His 122 ch 29 the fair deal & containment


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  • Harry Truman had been added to the Democratic ticket in 1944, when FDR ran for his fourth term. He was a virtual unknown in the Senate when he was chosen to be the Democratic vice-presidential candidate. When he came into the presidency, he replaced many of FDR’s cabinet members while favoring many of the New Deal programs. By 1947, the military had shrunk from 12 million to 1.5 million. This placed many veterans in need of education, employment, and housing. Americans born during this time came to be known as the Baby Boomers, for a large number of children were born following the war. Congress would offset the financial impact of demobilization by providing unemployment insurance and money to attend colleges and trade schools.
  • During the war, prices had been frozen to prevent gouging. Now, with the war over, the government released control on the economy and prices skyrocketed. When wages were not raised to compensate, several unions went on strike. For the most part, Truman’s administration was successful in combating the strikes, but after the 1946 elections, he gave up the battle. Following the war, Congress established the Council of Economic Advisers, which was charged with advising the president on the economic health of the nation. In 1946, Republicans would take control of Congress and pass the Taft-Hartly Labor Act. It banned closed shops, but allowed for union shops where they were permitted by state law. Truman vetoed the bill but his veto was overturned.
  • The Charter of the United Nations (UN) was drawn up two weeks before Germany surrendered. It created two agencies, the General Assembly, made up of all member nations, and the Security Council, charged with maintaining the peace of the world.
  • During World War II, as the Red Army swept westward toward Berlin, it would retake land from the Nazis and install puppet governments in their place. While this violated a signed agreement, the Russians did not see it as a violation, but rather as self-defense. When Truman inherited the presidency, he was placed into a crumbling alliance with the Russians. A diplomatic mistake was made when secretary of state George Kennan tried to use the atomic bomb to pressure the Russians to back off from their demands. To prevent Russian expansion in Europe and Asia, Secretary of State Kennan argued that the U.S. policy must be one of containing the Russians were they already were.
  • “It’s the Same Thing” The Marshall Plan, which distributed aid throughout Europe, is represented in this 1949 cartoon as a modern tractor driven by a prosperous farmer. In the foreground a poor, overworked man is yoked to an old fashioned “Soviet” plow, forced to go over the ground of the “Marshal Stalin Plan,” while Stalin himself tries to persuade others that “it’s the same thing without mechanical problems.”
  • NATO NATO is depicted as a symbol of renewed strength for a battered Europe.
  • How did the Allies divide Germany and Austria at the Yalta Conference? What was the “iron curtain”? Why did the Allies airlift supplies to Berlin?
  • Following the end of World War II, civil rights activists were able to draw on the horrors of the state-sponsored discrimination of Germany, Japan, and Italy to make comparisons to American problems of race. In 1948, Truman would ban racial discrimination in the hiring of federal employees. Then he integrated the armed forces. While this was occurring, Jackie Robinson was making his own case for the integration of society by being the first African American to play major league baseball. By his performance, he was able to illustrate that segregation was based on racism, not African Americans’ supposed inferiority. After three years in office, Truman was finding being FDR’s successor difficult. He ran for his own term in 1948, which was incorrectly considered by most political analysts to be a lost cause. In his State of the Union Speech, he outlined what was to become his “Fair Deal” program: securing the human rights of U.S. citizens, protecting human resources, and extending government programs for the unemployed and the retired.
  • “I Stand Pat!” Truman’s support of civil rights for African Americans had its political costs, as this 1948 cartoon suggests.
  • The Democrats would nominate Truman for his own term. The Republicans nominated Thomas Dewey, governor of New York. In an act of defiance against Truman’s support of Civil Rights, a third party, known as the Dixiecrats due to its makeup of former Confederate states, split from the Democrats. On Election Day, Truman would win the presidency.
  • Picketing in Philadelphia The opening of the 1948 Democratic National Convention was marked by demonstrations against racial segregation, led by A. Philip Randolph (left).
  • The Dixiecrats nominate Strom Thurmond The Dixiecrats nominated South Carolina governor Strom Thurmond (center) to lead their ticket in the 1948 election.
  • “Dewey Defeats Truman” Truman’s victory in 1948 was a huge upset, so much so that even the early edition of the Chicago Daily Tribune was caught off guard, running this presumptuous headline.
  • Why did the political pundits predict a Dewey victory? Why was civil rights a divisive issue at the Democratic Convention? How did the candidacies of Thurmond and Wallace help Truman?
  • In China, the Nationalists, led by Chiang Kai-Shek, had been fighting the Communist forces of Mao Tse-Tung since the 1920s. During World War II, both had halted their civil war and fought the Japanese. Once peace was obtained, America supported the restoration of the Nationalists, even though it was widely believed they were too corrupt to stand on their own. Soon after, civil war erupted again and the Nationalists were forced from China to the island of Formosa, modern-day Taiwan. It would be thirty years before the Communist government in China was recognized. In Vietnam, the United States would try to bolster their alliances by supporting the French, who had colonies there opposing the Communist forces of Ho Chi Minh. About the same time, it was revealed that the Soviets had successfully detonated an atomic bomb of their own, leading Truman to fund the construction of a more powerful weapon, the hydrogen bomb.
  • After World War II, Japan lost its claim to the Korean peninsula, which it had occupied since 1910. The Allies would try to establish a new government there, but the act was hindered by Soviet forces which had advanced into Korea and defeated the Japanese forces in the northern part. Much like the Germany situation, the Allies would agree to divide the nation at the 38th parallel. On each side of the border, separate governments were created, resembling their supporting nations. On June 25, 1950, North Korean soldiers attacked South Korea. Truman would send in forces under the auspices of UN support. After almost three years, an armistice was signed that ended the fighting and reestablished the border at the 38th parallel.
  • How did the surrender of the Japanese in Korea set up the conflict between Soviet influenced North Korea and U.S.-influenced South Korea? What was General MacArthur’s strategy for retaking Korea? Why did President Truman remove MacArthur from command?
  • The Korean War exacerbated the anti-Communist fears in the American public. To prevent Communist invasion of key government positions, Truman would establish procedures to keep them out of office. Those Communists that were found who were, or had been, in office were tried. The most famous case was that of Alger Hiss, who was found guilty for lying about espionage against the United States. The most famous of the Red Scare’s proponents was Joseph McCarthy. As a senator from Wisconsin, he would stir up anti-Communist feelings and engage in a hunt for Communist spies in the government.
  • If it is the international conditions that set the stage for the cold war, the actions of political leaders and thinkers set the events in motion.
  • His 122 ch 29 the fair deal & containment

    1. 1. The Fair Deal & Containment CH 29
    2. 2. Demobilization under Truman  Truman’s Uneasy Start  Truman did not have college degree  Officer in WWI  Local political experience  Business failures  Elected to U.S. Senate in 1934  Acceptable to Southern Democrats  Converting to Peace  1945-1947 American demobilization  12 million active to 1.5 million  How to house, educate, employ veterans
    3. 3. Demobilization under Truman  Controlling Inflation  Prices skyrocketed when government lifted price controls  Wages did not go up  Strikes  Partisan Cooperation and Conflict  Council of Economic Advisors  1946: Republicans took control of Congress  Taft-Hartley Labor Act  Banned closed shops; permitted union shops if permitted by state law  Truman’s veto overturned
    4. 4. The Cold War  Building the United Nations  U.N. Charter drawn up two weeks before Germany surrendered  General Assembly: all member nations  Security Council  Permanent session  Charged with “primary responsibility for the maintenance of international peace and security”  5 permanent members: U.S. Great Britain, France, Republic of China (to 1971), Soviet Union (Russia after 1991)  11 (15 after 1965) member states elected to 2 year terms
    5. 5. The Cold War  Differences with the Soviets  Who started it?  Stalin: Paranoid Communist  Quest for global domination  Defend Western Europe against Communism  United States  Truman administration adopted aggressive, confrontational foreign policy  American vs. Soviet “Spheres of Influence”  Both Sides  Engaged in heated rhetoric and military arms race  Nuclear nightmare  Signs of trouble in 1945  February 1: Polish Committee of National Liberation  March: Puppet Prime Minister in Romania  German overtures of peace with Great Britain and U.S.
    6. 6. The Cold War  Churchill: ―What is to happen about Europe? AN iron curtain is drawn down upon the Russian front. We do not know what is going on behind it.‖  Truman argued with Soviet Foreign Minster over Poland.  ―I have never been talked to like that in my life‖ –Molotov  ―Carry out your agreements and you won’t get talked to like that.‖ –Churchill  Soviets viewed control of Eastern Europe as being no different from U.S. control of Japan and Pacific Islands and U.S., Britain and France occupation of West Germany  Secretary of State: James F. Byrne (D) South Carolina  Little experience with international relations but got on well with Truman  Argued for brandishing ―atomic weapon‖ to intimidate the Soviets
    7. 7. The Cold War  Tensions between State Department and President  James F. Byrnes-- State Department made decisions without informing the President before taking action  Moscow Conference of Foreign Ministers  Korea: joint control between U.S. and Soviet Union in a trusteeship with spheres on control demarcated along 38th parallel  Did not include Iran in final communique which angered Truman  Iran Crisis of 1946  1941 Iran occupied by both Soviet Union and Great Britain  1946 Soviet Union refused to give up territory in Iran, stepping back only after UN resolution
    8. 8. The Cold War  Stalin’s speech February 1946  International peace impossible under ―present capitalist development of the world economy‖  Interpreted by George F. Kennan in U.S. Embassy in Moscow in ―The Long‖ Telegram.  Containment  Patient, persistent, prolonged efforts to contain Soviet expansion over the long term.  Truman Doctrine  March 12, 1947 radio broadcast  Truman asks for 400 million in economic aid to Greece and Turkey  ―It must be the policy of the United States to support free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures.‖  ―Cold War‖ term coined by Bernard Baruch in 1947 speech to South Carolina legislature
    9. 9. President Truman attends Churchill’s ―Iron Curtain‖ Speech, March 5, 1946 Harry S. Truman Memorial Library Accession No. 59-1101
    10. 10. The Marshall Plan  Part of the Truman Doctrine  General George C. Marshall now Secretary of State to President Truman  Provide aid to any European Nation that requested it  USSR called the plan ―imperialist‖  1948 U.S. Great Britain and France united their occupation zones in Germany and presided over democratic elections  USSR considered the union of the three occupation zones a threat to USSR
    11. 11. Berlin Blockade  June 24, 1948-May 12, 1949  USSR blocked rail, road access to Berlin  Allies had to re-supply Berlin through an airlift  200,000 flights in one year
    12. 12. The Cold War
    13. 13. The Cold War
    14. 14. The Cold War
    15. 15. The Cold War  NATO: North Atlantic Treaty Organization  Treaty signed April 4, 1949  Belgium, the Netherlands, Luxembourg, France, United Kingdom, United States, Canada, Portugal, Italy, Norway, Denmark and Iceland  The members agreed that an armed attack against any one of them in Europe or North America would be considered an attack against them all.  Collective Security
    16. 16. Comecon and The Warsaw Pact  Council for Mutual Economic Assistance  USSR, Poland, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia  January 8, 1948  Transnational Central Planning  Russian Oil for Eastern Bloc manufactured goods  Warsaw Pact  Berlin Conference of 1954  USSR, Great Britain, France and U.S. foreign ministers  USSR attempts to join NATO  German reunification rejected  West Germany admitted to NATO—October 1954  Warsaw Pact established in 1955 as a military response to NATO
    17. 17. The Cold War
    18. 18. Civil Rights during the 1940s  Jackie Robinson  First African American to play major league Baseball  What did Jackie Robinson’s success mean?  Shaping the Fair Deal  Correlation between theories of race in Germany and Japan and American attitudes toward African Americans  1948 Truman banned racial discrimination in hiring federal employees  Fair Deal  Securing human rights of U.S. citizens  Protecting Human Resources  Extending social safety net for unemployed and retirees
    19. 19. Civil Rights During the 1940s
    20. 20. Civil Rights during the 1940s  The Election of 1948  Truman (D) vs. Dewey (R)  Dixiecrats: Strom Thurmond (South Carolina governor)
    21. 21. Civil Rights During the 1940s.
    22. 22. Civil Rights During the 1940s.
    23. 23. The Cold War Heats Up  “Losing” China  Nationalists: Chiang Kai-Shek vs. Communists: Mao Tse-Tung  Civil war before invasion by Japan  Joined forced to oppose Japanese occupation  Civil War resumed at the end of WWII  Chiang government corruption  Military victory by Mao’s forces resulted in Chiang’s forces retreating to Taiwan  Vietnam  French attempted to keep Indochina as a colony following WWII  Ho Chi Minh not supported by French  U.S. sided with French to bolster alliances in Europe
    24. 24. Soviets get ―The Bomb‖  1st successful test of Atomic bomb by USSR: August 29, 1949
    25. 25. The Cold War Heats Up  War in Korea  Japanese occupied Korean Peninsula 1910-1945  Soviets advanced into northern peninsula and accepted surrender of Japanese forces north of the 38th parallel  U.S. accepted surrender of Japanese forces south of the 38th parallel  1948 Separate governments existed North of 38th parallel and South of the 38th parallel  June 25, 1950: 80,000 N. Korean troops crossed into S. Korea  Seoul captured in 3 days  Mao and Stalin encouraged invasion  Truman assumed Stalin attempting to consolidate power in Asia
    26. 26. U.N Security Council Developments  Soviet delegate to U.N. Security Council boycotted the Security Council session on June 26 & 27 over whether to seat Peoples’ Republic of China  Emergency Session: Security Council censured North Korean aggression without a veto  June 27: Security Council authorized UN members ―to furnish such assistance to the Republic of Korea as may be necessary to repel the armed attack and to restore international peace and security in the area.‖  Truman ordered air, naval and ground forces into action and placed General Douglas MacArthur in charge
    27. 27. Truman Assumptions  Mistakenly viewed Korean conflict as a diversion for a Soviet Invasion of Western Europe and ordered a major expansion of U.S. troops to Europe  Increased American assistance to French troops fighting against independence movement in Indochina (Vietnam).
    28. 28. Korean War developments  September 15, 1950 Gen. MacArthur orders a surprise amphibious landing at Inchon  Surprise landing caused a rout of North Korean forces.  MacArthur persuaded Truman to agree to allow invasion of North Korea to Chines border  October 15 meeting between Truman and MacArthur on Wake Island  October 20 U.N. forces entered Pyongyang  October 26 U.N. forces reached Yalu River on North Korea’s border with China  November 26: 260,000 Chines volunteer army attacked U.S. forces
    29. 29. MacArthur’s Demands of Truman  34 atomic bombs  Naval blockade  Invasion of People’s Republic of China by Nationalist forces  January 1951 900,000 U.N. troops counterattack under General Matthew Ridgway  Truman offered to begin negotiations with North Koreans  MacArthur issued ultimatum for China to make peace or suffer an attack on China  On floor of Congress, Republican Minority Leader read a letter from MacArthur, critical of Truman: ―there is no substitute for victory‖  April 11, 1941 Truman removes MacArthur from post.
    30. 30. U.S. Soldiers retake Seoul
    31. 31. The Cold War Heats Up  Another Red Scare  Anti-communist fears  Alger Hiss trial  McCarthy’s Witch Hunt  McCarthy: Senator from Wisconsin from 1947-1957  Alleged that large numbers of Communists had infiltrated U.S. government and social institutions  Lavender Scare  Tydings Committee: Subcommittee on the Investigation of the Loyalty of State Department Employees  Lee list: persons deemed “security risks” for various reasons but who were cleared by subsequent investigation  McCarthy was never able to prove charges
    32. 32. Herbert Block first coined ―McCarthyism‖ March 29, 1950 Washington Post
    33. 33. McCarthy’s Targets  General George C. Marshall  Impeach Truman for firing MacArthur  Irving Peress & American Labor Party  ―Who promoted Peress?‖  Joseph Welch & Fred Fisher  Welch: Chief legal representative for the U.S. Army  Fisher: worked in Welch’s law office had once belonged to the National Lawyer’s Guild  "Let us not assassinate this lad further, Senator. You've done enough. Have you no sense of decency, sir, at long last? Have you left no sense of decency?―  Edward. R. Murrow See it Now
    34. 34. What is the Legacy of the early Cold War?  Assessing the Cold War  Was the Cold War inevitable?  Who benefitted from the Cold War?  Western Allies  Warsaw Pact Countries  Third World impacts  Asia: Vietnam; Cambodia; Laos  Africa: South Africa; Rhodesia (Zimbabwe); Angola, Congo  South America: Chile; Argentina; Nicaragua; El Salvador  Who lost the Cold War?