Artists of Maguindanao ■ Rituals and Ceremonies: agimat (talisman), mutya (charm), gayuma (spell), anting-anting (amulet); bulong (whisper); sapi (spirit possession)
  • 62. ■ Methods: doing diagnosis psychodiagnostician determine culturally-defined cause of affliction through patawas, pagbatbat/pag-usisa, pagpakot, pamulso. beliefs in sapi, matanda, nuno, dwende.
  • 63. ■ Meanings: Hiyang – (compatible, suited) in indigenous medical practice, it means compatibility of the treatment and medicine with the individual. Lagnat laki (‘growing-up’ fever); Lugaw is perceived as ‘food for the sick’
  • 64. ■ Genetic diversity of indigenous plants e.g. varieties of rice grains nurtured through centuries by indigenous people ■ Herbal knowledge e.g. pito-pito, herbal tea from seven leaves: bayabas, banaba, alagao, kulantro, mango, pandan – use to detoxify the body.
  • 65. PHILIPPINE CULTURAL STUDIES ■ Perspectival and Interpretive Models • absolutist position - assumes the basic congruence of psychological phenomena across humankind • relativist position – assumes differences across cultures, if not the uniqueness of each one
  • 66. PHILIPPINE CULTURAL STUDIES pangkami (reactive relativist), assumes the utility of an alien frame of reference pantayong pananaw (ethnocentric), assumes the absolutist indigenous perspective universalist position implied by the kapwa and cross indigenous orientation of Sikolohiyang Pilipino
  • 67. PHILIPPINE CULTURAL STUDIES ■ Universalist position assumes that basic psychological processes are likely to be common features of human life everywhere, yet their manifestations are likely to be influenced by culture
  • 68. PHILIPPINE CULTURAL STUDIES ■ Emic approach (phonemic) the need to understand a culture from its own perspective (using natural taxonomies) ■ Etic approach (phonetic) the discovery of psychological universal
  • 69. FILIPINO INTELLECTUAL TRADITION ■ Philosophical traditions and paradigms of science as neither Eastern nor Western ■ The West does not have a monopoly of scientific standards, in fact science evolved from Eastern intellectual traditions ■ Filipino intellectual traditions: the Ma’aram, si Pilosopong Tasyo
  • 70. FILIPINO INTELLECTUAL TRADITION ■ Filipino philosophy of science incorporates the demands of empirical validation from reliability and validity to affirmability and authenticity. ■ Levels of validity & scientific standards katatagan (replicability, reliability) katapatan (multiple operationism, validity) patibay (certification) patotoo (affirmability, attestability) patunay (authenticity)
  • 71. FILIPINO INDIGENOUS THEORIES ■ Filipino concepts and models of personality The five elements of the Ma’aram concept of pagkatawo (personhood): ginhawa (vital principle) buot (perception) isip (mind) dungan (sleep spirit) kalag (life spirit)
  • 72. FILIPINO INDIGENOUS THEORIES ■ Filipino concepts and models of personality Three elements in Baltazar’s model: bait (sanity) muni (reflection) hatol (judgment)
  • 73. FILIPINO INDIGENOUS THEORIES ■ Filipino concepts and models of personality The four elements in Covar’s concept of Filipino personhood: kaluluwa (spirit) budhi (conscience) katauhang panlabas, external appearance katauhang panloob (innermost being)
  • 74. ■ Filipino social interaction theory Levels and modes of social interaction rooted in Filipino collectivist culture which have been identified using ethnoscientific field methods. ■ Kapwa, a core concept in Filipino social psychology. Pakikipagkapwa is accepting, dealing with the other person as an equal.
  • 75. ■ Filipino concept of justice Tagalog, Ilongos, Cebuanos, Pampangos use a common word for justice, katarungan, derived from the Visayan root tarong means straight, upright, appropriate, correct, and for right, we use karapatan, whose root is dapat signifying fitting, appropriate, correct i.e. justice is related to right Jose W. Diokno (1983) in Sikolohiyang Pilipino: Isyu, pananaw, at kaalaman. Allen Aganon at Ma. Assumpta David (1985). National Bookstore, Inc.: Manila
  • 76. RESEARCH MODELS ■ Models of data collection Self-orientation Experimenter-orientation Reactive-orientation Mutual-orientation Linda L. Viney (1988) in Pagbabangong-dangal: Indigenous psychology and cultural empowerment. Virgilo G. Enriquez (Ed.) 1994. Akademya ng Sikolohiyang Pilipino. Quezon City.
  • 77. RESEARCH MODELS ■ Models of data collection Self-orientation Model: the data collector and contributors relate to the other only to the extent of waiting until the other stops responding, e.g. laboratory-based studies of memory. Communication is not taking place between them through socially shared interpretations or common constructs.
  • 78. RESEARCH MODELS ■ Models of data collection Experimenter-orientation Model: the data collectors appear to influence while only the data contributors appear to be influenced, e.g. Asch’s person perception study; an imbalance of power in favor of data collectors who appear to define the experimental situation.
  • 79. RESEARCH MODELS ■ Models of data collection Reactive-orientation Model: the participants in the data collection are reacting to what is currently taking place between them, e.g. verbal conditioning research; yet the capacities of both data contributors and collectors to construe are assumed to be unimportant and are ignored.
  • 80. RESEARCH MODELS ■ Models of data collection Mutual-orientation Model: the data collector and contributor give something to, and gain something from the data collection, e.g. Piaget’s early research on conservation. Indigenous psychology research uses this model as the cultural researcher is a culture bearer himself.
  • 81. RESEARCH MODELS Researcher-Researchee Relationship Model ■ Scale of the Researcher Iskala ng Mananaliksik ■ Scale of the Relationship or Interaction between the Researcher and the Researchee Iskala ng Pagtutunguhan ng Mananaliksik at Kalahok Carmen E. Santiago & Virgilio G. Enriquez (1975) in Sikolohiyang Pilipino: Teorya, metodo, at gamit. Rogelia E. Pe-Pua (Ed.). UP Press.
  • 82. SANTIAGO-ENRIQUEZ RESEARCH MODEL Researcher-Researchee Relationship Model ■ Scale of the Researcher Iskala ng Mananaliksik These are methods used by the researcher in generating data that are tried and tested and are culturally sensitive and appropriate in doing research with Filipinos.
  • 83. SANTIAGO-ENRIQUEZ RESEARCH MODEL Researcher-Researchee Relationship Model ■ Scale of the Relationship or Interaction between the Researcher and the Researchee Iskala ng Pagtutunguhan ng Mananaliksik at Kalahok The level of interaction between the researcher and the researchee significantly determines the quality of data obtained.
  • 84. SANTIAGO-ENRIQUEZ RESEARCH MODEL Researcher-Researchee Relationship Model ■ Levels of Relationship There are eight levels of interaction which range from the relatively uninvolved civility of pakikitungo to the total sense of identification in pakikiisa. These eight levels of interaction can be divided into two categories: the ibang-tao (outsider) and the hindi ibang-tao (one-of-us).
  • 85. Researcher-Researchee Relationship Model ■ Levels of Relationship Ibang-tao category (outsider) pakikitungo (amenities, civility) pakikisalimuha (interaction) pakikilahok (participation, joining) pakikibagay (conforming) pakikisama (adjusting, being along with)
  • 86. SANTIAGO-ENRIQUEZ RESEARCH MODEL Researcher-Researchee Relationship Model ■ Levels of Relationship Hindi ibang-tao category (one-of-us) pakikipagpalagayang-loob (mutual trust) pakikisangkot (active involvement) pakikiisa (full trust)
  • 87. FILIPINO INDIGENOUS RESEARCH METHODS Collective indigenous method ■ partakes of the characteristics of: a community dialogue focused group discussion natural cluster interview group attestation ■ puts premium on: cultural appropriateness an ordinary get-together
  • 88. FILIPINO INDIGENOUS RESEARCH METHODS Approaches & Techniques ■ Pakapa-kapa (‘groping,’ a field method) ■ Pagtatanong-tanong (asking questions) ■ Pakikiramdam (shared sensitivities) ■ Pakikialam (concerned interference) ■ Pakikilahok (participation) ■ Pakikisangkot (integral involvement) ■ Pagdalaw-dalaw (casual but repeated visits)
  • 89. SIKOLOHIYANG PILIPINO RESEARCH APPROACHES AND TECHNIQUES ■ Pakapa-kapa an approach characterized by groping, searching, probing into an unsystematized mass of social and cultural data to be able to obtain order, meaning, and directions for research. Carmen E. Santiago (1975) in Sikolohiyang Pilipino: Teorya, metodo, at gamit. Rogelia R. Pe-Pua (Ed.) (1989) UP Press Amaryllis T. Torres in Sikolohiyang Pilipino: Teorya, metodo, at gamit. Rogelia R. Pe-Pua (Ed.) (1989) UP Press
  • 90. Pakapa-kapa ■ implies an exploration into cultural, social or psychological data without the chains of overriding theoretical framework borrowed from observations outside the focus of investigation. ■ can be related to unobtrusive techniques because the actual procedures for collecting information may range from observation, documentation, intervention, participation.
  • 91. Panunuluyan approach ■ interaction techniques, levels of relationship mula paninimbang hanggang malalimang pakikipagpalagayang-loob. Erlinda Nicdao-Henson (1977) in Sikolohiyang Pilipino: Teorya, metodo, at gamit. Rogelia R. Pe-Pua (Ed.) (1989). UP Press: QC. Josefina B. San Juan & Resurrecion Soriaga (1985) in Sikolohiyang Pilipino: Isyu, pananaw, at kaalaman. Allen Aganon & Ma. Assumpta David (Ed.) (1985) National Bookstore Inc.: Manila.
  • 92. Panunuluyan approach ■ Panunuluyan: ang kontekstong pisikal at teknolohikal. ■ Pakikipagkapwa: ang batayang panlipunan ng pakikipanuluyan.
  • 93. Panunuluyan approach ■ Makataong pakikipag-ugnayan: pagdalaw, paninirahan, pananahanan, pakikisuno. ■ Pakikibagay: pakikitulog at pakikikain. ■ Pakikiramdam at paninimbang: paraan at batayan ng pakikipagpalagayang-loob.
  • 94. SIKOLOHIYANG PILIPINO RESEARCH APPROACHES AND TECHNIQUES Panunuluyan approach ■ Pakikiramdam, paggamit ng damdamin, mata at pandinig upang maintindihan o mabasa ang ibig ipahiwatig ng kausap na ipinahahayag sa pamamagitan ng kilos, parinig at matalinhagang salita (talas ng pakiramdam).
  • 95. SIKOLOHIYANG PILIPINO RESEARCH APPROACHES AND TECHNIQUES Panunuluyan approach ■ Pakikiramdam could serve as a personality disposition, as a situational behavior, as a coping mechanism; closely related to many general psychological concepts such as empathy and sensitivity. Rita Mataragnon (1982) in Sikolohiyang Pilipino: Isyu, pananaw, at kaalaman. Allen Aganon and Ma. Assumpta David (Ed.) (1985). National Bookstore Inc.: Manila
  • 96. SIKOLOHIYANG PILIPINO RESEARCH APPROACHES AND TECHNIQUES Panunuluyan approach ■ Paninimbang: damdamin at isipan (sentido komon) ang pinaiiral dito at anuman ang namasid, nadama, o napakiramdaman ay aangkupan ng tugong-kilos, subalit iniisip ang kahalagahan at kabutihang maidudulot ng katugunang ito (pagtutumbas).
  • 97. SIKOLOHIYANG PILIPINO RESEARCH APPROACHES AND TECHNIQUES Panunuluyan approach ■ Pamamaraan panimulang pagsasanay paglalakbay at pakikisuno paghimpil sa pook pagtingin-tingin sa maaaring panuluyan paghanap ng tulay pagdalaw sa pakikipanuluyan
  • 98. SIKOLOHIYANG PILIPINO RESEARCH APPROACHES AND TECHNIQUES Panunuluyan approach ■ Pagsasakatuparan pagbati at pagpapakilala pag-aayos ng mga dala-dalahan pakikipagpalagayan pagtulong-tulong pagpalit-palitang paggamit ng mga metodo paggawa ng pananaliksik pamamaalam at pasasalamat
  • 99. SIKOLOHIYANG PILIPINO RESEARCH APPROACHES AND TECHNIQUES Panunuluyan approach ■ Suliraning etikal pagsasabi ng layunin ng pananaliksik pagkasangkapan sa pagkakaibigan pagsasabi sa kinalabasan ng pananaliksik paghingi ng pahintulot pagtanaw ng utang na loob/pamemerwisyo pagbubunyag ng natuklasang katiwalian
  • 100. SIKOLOHIYANG PILIPINO RESEARCH APPROACHES AND TECHNIQUES Pagtatanong-tanong Method ■ Pagtatanong-tanong, Filipino word for “asking questions,” the repetition of ‘tanong’ to ‘tanong- tanong’ indicates seriousness of purpose, one is truly determined to get answers to ones questions. ■ Rogelia R. Pe-Pua (1989). International Journal of Intercultural Relations, Vol. 13, pp 147-163. Pergamon Press: USA
  • 101. SIKOLOHIYANG PILIPINO RESEARCH APPROACHES AND TECHNIQUES Pagtatanong-tanong Method Major Characteristics – Participatory in nature – Equality of status – Appropriate and adaptive – Integrated with other indigenous methods
  • 102. SIKOLOHIYANG PILIPINO RESEARCH APPROACHES AND TECHNIQUES Pagtatanong-tanong Method ■ Preparation: pagtatanong-tanong is part of everyday casual interaction, researcher must plan very well for certain conditions, consider convenience and comfort of informants, their background differences, language, norms, values, and (history, within/between group activities, policies).
  • 103. SIKOLOHIYANG PILIPINO RESEARCH APPROACHES AND TECHNIQUES Procedure of pagtatanong-tanong Get to know the people, place, lifestyle Greet informants, give credentials (name the go- between) Go tell them the purpose of the study Give an estimate of the expected length of the session Guide questions are used when necessary Goodbye and thank you is not abrupt
  • 104. SIKOLOHIYANG PILIPINO RESEARCH APPROACHES AND TECHNIQUES Principles of pagtatanong-tanong The level of the relationship that exists between the researcher and the informant significantly influences the quality of data obtained (Santiago-Enriquez Model). The language of the respondent is used in the conduct of pagtatanong-tanong.
  • 105. SIKOLOHIYANG PILIPINO RESEARCH APPROACHES AND TECHNIQUES Principles of pagtatanong-tanong The use of pakikiramdam as ‘feeling for another’ (cultural sensitivity), through this the researcher knows when to ask or avoid questions, interprets a ‘yes’ for a ‘no’. The equality of status is maintained, as it is a dialogue (informant is a kausap or person spoken with) not an interview.
  • 106. SIKOLOHIYANG PILIPINO RESEARCH APPROACHES AND TECHNIQUES Principles of pagtatanong-tanong The issue of reliability: consistency of response can be checked by repeating the question in a different way. The problem of investigator bias and data contamination can be solved by having more than one person do the pagtatanong-tanong.
  • 107. SIKOLOHIYANG PILIPINO RESEARCH APPROACHES AND TECHNIQUES Principles of pagtatanong-tanong Repeated sampling from as many informants as possible can produce commonalities of lexical domain which can then constitute a ‘construct.’ Familiarity with the language, values, cultural norms, will optimize accuracy and relevance of interpretations.
  • 108. Pakikipagkwentuhan Method Kuwentuhan is an occasion for exchange of information, ideas, insights, and opinions also it is a sharing of beliefs, thoughts, and experiences. Roberto E. Javier Jr. (2004). Methodological Properties of Pakikipagkwentuhan. DLSU-URCO Research Project Report.
  • 109. Pakikipagkwentuhan Method Oral (pasalita) Written (pasulat) Transmitted (pasalin-salin) through time Request (paki – paghingi ng pahintulot)
  • 110. Pakikipagkwentuhan Method Pakikipagkwentuhan is an informal, free, as well as a social process of exchanging information, thoughts, and knowledge that is part of human daily activities. Grace O. Oteza (1997). Pakikipagkwentuhan: Isang pamamaraan ng sama- samang pananaliksik, pagpapatotoo, at pagtulong sa Sikolohiyang Pilipino. PPRTH Occasional Papers Series 1997, No. 1.
  • 111. Procedure of pakikipagkwentuhan ■ initially make visits (padalaw-dalaw) before living-in the community (panunuluyan) ■ introduce yourself to the community ■ invite yourself to community gatherings ■ initiate a conversation when in a natural cluster ■ invest time in story sharing sessions
  • 112. ■ Principles of pakikipagkwentuhan may pakikipagkapwa sa kwentuhan may ‘paki’ ang kalahok sa kwento may pakinabang sa kwentuhan libangan linangan ng kaalaman lunas sa karamdaman
  • 113. ■ Principles of pakikipagkwentuhan collective orientation (pananaliksik na sama-sama) contains the process of validation (pagpapatotoo) construction of social reality (pagbubuo) cluster as unit of analysis (pagsali sa likas na umpukan)
  • 114. ■ Principles of pakikipagkwentuhan with a topic to talk about but without a theme (may pakay pero walang paksa) worth or value of story produced from the kwentuhan session (kwenta ng kwento)
  • 115. ■ Principles of pakikipagkwentuhan Validity: trustworthiness not truth (mapagkakatiwalaan kaysa makatotohanan) Reliability: certification not consistency (process of pakikipagkwentuhan-indicator) (pagpapatotoo, pagpapatibay)
  • 116. SIKOLOHIYANG PILIPINO RESEARCH APPROACHES AND TECHNIQUES ■ Ginabayang Talakayan Method collective discussion technique ‘sama-sama’ orientation Roberto Galvez