Chapter 20
<ul><li>Floods of New Immigrants </li></ul><ul><li>The Journey to America </li></ul><ul><li>The Immigrant Experience </li>...
<ul><li>Old Immigrants: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Before 1865 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protestant, spoke English, blended in...
<ul><li>Ocean voyage: 12 days via the Atlantic, several weeks via the Pacific </li></ul><ul><li>Many traveled in steerage ...
<ul><li>Typically unskilled common laborers – low pay, poor conditions </li></ul><ul><li>women and children worked in swea...
<ul><li>Resented immigrants since they would work for lower wages </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnic, religious and racial tensions ...
<ul><li>Growth of Cities </li></ul><ul><li>Cities in Crisis </li></ul><ul><li>The Changing City </li></ul>
<ul><li>US changing from a rural towards an urban nation </li></ul><ul><li>Immigrants make up 80% of city population – Job...
<ul><li>Overcrowding in tenements = health and sanitation problems </li></ul><ul><li>Students begin to get screened for co...
<ul><li>Urban growth led to new developments </li></ul><ul><li>Building upwards instead of outwards with the help of the s...
<ul><li>Expanding Education </li></ul><ul><li>A Nation of Readers </li></ul><ul><li>Art, Music, and Literature </li></ul>
<ul><li>Expansion in the number of public high schools </li></ul><ul><li>Majority of students were girls - boys stayed hom...
<ul><li>Public libraries grow: Andrew Carnegie contributes millions of dollars to establish free public libraries </li></u...
<ul><li>Americans begin to develop a distinct American style </li></ul><ul><li>American artists pursue  realist  themes </...
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Chapter 20 - Towards An Urban America

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Chapter 20 - Towards An Urban America

  1. 1. Chapter 20
  2. 2. <ul><li>Floods of New Immigrants </li></ul><ul><li>The Journey to America </li></ul><ul><li>The Immigrant Experience </li></ul><ul><li>Nativist Movement </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Old Immigrants: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Before 1865 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protestant, spoke English, blended in easily with American society </li></ul></ul><ul><li>New Immigrants: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mid-1880s: Eastern and Southern Europe; Catholics and Jews </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Early 1900s: Mexico and East Asia, unfamiliar languages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Had difficulty blending into society </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ Push” factors for new immigration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Overcrowding, poverty, lack of jobs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Escape from the persecution of ethnic minorities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ Pull” factors for new immigration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Available jobs, affordable land </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Ocean voyage: 12 days via the Atlantic, several weeks via the Pacific </li></ul><ul><li>Many traveled in steerage </li></ul><ul><li>European immigrants landed at Ellis Island (Statue of Liberty/New York Harbor) </li></ul><ul><li>Asian immigrants landed at Angel Island in San Francisco Bay </li></ul><ul><li>Examiners at the government reception centers recorded names (and at shortened or simplified the names) </li></ul><ul><li>Health exams given – People with contagious illnesses were refused permission to enter the US </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Typically unskilled common laborers – low pay, poor conditions </li></ul><ul><li>women and children worked in sweatshops (garment industries) </li></ul><ul><li>Some wanted to preserve their own cultures, most wanted to assimilate to American culture </li></ul><ul><li>Language differences within the generations of immigrants </li></ul><ul><li>Women had a hard time adjusting to their new freedoms </li></ul><ul><li>Adjust to urban life since they came from rural communities </li></ul><ul><li>Tried to re-create communities they left behind </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Synagogues, houses of worship – priests and holy people were community leaders </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Preserved some cultural heritage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Published newspapers in native tongue, opened stores, theaters, and organized social clubs </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Resented immigrants since they would work for lower wages </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnic, religious and racial tensions heighten </li></ul><ul><li>Blamed for crime, unemployment, and other problems </li></ul><ul><li>Nativist movement: anti-immigration movement – strengthens in the late 1800s: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1882 – Chinese Exclusion Act – prohibited Chinese workers to enter the US for 10 years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1907 – “Gentleman’s Agreement” – Japan limits the number of Japanese immigrants going to the US </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Immigration Act of 1917 – required immigrant to be literate </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Grace Abbott and Julia Clifford Lathrop – Immigrants’ Protective League </li></ul><ul><li>Growing industries provided with necessary workers </li></ul><ul><li>Contributed their customs and cultures to American way of life </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Growth of Cities </li></ul><ul><li>Cities in Crisis </li></ul><ul><li>The Changing City </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>US changing from a rural towards an urban nation </li></ul><ul><li>Immigrants make up 80% of city population – Jobs located in the cities </li></ul><ul><li>African Americans and women also move to the city for jobs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kansas City – meatpacking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pittsburg – iron and steel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New York and San Francisco – international trade </li></ul></ul><ul><li>More city-dwellers = more housing needed: Poorest residents lived in tenements in the city slums </li></ul><ul><li>Middle-class (professionals, doctors, lawyers, ministers) lived in the suburbs = much better conditions than the urban slums </li></ul><ul><li>Wealthy lived lavish lifestyles, but were only a tiny fraction of the population </li></ul><ul><li>This age was known as the Gilded Age : A time of extravagant wealth on the outside, but terrible poverty underneath </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Overcrowding in tenements = health and sanitation problems </li></ul><ul><li>Students begin to get screened for contagious diseases </li></ul><ul><li>City establishes public health clinics </li></ul><ul><li>Poverty led to increased crime: Gangs </li></ul><ul><li>Religious groups and organizations (YMCA, YWCA) help as much as possible </li></ul><ul><li>Settlement houses provided medical care, playgrounds, nurseries, libraries, and some education: Hull House – Jane Addams </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Urban growth led to new developments </li></ul><ul><li>Building upwards instead of outwards with the help of the safety elevator (Elisha Otis) </li></ul><ul><li>William LeBaron Jenney – constructs the world’s 1 st skyscraper </li></ul><ul><li>Woolworth Building (1913) – 55 stories, known as Cathedral of Commerce </li></ul><ul><li>Frederick Law Olmsted – designer of New York’s Central Park </li></ul><ul><li>Streetcars and paved streets revolutionize methods of transportation within cities </li></ul><ul><li>Steel Bridges allow divided portions of cities and towns to become connected </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Expanding Education </li></ul><ul><li>A Nation of Readers </li></ul><ul><li>Art, Music, and Literature </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Expansion in the number of public high schools </li></ul><ul><li>Majority of students were girls - boys stayed home and worked </li></ul><ul><li>African Americans: not given equal opportunities to attend schools </li></ul><ul><li>John Dewey - “progressive education” - relating learning to students interests, problems, and concerns </li></ul><ul><li>Morrill Act gives states large amounts of federal land that they could sell to raise money for education </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Land-grant colleges: Colleges started due funds taken from the sale of federal lands (Cornell, Stanford) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Women’s colleges (Vassar, Smith, Wellesley, Bryn Mawr) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Booker T. Washington - Tuskegee Institute - trained teachers to provide a practical education for African Americans </li></ul><ul><li>Native Americans trained for jobs through Carlisle Indian Industrial School </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Public libraries grow: Andrew Carnegie contributes millions of dollars to establish free public libraries </li></ul><ul><li>Advances in print media: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Joseph Pulitzer: New York World </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>William Randolph Hearst: New You Morning Journal </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Yellow journalism attracts readers </li></ul><ul><li>Magazines become popular (Atlantic Monthly, Harper’s Magazine, Ladies’ Home Journal) </li></ul><ul><li>Literature sees the new styles: realism and regionalism </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Americans begin to develop a distinct American style </li></ul><ul><li>American artists pursue realist themes </li></ul><ul><li>Jazz and ragtime become popular types of music </li></ul><ul><li>Middle-class workers enjoy increased leisure time </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spectator sports become popular (baseball) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Football initiates as a college sport </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Basketball originates in US and spreads to other countries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bicycles made safer with rubber wheels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vaudeville shows (dancing, singing, comedy, and magic) become popular </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thomas Edison’s moving pictures </li></ul></ul>

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