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Cold war


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Cold War

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Cold war

  1. 1. Good MafternoonGood Mafternoon!! 11/4-511/4-5 EQ: What is the Cold War and how did it impact the world? HW: Complete PowerPoints & Alphaboxes notes Directions: Go through the PowerPoint and complete the graphic organizer “Cold War Alphaboxes” Hint: You are looking for words highlighted in REDRED andand BLUEBLUE
  2. 2. EX
  3. 3. Origins of the Cold War
  4. 4. What was Europe like after WWII?
  5. 5. Berlin, Germany
  6. 6. Cologne, Germany
  7. 7. Battle of Stalingrad
  8. 8. Soviet Union (Russia)
  9. 9. After WWII • Postwar Governments, Politics, and Need for New Leaders
  10. 10. Self ReflectionSelf Reflection  Why do you think the Cold War was described as “cold”?
  11. 11. A Difference In Opinion • 1945—the beginning of a long period of distrust & misunderstanding betweenmisunderstanding between the Soviet Unionthe Soviet Union and itsand its former alliesformer allies in the West (particularly the US) – Soviet Union believed a powerful central government should control government and economy – US believed that businesses should be privately owned
  12. 12. Post-WWII Europe (1945) • Western Europe and America are alarmed by Soviet advances in Eastern Europe – Many Europeans and Americans believed that the communists werecommunists were trying to take over the world!trying to take over the world! • March 1946 - Winston Churchill warns of the “Iron Curtain” of Soviet totalitarianism.
  13. 13. “The Iron Curtain” • Soviet dictator Joseph Stalin placed most of the Eastern European countries under communist control – “Eastern Bloc” • The United States led the Western Bloc countries of Western Europe • The imaginary line separating the two was called the “Iron Curtain”
  14. 14. Self ReflectionSelf Reflection  Think about...  Why do you think it was called the “Iron Curtain”?
  15. 15. The “Iron Curtain”The “Iron Curtain” From Stettin in the Balkans, to Trieste in theFrom Stettin in the Balkans, to Trieste in the Adriatic, anAdriatic, an iron curtainiron curtain has descended across thehas descended across the Continent. Behind that line lies the ancientContinent. Behind that line lies the ancient capitals of Central and Eastern Europe.capitals of Central and Eastern Europe. -- Sir Winston Churchill, 1946-- Sir Winston Churchill, 1946
  16. 16. Division of Germany • End of WWII, Allies divided Germany into 4 sections to keep it from regaining power – US, Great Britain, France, & Soviet Union each controlled a section • 1948: Western Allies wanted to reunite Germany, but Soviets disagreed – Soviet section becameSoviet section became “East Germany” and the reunited sections became “West Germany” – Berlin was also divided into East & West
  17. 17. Results of WWII • Germany was divided into 4 zones with Allies watching them
  18. 18. Results of WWII • Germany became divided into East and West Germany • East Germany- communist • West Germany- democratic
  19. 19. Post-War GermanyPost-War Germany
  20. 20. Self ReflectionSelf Reflection  Think about...  How do you think the dividing of Germany into East and West effected Germans?
  21. 21. A Nuclear War • Each side thought the other was trying to rule the world – Neither side would give up, people lived in fear that another world war would erupt • This time it could be a nuclear war, which could destroy the entire planet • Countries began to form alliances to protect themselves…
  22. 22. NATO • 1949: Western European countries, Canada, & US formed the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) • Each nation in NATO believed the Soviet Union would not attack western Europe if the U.S. would launch nuclear war in return
  23. 23. The Warsaw Pact • What was the Warsaw Pact?Warsaw Pact? – an alliance of the Soviet Union and its communist satellite nations • Why was it formed? – to counter NATO – an anti-Western military alliance • Why “Warsaw”? – Warsaw, Poland was the city where the treaty was signed • Satellite nation? – Satellite nations are nations that are dependent upon a stronger power. – The Soviet satellite nations were Bulgaria, Romania, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland, and East Germany.
  24. 24. • As the Cold War continued, more countries allied with each side • The US and USSR had the ability to influence world events and project worldwide power • The countries were evenly matched…
  25. 25. Self ReflectionSelf Reflection  Think about...  Pretend you are living during the Cold War. What might you feel? Think? Experience?
  26. 26. Soviet Union • Had a permanent seat on the UN Security Council • Influenced other communist countries and dictatorships around the world • Occupied the largest country in the world, 3rd largest population, & the 2nd largest economy • Had military and space technology, a worldwide spy network (the KGB), & one of the largest stockpiles of nuclear weapons in the world vs.United States • Also had a permanent seat on the UN Security Council, as well as strong ties with Western Europe & Latin America • 4th most populated country, Largest economy • Had powerful military support from NATO, the largest navy in the world, bases all over the world, the CIA, and a large reserve of nuclear weapons
  27. 27. What about Berlin? • During the Cold war, there were many “hot spots” (areas of extreme tension) – The earliest hot spot was Berlin. • At the end of World War II, Germany was divided into four occupation zones – American, British, French, and Soviet • The Soviets controlled the eastern part of Germany, the western countries controlled the western part of Germany. • The capital Berlin, deep within Soviet- controlled territory, was also divided into four occupation zones.
  28. 28. Results of WWII • Germany was divided into 4 zones with Allies watching them
  29. 29. Self ReflectionSelf Reflection  Think about...  Make a prediction- what do you think happens to the city of Berlin?
  30. 30. Berlin Blockaded! • In June 1948, the Soviets blockaded all land and water traffic into western Berlin hoping to make Britain, France, and America leave the city. --(Remember Berlin was in East Germany which the USSR occupied.) • In response, the United States and Great Britain began an airlift…
  31. 31. Berlin Airlift • What’s an airlift? – a system of carrying supplies into West Berlin by plane – Day and night, British and American pilots flew in tons of food, fuel, and raw materials. • How long did it last? – 11 months • The airlift is over. Now what? – Germany officially becomes two countries with two governments. – Bonn becomes the capital of West Germany. – East Berlin becomes the capital of East Germany. – West Berlin remains a democratic stronghold, surrounded by communism.
  32. 32. The Berlin Wall • Berliners hated living under communism • Luckily, West Berlin and freedom were just across the street – About 3 million people fled to West Berlin looking for political freedom and better lives – The East German government wanted it to stop • In August 1961, East Germany built a 103 mile wall between East and West Berlin. – Guarded by Soviet troops, it became a symbol of the split between western and eastern Europe.
  33. 33. 1961 – Berlin Wall Built
  34. 34. Cold War Summary:Cold War Summary: Soviet & Eastern Bloc Nations US & the Western Democracies GOAL  spread world- wide Communism GOAL  “Containment” of Communism How’d They Do It?:  Espionage (KGB vs. CIA)  Arms Race (nuclear weapons)  Competition for the minds and hearts of Third World peoples (Communist govt. & command economy vs. democratic govt. & capitalist economy)  NATO vs. Warsaw Pact
  35. 35. The Fall of the Soviet Union Unit Two Notes
  36. 36. Losing Control • Soviet Union was spending tons of money putting down revolts, protecting its borders, and keeping up with the US in the arms race • 1985: economy was so unstable that Mikhail Gorbachev, head of USSR, reduced government control of business and increased the freedoms for all citizens
  37. 37. 1988 – A year of radical change • The USSR allows private ownership of businesses. • President Reagan visits Gorbachev in Moscow! • Gorbachev’s reforms spark political change in Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia, Georgia, Czechoslovakia, and Hungary.
  38. 38. “Tear Down This Wall!” • Demonstrations by people prompted the government to remove border- crossing restrictions. – When the announcement was made, East and West Berliners climbed the wall and celebrated. • Nov. 9th 1989: the Berlin Wall, a symbol of communism, was destroyed. – Shortly after the Berlin Wall fell, Germany was reunited as one country (October 3, 1990).
  39. 39. 1991: The Cold War Ends • After Germany was reunified, the Soviet republics that had once been separate countries began seeking their independence also • Soviet Union was no more • Many countries were created; Russia was the largest
  40. 40. Check your answersCheck your answers • Make sure you have completed your Alphaboxes before you move on