Disaster is any occurrence that causes ecological disr...
forced to live on hills that are prone to landslides, or why people settle near volcanoe...
acute distress.Nevertheless; this point should not be taken as a justification for ignor...
The discussion about disasters and emergencies resulting from natural and human
made haz...
Typical adverse effects:
Physical damage-Damage or loss of structures or infrastructure....
of a room, under a table or even under a bed.
If you are in the street
Walk towards an o...
Do not walk around the streets to see what has happened. Keep clear of the
Crops and food supplies: Harvests, food stocks, livestock farm implements
and fishing bo...
Specific preparedness measures: Volcano monitoring and warning system, training for
General Charactristics: When the cyclone strikes land, high winds, exceptional
appropriate government agency.
When the storm hits…
Stay indoors and take shelter in th...
Causalities and public health: Deaths from drowning but few serious injuries,
possible ...
Specific preparedness measures: Development of inter-institutional response plan.
Causal phenomenon: The spread of farming and grazing, firewood collection...
The definitions below correspond to the time sequence following the occurrence of
a rap...
periods. An emergency phase may be quite extensive, as in a slow onset disaster
such as...
other NGOs and major donors. The UN-DMT needs to interface with this team and
where pra...
 Provides administrative support to the resident coordinator and UN-DMT.
 Mobilizes a...
5. Community health nurse keeps up to date records of vulnerable population within the
 Observation
 Individual physical examination
 Survey
 Record(Census, Vital statist...
5. In the end, all of the nurses and organizations in the world can only provide
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Disaster management


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Disaster management

  1. 1. 1www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com DISASTER MANAGEMENT INTRODUCTION: Disaster is any occurrence that causes ecological disruption, loss of human life, and deterioration of health services on a scale sufficient to warrant an extraordinary response from outside that affected to community or area. Disaster occurs suddenly and unexpectedly, disrupting normal life and infrastructure of social services including health care system. For this reason a country’s health system and public health infrastructure must be organized and kept ready to act in any emergency situations as well as under normal conditions. To meet the challenges of emergency and disaster situation, the government of India has identified the nodel Ministries to earmark responsibilities to the various concerned departments/and sectors and to coordinate the entire activities relating to specific types of disaster and also support Ministry to develop sectoral contingency planning for implementation, monitoring and evaluation. DEFINATION OF HAZARD- A hazard is a rare or extreme event in the natural or human-made environment that adversely affects human life, property or activity to the extent of causing a disaster. DEFINATION OF DISASTER- A disaster is a serious disruption of the functioning of a society, causing widespread human, material, or environmental losses which exceed the ability of affected society to copy using only its own resources. Disaster are often classified according to their speed of onset (sudden or slow), or according to their cause (natural or man made) CAUSAL FACTORS OF DISASTER- The magnitude of each disaster, measured in deaths, damage, or costs for a given developing country increases with the increased marginalization of the population. This is caused by a high birthrate, problems of land tenure and economic opportunity, and the lack or misallocation of recourse to meet the basic human needs of an expanding population. Poverty The most important single influence on the impact of a disaster. All other factors could be lessened if the affected population were not also limited by poverty. Virtually all disaster studies show that the wealthiest of the population either survive the disaster unaffected or are able to recover quickly. Across the broad spectrum of disaster, poverty generally makes people vulnerable to the impact of hazards. Poverty explains why people in urban areas are
  2. 2. 2www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com forced to live on hills that are prone to landslides, or why people settle near volcanoes or rivers that invariably flood their banks. Poverty explains why droughts claim poor peasant farmers as victims an rarely the wealthy, and why famines more other than not are the result of a lack of purchasing power to buy food rather than an absence of food. Population Growth There is an obvious connection between the increase in losses from a disaster and the increase in population. If there are more people and structures where a disaster strikes, then it is likely there will be more of an impact. The growth of population has been so spectacular that it is inevitable that more people will be affected by disaster because more will be forced to live and work in unsafe areas. Increasing numbers of people will be competing for a limited amount of resources (such as, employment opportunities, and land) which can lead to conflict. Rapid Urbanization Rapid population growth and migration are related to the major phenomenon of rapid urbanization. This process is also accelerated in developing countries. It is chatagarised by the rural poor or civilians in an area of conflict moving to metropolitan areas in search of economic opportunities and security. These massive numbers of urban poor increasingly find fewer options for availability of safe and desirable places to build their houses. Here again, competition for scare resources, an inevitable consequence, can lead to human made disaster. Transitions in cultural practices Many of the inevitable changes that occur in all societies lead to an increase in the societies, vulnerability to disaster.Obviously,all societies are constantly changing and in a continual state of transition. These transitions are often extremely disruptive and uneven, leaving gaps in social coping mechanisms and technology. These transitions include nomadic populations that become sedentary rural people who move to urban areas, and both rural and urban people who move from one economic level to another. More broadly, these examples are typical of a shift from non-industrialized to industrializing societies. Environmental degradation Many disasters are either caused or exacerbated by environmental degradation. Deforestation leads to rapid rain run off, which contributes to flooding. The destruction of mangrove swamps decreases a coast line’s ability to resist tropical winds and storm surges. Lack of awareness and information Disaster can also happen because people vulnerable to them simply didn’t know how to get out of harm’s way or to take protective measures. This ignorance may not necessarily be a function of poverty, but a lack of awareness of what measures can be taken to build safe structures on safe locations. Perhaps some people did not know about safe evacuation routes and procedures. Other population may not know where to turn for assistance in times for
  3. 3. 3www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com acute distress.Nevertheless; this point should not be taken as a justification for ignoring the coping mechanisms of the majority of people affected by disaster. In most disaster prone societies, there is wealth of understanding about disaster threats and responses. This understanding should be incorporated into any efforts to provide external assistance. War and civil strife In this text war and civil strife are regarded as hazards that are extreme events that produce disaster. War and civil strife often results in displaced people, a target population of this training programme.The causal factors of war and civil strife include competition for scarce resources, religious or ethnic intolerance, and ideological differences. Many of these are also byproducts of the preceding six causal factors of disaster. TYPES OF DISASTER Natural hazards
  4. 4. 4www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com The discussion about disasters and emergencies resulting from natural and human made hazards has been developed in general terms.However,each hazard has its own charactristics.To understand the significance and implications of a particular type of disaster we must have a basic understanding about the nature,casuses and efforts of each hazard type. The list of hazard types is very long. Many occur infrequently or impact a very small population. Other hazards, such as severe snowstorms, often occur in areas that are prepared to deal with them and seldom become disaster.However, from the perspective of a disaster victim it is not particularly useful to distinguish between minor and major disasters. Some disasters are now of limited interest to the international community. These include avalanches, fog, frost, hail, lightning, snowstorms and tornadoes. There are several hazard types for which there is widespread concern. They can be categorized as follows: Sudden onset hazards-(geological and climatic hazards) Earthquakes, Tsunamis, Floods, Tropical storms, Volcanic eruptions, Landslides. Slow onset hazards-(environmental hazards) Drought, Famine, Environmental degradation, desertification, Deforestation, Pest infestation. Industrial/Technological-System failures/accidents, Spillages, Explosions, Fires. War and civil strife-Armed aggression, Insurgency, Terrorism and other actions leading to displaced persons and refugees. Epidemic-Water and/or food-borne diseases, persons-to-persons diseases (conduct and respiratory spread), vector-borne diseases and complications from wounds. Earthquakes Causal phenomena: Slippage of crusted rock along a fault or area of strain and rebound to new alignment. General characteristics and effect: Shaking of earth caused by waves on and below the earth’s surface causing:  Surface faulting  Aftershocks  Tsunamis  Tremors, vibrations  Liquefaction  Landslides Predictability: Probability of occurrence can be determined but not exact timing. Forecasting is based on monitoring of seismic activity, historical incidance, and observations. Factors contributing to vulnerability:  Location of settlements in seismic areas.  Structures which are not resistant to ground motion.  Dense collections of buildings with high occupancy.  Lack of access to information about earthquake risks.
  5. 5. 5www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com Typical adverse effects: Physical damage-Damage or loss of structures or infrastructure. Fires, dam failures, landslides, flooding may occur. Casualties-Often high, particularly near epicenter or in highly populated areas or where buildings not resistant. Public health-Fracture injuries most widespread problem. Secondary threats due to flooding, contaminated water supply, or breakdown in sanitary conditions. Water supply-Severe problems likely due to damage of water systems, pollution of open wells and changes in water table. Possible risk reduction measures: Hazard mapping public awareness programs and training assessing and reducing structural vulnerability land use control or zoning, building codes insurance. Specific preparedness measures: Earthquake warning and preparedness programs. EARTHQUAKE FACT SHEET Learn about an earthquake’s causes and effects. Speak about them in a calm and composed manner, not spreading anxiety about the phenomenon. Keep a torch and a portable transistor radio handy. Keep the corridors in the house clear of furniture and toys, making movement easier. Attach shelves, gas cylinders, vases and flowerpots to the walls of your home. Place heavy or bulky objects on the floor or on the lowest shelves. Teach all members of your family how to turn off the electricity, water and gas supply. During an earthquake Keep calm and help others do that. If you are at home or inside a building Do not rush to the doors or exits; never use the lifts; keep well away from windows, mirrors, chimneys and furniture. Protect yourself by staying under the lintel of an inner door, in the corner
  6. 6. 6www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com of a room, under a table or even under a bed. If you are in the street Walk towards an open place in a calm and composed manner. Do not run and do not wander round the streets. Keep away from buildings, especially old, tall or detached buildings, electricity wires, slopes and walls, which are liable to collapse. If you are driving Stop the vehicle away from buildings, walls, slopes, electricity wires and cables, and stay in the vehicle. After an earthquake Keep calm, switch on the radio/TV and obey any instructions you hear on it. Keep away from beaches and low banks of rivers. Huge waves may sweep in. Expect aftershocks. Be prepared. Turn off the water, gas and electricity. Do not smoke and do not light matches or use a cigarette lighter. Do not turn on switches. There may be gas leaks or short-circuits. Use a torch. If there is a fire, try to put it out. If you cannot, call the fire brigade. If people are seriously injured, do not move them unless they are in danger. Immediately clean up any inflammable products that may have spilled (alcohol, paint, etc). If you know that people have been buried, tell the rescue teams. Do not rush and do not worsen the situation of injured persons or your own situation. Avoid places where there are loose electric wires and do not touch any metal object in contact with them. Do not drink water from open containers without having examined it and filtered it through a sieve, a filter or an ordinary clean cloth. Eat something. You will feel better and more capable of helping others. If your home is badly damaged, you will have to leave it. Collect water containers, food, and ordinary and special medicines (for persons with heart complaints, diabetes, etc.) Do not re-enter badly damaged buildings and do not go near damaged
  7. 7. 7www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com structures. Do not walk around the streets to see what has happened. Keep clear of the streets to enable rescue vehicles to pass. TSUNAMIS Causal phenomenon: Fault movement on sea floor, accompained by an earthquake. A landslide occurring underwater or above the sea, and then plunging into the water. Volcanic activity either underwater or near the shore. General characteristics:  Tsunami waves are barely perceptible in deep water and may measure 160km between wave crests.  May consist of ten or more wave crests.  Move up to 800km per hour in deep water of ocean, diminishing in speed as the wave approaches shore.  May strike shore in crashing waves or may inundate the land.  Flooding effect depends on shape of shorelines and tides. Predictability: Tsunami warning system in pacific monitors seismic activity and declares watches and warnings. Waves generated by local earthquakes may strike nearby shores within minutes and warnings to public may not be possible. Factors contributing to vulnerability:  Location of settlements in low lying coastal regions.  Lack of tsunami resistant buildings.  Lack of timely warning systems and evacuation plans.  Unawareness of public to destructive forces of tsunami. Typical adverse effects: Physical damage-The force of water can raze everything in its path but the majority of damage to structure and infrastructure results from flooding. Withdrawal of the wave from shore scours out sediment and can collapse ports and buildings and batter boats. Causalities and public health: Deaths occur principally by drowning and injuries from battering by debris. Water supply: Contamination by salt water and debris or sewage may make clean drinking water unavailable.
  8. 8. 8www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com Crops and food supplies: Harvests, food stocks, livestock farm implements and fishing boats may be lost. Land may be rendered infertile due to salt water incursion. Possible risk reduction measures: Protection of buildings along coast, houses on stilts, buildings barriers such as breakwaters. Specific preparedness measures: Hazard mapping, planning evacuation routes, establish warning systems, community education. VOLCANOES Causal phenomenon: Magma pushed upward through volcanic vent pressure and effervescence of dissolved gases. General Charactristics: Types of volcanoes are cinder cones, shield volcanoes, composite volcanoes and lava domes. Magma flowing out onto surface is lava and all solid particles ejected are tephra.Damage results from type of material ejected such as ash,pyroclastic flows(blasts of gas containing ash and fragments),mud,debris,and lava flows. Predictability: Study of the geological history of volcanoes mainly located in a clearly defined volcanic belt, along with seismic activity and other observations may indicate an impending volcano. No reliable indicator has been discovered and precursory signs do not always occur. Factors contributing to vulnerability: Settlements on the flanks of volcanoes, settlements in the historical paths of mud or lava lows, structure with roof designs not resistant to ash accumulation, presence of combustible materials, lack of evacuation plan or warning systems. Typical adverse effects: Causalities and public health: Death from pyroclastic flows, mud flows and possibly lava flows and toxic gases. Injuries from falling rock, burns, respiratory difficulties from gas and ash. Settlements, infrastructure and agriculture: Complete destruction of everything in the path of pyroclastic, mud or lava flows, collapse of structure under weight of wet ash, flooding, blockage of roads or communication systems. Crops and food supplies: Destruction of crops in path of flows, ash may break tree branches, livestock may inhale toxic gas or ash, grazing lands may be contaminated. Possible risk reduction measures: Land use planning for settlements around volcanoes, protective struct Ural measures, National volcanic emergency plans.
  9. 9. 9www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com Specific preparedness measures: Volcano monitoring and warning system, training for government officials and community participation in search and rescue, fire fighting. LANDSLIDES Causal phenomenon: Down slope transport of soil and rock resulting from naturally occurring vibrations, changes in direct water content, removal of lateral support, loading with weight and weathering or human manipulation of water courses and slope composition. General Charactristics: Landslides vary in types of movement (falls, slide, topples, lateral spread, flows) and may be secondary effects of heavy storms, earthquake and volcanic eruptions. Landslides are more widespread than any other geological event. Predictability: Frequency of occurance, extent and consequences of landslides may be estimated and areas of high risk determined by use of information on area geology, geomorphology, hydrology and climatology and vegetation. Factors contributing to vulnerability: Settlements built on steep slopes, softer soils. Cliff tops, settlements built at the base of steep slopes, on mouths of streams from mountain valleys, roads, communication lines in mountain areas, buildings with weak foundations, buried pipelines, brittle pipes, lack of understanding of landslide hazard. Typical adverse effects: Physical damage-Anything on top of or in path of landslide will suffer damage. Rubble may block roads, lines of communication or waterwayes.Indirect effects may include loss of productivity of agricultural or forest lands, flodding, reduced property values. Causalities-Fatalities have occurred due to slope failure. Catastrophic debris slides or mudflows have killed many thousands. Possible risk reduction measures: Hazard mapping, legislation and land use regulation, insurance. Specific preparedness measures: Community education, monitoring, warning and evacuation systems. TROPICAL CYCLONES Causal phenomenon: Mixture of heat and moisture forms a low pressure centre over oceans in tropical latitudes where water temperatures are over 26degrees c.Wind currents spin and organize around deepening low pressure over accelerating toward the center and moving along track pushed by trade winds. Depression becomes a tropical cyclone when winds reach gale force or 117km per hour.
  10. 10. 10www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com General Charactristics: When the cyclone strikes land, high winds, exceptional rainfall and storm surges cause damage with secondary flooding and landslides. Predictability: Tropical cyclones can be tracked from their development but accurate landfall forecasts are usually possible only a few hours before as unpredictable changes in course can occur. Factors contributing to vulnerability: Settlements located in low lying coastal areas(direct impact),settlements in adjacent areas(heavy rains and floods),poor communication or warning systems, lightweight structures, older construction, poor quality masonary,infrastructural elements, fishing boats. Typical adverse effects: Physical damage-Structure lost and damaged by wing force, flooding, storm surge and landslide. Causalities and public health: May be caused by flying debris or flooding, contamination of water supplies may lead to viral outbreaks and malaria. Water supplies-Ground water may be contaminated by floods water. Crops and food supplies: High winds and rains can rain standing crops, tree plantations and food stocks. Possible risk reduction measures: Risk assessment and hazard mapping. Land use control and flood plain management, reduction of structural vulnerability improvement of vegetation cover. Specific preparedness measures: Public warning systems, evacuation plans training and community participation. Dos and Don’ts Listen to the radio for advance information and advice. Allow considerable margin for safety. A cyclone may change direction, speed or intensity within a few hours, so stay tuned to the radio for updated information. If storm-force winds or severe gales are forecast for your area, then… Store or secure loose boards, corrugated iron, rubbish tins or anything else that could become dangerous. Tape up large windows to prevent them from shattering. Move to the nearest shelter or vacate the area if this is ordered by the
  11. 11. 11www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com appropriate government agency. When the storm hits… Stay indoors and take shelter in the strongest part of your house. Listen to the radio and follow instructions. Open windows on the sheltered side of the house, if the roof begins to lift. Find shelter if you are caught out in the open. Do not go outside or into a beach during a lull in the storm. FLOODS- Causal phenomenon: Naturally occurring flash, river and coastal flooding from intense rainfall or inundation associated with seasonal weather patterns, Human manipulation of watersheds, drainage basins and floodplains. General characteristics: Flash floods: Accelerated runoff, dam failure, breaks up of ice jam. River floods: Slow buildup, usually seasonal in river system. Coastal floods: Associated with tropical cyclones, tsunami waves, storm surges factors affecting degree of danger: Depth of water, duration, velocity, rate of rise, frequency of occurance, seasonality. Predictability: Flood forecasting depends on seasonal patterns, capacity of drainage basin, flood plain mapping, surveys of air and land. Warning possible well in advance for seasonal floods, but only minutes before in case of storm surge, flash flood or tsunami. Factors contributing to vulnerability: Location of settlements on floodplains, lack of awareness of flooding hazards, reduction of absorptive capacity of land, on resistant buildings and foundations, high risk infrastructural elements, unprotected food stocks and standing crops, livestock. Typical adverse effects: Physical damage-Structure damaged by washing a way, becoming inundated,collapsing,impact of floating debris, landslide from saturated soils, damage greater in valleys than open areas.
  12. 12. 12www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com Causalities and public health: Deaths from drowning but few serious injuries, possible outbreaks of malaria, diarrhea and viral infection. Water supplies: Contamination of wells and groundwater possible. Clean water may be unavailable. Possible risk reduction measures: Flood control (channels, dikes, dams, flood, proofing, erosion control) Specific preparedness measures: Flood detection and warning systems, community participation and education, development of master plan for floodplain management. DROUGHTS Causal phenomenon: Immediate cause-Rainfall deficit, Possible underlying causes- EI Nioo(incursion of warm surface waters into the the normally colder waters of south American Pacific),human induced changes in ground surface and soil, higher sea surface temperatures, increase of atmospheric carbon dioxide and greenhouse gases. General Charactristics: The reduction of water or moisture availability is temporary and significant in relation to the norm, meteorological drought is the reduction in rainfall and hydrological drought is the reduction in water resources. Agricultural drought is the impact of drought on human activity influenced by various factor: the presence of irrigation systems, moisture retention capacity of the soil, the timing of the rainfall and adaptive behavior of the farmers. Predictability: Periods of unusual dryness are normal in all weather systems. Rainfall and hydrology data must be carefully analyzed with influencing factors in predicting drought, however advance warning is usually possible. Factors contributing to vulnerability: Location in an arid area where dry conditions are increased by drought, farming on marginal lands, subsistence farming, lack of agricultural inputs to improve yields, lack of seed reserves, areas dependent on another weather systems for water resources. Areas of low soil moisture retention, lack of recognition and allocation of resources to drought hazard. Typical adverse effects: Reduced income for farmers, reduction of spending from agricultural sector, increase in price of staple foods, increased inflation rates, deterioration of nutritional status, famine, illness, death, reduction of drinking water sources, migration, breakup of communities, and loss of livestock. Possible risk reduction measures: Drought and famine early warning systems.
  13. 13. 13www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com Specific preparedness measures: Development of inter-institutional response plan. ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION Causal phenomenon: Air pollution-pollutants such as sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, particulates, carbon monoxide and lead from industry and transport. Marine pollution-Sewage, industrial effluents, marine litter, petroleum spills and dumped radioactive sustances.Fresh water pollution-Discharge of human waste and domestic wastewaters into lakes and rivers, industrial effluents, use of irrigation and pesticides, run off of nitrogen from fertilizers. Increased run off from deforestation causing sedimentation. Possible global warming-Accumulation of carbon dioxide from combustion of fossil fuels, deforestation and methane from livestock. Ozone depletion-Chloroflorocarbons (CFCs) released into the atmosphere deplete ozone shield against ultraviolet light. Predictability: Pollution is related to per capita consumption so; as countries develop pollution will also tend to increase. Deforestation is increasing in some countries. Factors contributing to vulnerability: High levels of industrialization and per capita consumption, lack of regulation pollutants, insufficient resources to counter the impact of pollution. Typical adverse effects: Air pollution: Damages agricultural crops, forests.aquatic systems, structural materials and human health. Water pollution: Spread of pathogens, injury to marine animals, spread of chemicals to the environment effecting the health of humans, animala and sea life. Global warming: Sea level rise, climate change, temperature rise. Ozone depletion: Increase in skin cancer, cataracts, reduction in immune system functions and damage to marine life. Possible risk reduction measures: Set ambient air quality standards, set emission limits for every pollutant, establish protection policies for water supplies, reduce the use of pesticides by integrated management, reduce the rate of deforestation and increase planting of trees, promote energy efficiency, regulate use of aerosols and disposal of refrigeration units, prohibit manufacture and use of CFCs. Specific preparedness measures: Establish a national environment safety and protection plan; create education programs for environmental awareness, training of government personnel as part of development programs.
  14. 14. 14www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com DEFORESTATION Causal phenomenon: The spread of farming and grazing, firewood collection timber harvesting. General Charactristics: Contributes to other hazards by by removing root systems which stabilize soil, acting as a filter and buffer, allowing percolation of water into soil and retaining moisture in soil, removal of leaf biomass and forest products, burning and decay of dead wood. Predictability: An increase in global focus on the hazard is expanding data base leading to an increased awareness of the problem and to identifying where the problem exists.Overall, the global trend is deceasing as conservation measures are enacted but destruction of forests is rising at alarming rates in some countries. Factors contributing to vulnerability: Underdevelopment, dependence on wood for fuel and income, unregulated logging and land clearance, rapid population growth, rapid expansion of settled or industrialized areas. Typical adverse effects: Deforestration results in loss of free products from the forest such as fruits and medicine and decline in traditional cultures. It stresses economies which import forest products and are dependent on wood products. It contributes to other hazards such as flooding-Deforestation of watersheds can increase severity of flooding, reduce stream flows, dry up springs in dry seasons and increase sediment entering waterways. Drought-Removal of roots and leaf canopy can alter moisture levels drying soil and decreasing percipitation.Famine-Decrease in agricultural production due to erosion of topsoil and collapse of hillsides may lead to food shortage. Environmental pollution-Increase contamination of soil and water and reduces carbon dioxide absorption capacity, burning of forests and decay of trees releases carbon dioxide to the air, possibly contributing to global warming. Possible risk reduction measures: Protection of forests through management, legislation, conservancies, reforestation. Specific preparedness measures: Education of the communities, promoting alternatives to fuel wood, soil conservation measures. PHASES OF A DISASTER Disasters can be viewed as a series of phases on a time continum.Identifying and understanding these phases helps to describe disaster related needs and to conceptualize appropriate disaster management activities. Rapid onset disaster:
  15. 15. 15www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com The definitions below correspond to the time sequence following the occurrence of a rapid onset disaster. The relief phase is the period immediately following the occurrence of a sudden disaster(or the late discovery of a negated/deteriorated slow onset situation)when exceptional measures have to be taken to search and find the survivors as well as meet their basic needs for shelter,water,food and medical care. Rehabilitation is the operations and decisions taken after a disaster with a view to restoring a stricken community to its formar living conditions, while encouraging and facilitating the necessary adjustment to the changes caused by the disaster. Reconstruction is the action taken to reestablish a community after a period of rehabilitation subsequent to a disaster. Actions would include construction of permanent housing, full restoration of all services and complete resumption of the pre-disaster state. Mitigation is the cooective term used to encompass all action taken prior to the occurrence of a disaster(pre-disaster measures)including preparedness and long term risk reduction measures.(Mitigation has been used by some institution or authors in a narrow sense, excluding preparedness.) Preparedness consists of activities designed to minimize loss of life and damage, organize the tempory removal of people and property from a threatened location and facilitate timely and effective rescue, relief and rehabilitation. Slow onset disasters: The sequence of a disaster continuum for slow onset disaster is similar in framework but has important distinctions. The following terms and definitions reflect those additions or modifications. Early warning is the process of monitoring situations in communities or areas known to be vulnerable to slow onset hazards. For example, famine early warning may be reflected in such indicators as drought, livestock sales or changes in economic conditions. The purposes of early warning are to enable remedial measures to be initiated and to provide more timely and effective relief including through disaster preparedness actions. The emergency phase is the period during which extraordinary measures have to be taken. Special emergency procedures and authorities may be applied to support human needs, sustain livelihoods, and protect property to avoid the onset of disaster. This phase can encompass pre-disaster, disaster alert, disaster relief and recovery
  16. 16. 16www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com periods. An emergency phase may be quite extensive, as in a slow onset disaster such as a famine. It can also be relatively short-lived, as after an earthquake. Rehabilitation is the action taken after a slow onset disaster where attention must be given to the issues of resettlement or returnee programmes, particularly for people who have been displaced for reasons arising out if conflict or economic collapse. The disaster management team- One of the primary purposes of this overall training program is to introduce the concept of managing disaster as a team. The objectives of disaster management through teamwork include  A forum for communication, information exchange and developing consensus.  A format for co-ordination, eliminating duplication and reducing gaps in services.  The possibility of being more effective through pooled resources. The UN Disaster Management Team The United Nations General Assembly believes that the objectives of team management are applicable to the UN agencies oriented to emergencies. They have mandated that a standing, UN Disaster Management Team (UN-DMT) be formed in each disaster prone country, convened and chaired by the UN resisdent coordinator. The composition of the UN-DMT is determined by taking into account the types of disaster to which the country is prone and the organizations present, but should normally include a core group consisting of the country level representatives of FAO, UNDP/UNDRO, UNICEF, WFP, WHO and where present, UNHCR.It may be enlarged to include additional representatives or project personnel from other relevant agencies when an emergency arises. The original and primary purpose of the UN-DMT is to ensure a prompt, effective and concerted response by the UN system at country level in the event of a disaster. The team should also ensure similar coordination of UN assistance to the government in respect to post-disaster rehabilitation and reconstruction and relevant disaster mitigation measures through long term development programs. It should be emphasized that for all aspect of disaster management the UN-DMT is in a support role of the government. Country Disaster Management Team Most disaster prone countries already have a formal or informal disaster management team. It is typically headed by a national disaster focal point body. This body function in liaison with the office of the president pr prime minister, with civil defense organizations, key government ministeries, the red cross/red crescent and
  17. 17. 17www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com other NGOs and major donors. The UN-DMT needs to interface with this team and where practical to be a team member. Where national officials do not participate in UN-DMT meetings or activities, the resident coordinator should ensure that they are consulted and briefed on all relevant matters. In practice it is vital that the policies of the DMT releate to those approved by the government even under the pressure of event. Roles and resources of UNDP, UNDRO and other agencies UNDP focuses primarily on the development related aspects of disaster risks and occurrences and on providing technical assistance to institution building in realtion to all aspect of disaster management. a) Incorporating long term risk reduction and preparedness measures in normal development planning and programes.including support for specific mitigation measures where required. b) Assisting in planning and implementation of post disaster rehabilitation and reconstruction, including the definition of new development strategies that incorporate risk reduction measures relevant to the affected area. c) Reviewing the impact of large settlements of refugees or displaced persons on development and seeking ways to incorporate the refugees and displaced persons in development strategies. d) Providing technical assistance to the authorities managing major emergency assistance operations of extended duration (especially in relation to displaced persons and possibilities for achieving durable solutions in such cases.) e) In addition UNDP provides administrative and operational support to the resident coordinator function, particularly at country level, but also at headquarters. f) In the event of disaster,UNDP may grant a maximum of $50,000 from SPR funds to provide immediate relief.UNDP is not otherwise involved in the provision of “relief “using only of its own resources or other funds administrative by the program. Where a major emergency substantially affects the whole development process within a country, IPF resources may be used to provide technical assistance to plan and manage the operation, with the agreement of the Government. Disaster related roles of the core members of the UN-DMTs Provides technical advice in reducing vulnerability and helps in the rehabilitation of agriculture, livestocks and fisheries with emphasis on local food production. Monitors food production, exports and imports and forecasts any requirements of exceptional food assistance.  Promotes the incorporation of disaster mitigation in developing planning and funds technical assistance for all aspects of disaster management.
  18. 18. 18www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com  Provides administrative support to the resident coordinator and UN-DMT.  Mobilizes and coordinates international emergency relief assistance, issuing consolidated appeals.  Assist in assessment and relief management is required. Provides advice and guidance on risk assessments and in planning and implementing mitigation measures.  Assures the protection of refugees and seeks durable solutions to their problems. Helps to mobilize and assure the delivery of necessary assistance in the country of asylum if it is a developing country.  Attends to the well-being of children and women, especially child health and nutrition.  Assistance activities may include: social programs, child feeding(in collaboration with WFP),water supplies, sanitation and direct health interventions(in collaboration with WHO)  Provides related management and logistical support. Role of other UN organizations and agencies A number of other UN organizations and agencies have specific responsibilities, organizational arrangements and capabilities relating to disaster mitigation and/or relief or recovery assistance.UNDP, UNDRO NAD resident coordinators must respect the mandates and skills of these agencies and seek to ensure that all work together in harmony. All should use their expertise and resources to best effect in helping people in disaster prone and disaster affected areas. Nursing Responsibilities A. Prevention and mitigation Personal Preparedness: Nurse assisting in disaster relief efforts must be as healthy as possible, both physical as well as psychologically. She must be certified in first aid and cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Professional Preparedness: There should be disaster management team of nurses, Psychiatric nurses, physicians, psychologist, surgeons, and social workers to be active and alert at all time. 1. Nurse should know and understand citywide disaster management plan. 2. Nurse should update the disaster plan as per need. 3. She should develop and provide educational material relevant to disaster specific to the area. 4. She should organize disaster drills with the help of government and non government organization.
  19. 19. 19www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com 5. Community health nurse keeps up to date records of vulnerable population within the community. 6. Nurse should understand what the available community resources are and how the community will work together when disaster strikes. 7. Man made disaster particularly preventable by enforcement of good building codes or proper land and water management. 8. The disaster which are not preventable their impact can be mitigated by public education to the peoples staying in disaster prone areas. 9. Community health nurse must involve in giving instructions regarding proper safety precautions, proper storage of emergency supplies and basic first aid course for injuries in the actual event. 10. Public communication systems and how people can obtain information in the event of an actual disaster situation e.g.Radio, Television etc. B. Rescue and Emergency Medical Care 1. Locate the trapped victims and evacuate them to safe place. 2. Disaster service personnel and EMS personnel called to respond. Triage or Sorting: 3. The goal of triage is to maximize the number of survivors by sorting the treatable from the untreatable victims. It determines which client requires immediate treatment. 4. Triage must take place during every stage of operation from disaster scene to client reaches to medical facility. 5. Many personnel are involved in the triage operation and each person must know their exact role. 6. Nurses and other emergency personnel are used as triage officers and physician are administering emergency care to more critical victims. C. Disaster Response 1. Nurse working as member of assessment team need to feedback accurate information to relief managers to facilitate rapid rescue and recovery. 2. Assessment report should include following information.  Geographical extent of disaster impact.  Population at risk.  Presence of concurrent hazards.  Injuries and death  Availability of shelters.  Current level of sanitation.  Status of health care infrastructure. 3. Gather information: Through  Interview
  20. 20. 20www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com  Observation  Individual physical examination  Survey  Record(Census, Vital statistics, Disease reporting) 4. Shelter Management: Although voluntary health agency is taking care of shelter management but the nurse because of their comfort with delivering aggregate health promotion, disease preventation and emotional support make ideal shelter management as a team member. 5. Dealing with stress: Basic measures while working with victims dealing with stress includes. a) Listen carefully victims and retell their feelings related to disaster. b) Encourage victims to share their feelings with one another if it is appropriate. c) Help victims to take their own decision. d) Delegate task to teenagers to avoid boredom. e) Provide basic necessities e.g. food and water. f) Provide basic dignity e.g. Privacy g) Refer the patient to counselor e.g.Psychologist, Psychiatrists and Social worker. h) Provide medical, nursing aid, first aid, meal serving keep records. i) Ensure communication, transporation, safe environment. D.Recovery Stage: 1. The main objective of disaster management in this stage is to involve all agencies and resources to restore the economic and civil life of the community e.g. Construction of tempory as well as permanent house, economical support and epidemiological services. 2. There is continuous threat of communicable diseases due to inadequate water supply and crowed living condition. Nurses must remain vigilant in teaching proper hygiene and making sure immunization record up to date. 3. Acute and chronic illnesses can become worse by prolonged effects of disaster. Psychological stress of clean up and moving can cause feeling of severe hopelessness, depression and grief. Referral services of mental health professional should be continued as long as need exists. 4. Nurses need to be alert for environmental health hazards during recovery phase of disaster. She must observe continuously faulty housing structure, lack of water and electricity objects blown by flood may be dangerous must be removed. The area should be assessed for live or dead animals, roadents that are harmful to a person’s health.
  21. 21. 21www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com 5. In the end, all of the nurses and organizations in the world can only provide partnership with the victims of a disaster. Ultimately; it is up to individual to recovery on their own. Bibliography: 1. K.Park, park textbook of preventive and social medicine, Bhanot publishers, Nineteenth edition, 2007, 650-57. 2. Stanhope M, Community health nursing, Mosby USA, 6th edition. 3. Health for the millions, disaster management, Feb-Mar 2006, vol 30, No 6. 4. Disaster preparedness, Nursing journal of Indis,March 2001,vol 24, No 3, pg.50 5. Kishore’s.J, National health programs of India, century publications, New Delhi, 2007, 7th edition, 423-28. 6. Kandasamy M, Community health nurse in disaster management, the nursing journal of India, vol 45, No 10, oct2007, 227-29.