** Rising water level in Yamuna due to unrelenting monsoon rain and release of more water by Haryana have kept the authorities busy.* Close to 1.7 million people in western Uttar Pradesh have been affected due to heavy rainfall and floods in the major rivers of the state.* In Bihar, the breach of support embankments of river Gandhak has resulted in the flooding of thirty-five villages in Gopalganj and Siwan districts.* In Uttarakhand, close to half a million people in 369 villages across the state have been affected. A number of roads including national highways have been damaged or blocked due to landslides.
** According to the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, the number of flood events in all the continents(except Australia) have steadily increased in the last 50 years. In which Asia is most adversely affected by floods.
What are its natural factors ?Distance Direction of El NinoFrom the Sea the Wind Ocean DistanceRelief Currents From Equator
*CausesWhat people do What is thethe think? actual reason? At the local level:At the local level: The actual reason of floodsOverflow of Yamuna river in our locality is the lack ofdue to excess rain in Delhi. proper drainage system. Otherwise, in the presence of proper drainage system the flood water would not be able reach our locality. It would seep away through the drainage pipes.
*Causes What is the actualWhat people do the reason?think? At the regional level:At the regional level: The actual reason is the excess and extended rainfall in DelhiDelhi: Overflow of Yamuna and Yamuna Nagarriver due to the excess district, Haryana (the districtwater release from the Dam of Hathikund barrage).Hathnikund Barrage. Due to the excess and extended rainfall the authorities are forced to release water which gives a rise to Yamuna causing flood in the low lying areas of Delhi.
*Causes What is the actualWhat do the reason?people think? At the national level :At the national level: • Disturbed monsoon pattern: Floods• Excess rainfall activities have steadily increased• Sudden release of water in the last few decades due to the from reservoirs human interference in the• Cyclonic disturbances (at monsoon patterns. Monsoon has coasts) become more unpredictable due to the interference in the atmospheric pressure caused by green house emissions. • Ground cover: The movement of slides beneath the earth’s crust is a major cause for flooding. It leads to tsunamis. It is a natural cause for floods to occur.
*Causes What is the actualWhat do the reason?people think? At the national level :At the national level: • Landslides: It leads to• Excess rainfall obstruction of flow and change in• Sudden release of water the river course. This can be seen from reservoirs in the mountain regions• Cyclonic disturbances (at particularly near Himalayas coasts) • Drainage Failure: There are unauthorised colonies made by the local people on open land without considering city plans, drainage etc. and thus are subject to flooding during rainy seasons
*CONSEQUENCES: Flooding in both the levels national and international is very threatening and dangerous. It has an impact on the life of humans, economy, infrastruc ture and wealth of a nation.ECONOMY :* Floods cause huge economic loss. It damages hundreds of buildings, lakes and leaves many people homeless.* After flooding govt. has to put input for many resources for aiding or reconstruction e.g. police force,* Aid workers etc. This causes huge loss to the society.
** Flooding will lead to damages of road, collapse of bridges and traffic congestion which may effect the daily operation.* Flooding causes too much water which will harm the farmland.
** Flood causes huge number of injuries and deaths. Every year around billions of people die all around the world. In 1996, the monsoon floods in India affected more than 5 million people in northern and eastern parts of the country. Many were left homeless and starved.* Those people who work on daily basis are immensely affected by the floods.* Due to shortage of supply of goods and huge demand the price level rises, this causes problems for the common man to buy the goods.* Flooding usually brings infectious diseases e.g. plague, dysentery, common cold, fever etc. And for those areas where there is no electricity supply, food poisoning may occur as food may not be properly frozen.
*COUNTER MEASURES *Steps taken to avoid flooding and tackle with them at both national and international level. * De-silting, cleaning of roads, bell mouth, gullies, removal of debris from all drains should be coordinated. * The committee concerned should make sure that all the drains are cleaned before monsoon. * Construction of embankments, detention reservoirs- By these measures, a catchment area can be treated through reduction in flood volumes or pattern of flows or attempts to alter weather modification. * Actions should be designed to reduce the vulnerability of property and other developmental activities in the flood plains to the flood hazards. * Floods forecasting and warnings programmes should be commenced.
*COUNTER MEASURES* COUNTER MEASURES AT THE INDIVIDUAL LEVEL (HOUSEHOLD AND SCHOOL LEVEL)• An individual should get flood insurance to reduce the loss burden atthe time of floods. The ministry of agriculture in India has initiated cropinsurance in flood prone areas.• BEFORE THE FLOODS: 1.Flood insurance policy for house should be procured. To have a disaster plan and to prepare a disaster supply kit for home and car. To include a first aid kit, canned food, bottled water, battery- operated radio, flashlight, protective clothing and written instructions on how to turn off electricity, gas, and water.
*COUNTER MEASURES*ARCHITECTURAL SOLUTIONS Surface run-off in densely populated areas where open areas cannot be left should be taken to the lakes. At the city level, water park should be planned to collect extra run- off and maintain the aquatic life and water level.