Chapter 26 - The Beginning Of The Cold War


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Chapter 26 - The Beginning Of The Cold War

  1. 1. The Beginning of the Cold War Events From 1946-1960
  2. 2. Clash of Interests <ul><li>Cold War </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Post WWII to 1990 – time period of increasing tensions between the US and USSR </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Soviet Interests </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Security – control all countries between Germany and the Soviet Union </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communism superior to Capitalism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Suspicious of capitalism – saw it as the source of conflict and a threat to communism </li></ul></ul><ul><li>US Interests </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase economic growth around the world – including Germany </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Capitalism superior to Communism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Suspicious of communism – wanted to promote democracy, individual rights and capitalism </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Tensions Between Nations
  4. 4. Yalta Conference <ul><li>USSR – Joseph Stalin </li></ul><ul><li>US – Franklin Delano Roosevelt </li></ul><ul><li>Great Britain – Winston Churchill </li></ul><ul><li>Germany divided into 4 zones of occupation </li></ul><ul><li>Germany would pay reparations for causing the war </li></ul>
  5. 5. Yalta Conference
  6. 6. Yalta Conference <ul><li>FDR dies – Harry Truman becomes US president </li></ul><ul><li>USSR fails to follow agreements at Yalta – tensions increase </li></ul>
  7. 7. Truman Takes Control
  8. 8. Truman Takes Control <ul><li>Other issues at Potsdam </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Declaration of Liberated Europe not upheld – USSR creates satellite nations (nations which contained Soviet-imposed communist governments) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Communist satellite nations increase – iron curtain (division of communist nations of Eastern Europe and the West) descends on Europe </li></ul>
  9. 9. Europe after Potsdam <ul><li>Europe divided after WWII amongst the Soviet Satellite States of Eastern Europe and the Western European Democracies. </li></ul><ul><li>Iron Curtain = Dividing line in Europe between the two powers </li></ul>
  10. 10. US Policy of Containment Chapter 26 Section 2
  11. 11. Containing Communism <ul><li>USSR behavior? Why? </li></ul><ul><li>George Kennan (US diplomat in Moscow) writes the Long Telegram </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Russia’s insecurity and fear of the West – reason why it would be impossible to reach agreements with Russia </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Kennan proposes containment (keeping communism within its present territory through diplomatic, economic, and military actions) </li></ul>
  12. 12. Containing Communism <ul><li>Soviets Invade Iran and the US use military action to intimidate USSR </li></ul><ul><li>Truman Doctrine – Truman requests $400 million to fight Soviet aggression in Turkey and Greece </li></ul><ul><li>Marshall Plan – US would give aid to Europe to rebuilt after WWII – designed to decrease the appeal of communism </li></ul>
  13. 13. The Berlin Crisis <ul><li>US, Britain, and France combine their zones in Berlin and allow West Berlin to have its own government </li></ul><ul><li>In response, The Soviets block all road and rail traffic into East Germany, hoping to force the Americans to renegotiate West Berlin’s status </li></ul><ul><li>Truman sends long range bombers to Berlin with atomic weapons. </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Berlin Airlift – eleven months of food, medicine, and coal to West Berlin </li></ul><ul><li>US joins NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) – military alliance with Western Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Soviets respond to NATO with the creation of the Warsaw Pact – Military alliance between Soviets and Eastern Europe </li></ul>The Berlin Crisis
  15. 15. The Cold War Spreads East <ul><li>Nationalist and Communist forces battle in a civil war for control over China – Communists win creating the People’s Republic of China </li></ul><ul><li>China and USSR sign a treaty of friendship and alliance in 1950 </li></ul>
  16. 16. The Cold War Spreads East <ul><li>US keeps Communist China out of the UN, but allows Taiwan to stay </li></ul><ul><li>US sees Japan, not China, as its ally in defending Asia from communism </li></ul>
  17. 17. Korean War <ul><li>While disarming Japanese troops in Korea after WWII, the USSR stayed in North Korea, while the US stayed in South Korea </li></ul>
  18. 19. <ul><li>General MacArthur criticizes Truman for not using more force and is then fired </li></ul><ul><li>Truman committed to limited war (war fought to obtain a limited objective) </li></ul><ul><li>Major turning point in the Cold War : US began a major military buildup to fight communism. </li></ul>Korean War
  19. 20. CHAPTER 26 SECTION 3 The New Red Scare
  20. 21. A New Red Scare <ul><li>1945 – Americans fear subversion (an effort to secretly weaken a society and overthrow its government) </li></ul><ul><li>1947 – Loyalty Review Program which screened federal employees for their loyalty </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Leads to more American fears of communism </li></ul></ul><ul><li>FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover urges the House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) to hold public hearings on Communist subversion </li></ul><ul><li>1948 – Whittaker Chambers testifies that government officials were also Communist spies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Alger Hiss – accused, denied, and was then convicted of perjury (lying under oath) </li></ul></ul>
  21. 22. A New Red Scare <ul><li>Soviets create an atomic bomb </li></ul><ul><li>Julius and Ethel Rosenberg who were charged with heading a Soviet spy ring </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rosenberg couple were executed in 1953 though some believed them to be innocent </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1946 – American cryptographers crack the Soviet spy code under Project Verona – becomes public knowledge in 1995 (indicts the Rosenberg couple with strong evidence.) </li></ul>
  22. 23. “ A Conspiracy So Immense” <ul><li>Senator Joseph R McCarthy – 205 Communists in Gov. </li></ul><ul><li>McCarthy denounces the Democratic party as corrupt politicians and protectors of Communists – He wins a seat in the Senate </li></ul><ul><li>1950 – McCarran Act –illegal to “combine, conspire or agree with any other person to perform any act which would substantially contribute to the establishment of a totalitarian government” </li></ul>
  23. 24. “ A Conspiracy So Immense” <ul><li>McCarthy accused and searched for Communists based on poor, little, or no evidence and fear. </li></ul><ul><li>McCarthyism: to ruined reputations without proper evidence </li></ul><ul><li>Army-McCarthy hearings – McCarthy accuses army of employing communists – McCarthy looses popularity </li></ul>
  24. 25. Life During the Cold War Era <ul><li>Communism and the threat of the atomic bomb dominated life in the 1950s </li></ul><ul><li>Fallout (radiation left over from an atomic blast) </li></ul><ul><li>Americans began to build fallout shelters </li></ul><ul><li>Time of contrast: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Images of the Cold War fear filled popular culture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The country enjoyed immense postwar prosperity and optimism </li></ul></ul>
  25. 26. CHAPTER 26 SECTION 4 Eisenhower’s Policies
  26. 27. Eisenhower’s New Look <ul><li>Dwight D. Eisenhower – WWII hero – wins the 1952 election against Adlai Stephenson </li></ul><ul><li>How to win the Cold War: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strong military + strong economy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>More atomic weapons (conventional weapons too expensive) = “New Look” defense policy </li></ul><ul><li>Massive retaliation – threaten the use of nuclear weapons on any Communist state who tried to take territory through force </li></ul><ul><li>B-52s, ICBM (Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles), and Submarines could be used to deliver nuclear weapons </li></ul><ul><li>October 4, 1957 – USSR launches 1 st satellite into space known as Sputnik. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>US feels they are falling behind in missile technology </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Congress creates NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) and passes the National Defense Education Act (NDEA) </li></ul>
  27. 28. Brinksmanship in Action <ul><li>The Korean War armistice was signed after Eisenhower threatened to use nuclear weapons – stopped communism from spreading </li></ul><ul><li>1954 – China threatens to take over two islands from the Chinese Nationalists in Taiwan – Eisenhower threatens nuclear conflict and the Chinese retreat </li></ul><ul><li>Eisenhower uses the threat of nuclear power to stop the Soviets from attacking during the Suez Canal Crisis. </li></ul>
  28. 29. Fighting Communism <ul><li>Brinksmanship would not work against internal Communist revolutions </li></ul><ul><li>Eisenhower creates the CIA (Central Intelligence Agency) to use covert (hidden) operations to stop Communism </li></ul><ul><li>CIA operations took place in mostly developing nations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Iran and Guatemala in the 1950s </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nikita Khrushchev becomes prime minister after Stalin’s death </li></ul><ul><li>Eastern European countries revolt against their communist-imposed governments </li></ul><ul><li>Khrushchev uses military force to put down revolts </li></ul>
  29. 30. Continuing Tensions <ul><li>Eisenhower and Khrushchev meet at a summit in Paris to alleviate tensions </li></ul><ul><li>Summit stopped after Khrushchev finds out about a U2 spy plane that is shot down over Russia (Francis Gary Powers) </li></ul><ul><li>Eisenhower warns of the military-industrial complex (relationship between the military establishment and the defense industry) in a democracy </li></ul>