Rural hazards and vulnerability assessment in the downstream sector of Shiroro dam, Nigeria
RURAL HAZARDS AND VULNERABILITYASSESSMENT IN THE DOWNSTREAM SECTOR OF SHIRORO DAM, NIGERIA By Prof. A.M Jinadu Centre for Disaster Risk Management & Development Studies, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Nigeria. E-mail: email@example.com
Introduction• In many parts of the developing world, poor communities often occupy hazard prone areas for number of reasons. Poor access to land and shelter Economic disadvantage and poverty Search for livelihoods and struggle for economic survival• Rural communities occupying river flood plains suffer from the negative impacts of downstream flood disaster such as: Loss of crop and agricultural land Soil degradation Home and property destructions Ill health etc.
Introduction• Such communities have low coping capacity as a result of High level of illiteracy and low technological skill Poverty and high dependency ratio Lack of basic infrastructure Absence of local disaster management institutions and local disaster plan• They are less protected against the impacts of disaster.• To make matter worse, disaster management efforts in these countries focus mainly on urban areas to the neglect of rural settlements.
Research setting• Nigeria is a tropical country situated in the West coast of Africa. Longitudes 30 and 140 East Latitudes 40 and 140 North Population over 140 million Area 923,768sq km Coats line 843 km Seasons Dry and Wet seasons
Research setting• The two villages studied are situated in Niger State, Nigeria:(i) Gussoro Village Longitude 06°44.071´ East Latitude 09°59.113´North(ii) Gurmana Longitude 100.5’ East Latitude 06°37’ North• They are situated downstream of Shiroro hydroelectric dams built on River Kaduna in Niger State, Nigeria.• The river flood plain has rich alluvial soils with great agricultural potentials.
Hazards Vulnerability Assessment• Hazards identified in the Villages are: Flood Disease epidemics Erosion Dilapidated buildings Land degradation. These hazards occur as a result of both natural factors and the living habit of the people
Flooding and Epidemics hazardsGurmana village located on river Bank Poor toilet and sanitation at Gusoro
Health Hazard and Poor health facilitiesShallow well (water source) at Gurmana Poor Village clinic at Gurmana
Risk of Building Collapse and land DegradationRisk of building collapse at Gusoro Land degradation at Gusoro
Table 2: Hazard Severity, Probability and Priority RankingIdentified hazards Risk level Likelihood impacts Priority rankingFlood Medium Highly probable Significant 2ndErosion Medium Probable Moderate 3rdDisease epidemics High Highly probable Significant 1stBuilding Collapse Medium Probable Moderate 3rdLand degradation Medium Probable Moderate 3rd
Indices of VulnerabilityHigh illiteracy level with 61% having no formal educationHigh poverty level with 45% living below 1.08 dollar/ dayLow access to credit facilities( only 13.0% have access)High dependency ratio with 49.93% (below 10 and over 60 years)Large household size (with 68.5% having between 7 and 20 members).
Indices of Vulnerability Unsanitary shallow wells and rivers as sources of drinking water for 80.02% of residents 59.28% of residents used shallow pit latrines while others used open defecation Poor access to healthcare facilities (only 2 non- conventional dispensaries and one clinic with no facilities and two low skill personnel) Difficult access (poor earth roads with rugged terrain) No disaster plan, village committee and disaster management institution
Added ValueRecommendations• The research outputs was presented to the local disaster management agency as: - Advocacy tool, suggesting a re-orientation of disaster management focus and efforts in Nigeria to include the rural areas. - Inputs for integrated CBDRR programme in the rural areas of the State.• Recommendations for promoting DRR and community resilience in the study area. - Provision of health and water facilities - Disaster education and basic hygiene training - Access to credit facilities for poverty reduction - Alternative livelihood programmes to attract residents to safer areas.
Added ValueRecommendationsConclusion• The existing high level of access to radio and GSM to be used by Niger State Emergency Management Agency (NSEMA) to: - Mount vigorous advocacy disaster education programme in the area. - Disseminate disaster information to create awareness in the rural areas The study shows that Gusoro and Gurmana, just like many other villages in the downstream sector of Shiroro Dam are vulnerable to hazards and are at the risk of disasters. The villages have low coping capacity and are in need of serious DRR programmes to reduce the level of risk and build the resilience of the communities to natural and man-induced disasters.