Chapter 17 - Reconstruction


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Chapter 17 - Reconstruction

  1. 1. The Aftermath of the Civil War: Chapter 17
  2. 2. <ul><li>Debate over Reconstruction </li></ul><ul><li>Reconstruction Plans </li></ul><ul><li>The Treatment of African Americans </li></ul><ul><li>Lincoln’s Assassination </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>The South is near destroyed </li></ul><ul><li>Over 280,000 soldiers died leaving mostly women and children left to rebuild communities and families </li></ul><ul><li>Economy of the South was devastated </li></ul><ul><li>How do we reunite the nation after the Civil War? </li></ul><ul><li>Should the South be punished or forgiven? </li></ul><ul><li>What rights should be given to newly freed African Americans? </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>10 PERCENT PLAN </li></ul><ul><li>Created by Abraham Lincoln </li></ul><ul><li>10% of voters took an oath of loyalty to the Union </li></ul><ul><li>States must ban slavery, but not necessarily give equal rights to African Americans </li></ul><ul><li>Amnesty(pardon) to Confederate leaders willing to take the oath </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>WADE-DAVIS BILL </li></ul><ul><li>Created by Radical(extreme) Republicans in Congress – Thaddeus Stevens – Believed Lincoln’s plan was too mild </li></ul><ul><li>50% of voters took an oath of loyalty to the Union </li></ul><ul><li>Only whites who swore they had never picked up arms against the Union could vote </li></ul><ul><li>States must ban slavery, but not necessarily give equal rights to African Americans </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Freedmen </li></ul><ul><li>Transition out of slavery </li></ul><ul><li>Distributed food, clothes, and medical </li></ul><ul><li>Established schools gave aid to new African American Institutions of higher learning </li></ul><ul><li>Acquire land, provided free transportation, and obtain fair wages </li></ul>
  7. 8. <ul><li>Killed while watching a play known as “Our American Cousin” at Ford’s Theater in Washington D.C. </li></ul><ul><li>John Wilkes Booth </li></ul><ul><li>Lincoln’s death shocked the nation </li></ul><ul><li>African Americans mourn the loss </li></ul>
  8. 9. <ul><li>RESTORATION PLAN </li></ul><ul><li>Created by Andrew Johnson (after Lincoln’s death) </li></ul><ul><li>Most southerners were granted amnesty once they swore an oath </li></ul><ul><li>High ranking Confederate Officers and wealthy landowners could only be pardoned if they applied personally to the president </li></ul><ul><li>They abolished slavery and ratified the 13 th Amendment </li></ul>
  9. 10. <ul><li>African American Rights </li></ul><ul><li>Radical Reconstruction </li></ul><ul><li>Limiting Presidential Powers </li></ul><ul><li>Election of 1868 </li></ul>
  10. 11. <ul><li>Black Codes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Laws passed by Southern States in order to exploit African Americans and reinstitute slavery and limit the rights of African Americans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Congress does two things to combat the Black Codes: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Strengthen the powers of the Freedmen’s Bureau </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Passed the Civil Rights Act of 1866: granted full citizenship to African Americans </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 12. <ul><li>Johnson vs. Congress </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Johnson vetoes the Civil Rights Act – Congress overrides(defeats) his veto </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Congress passes the 14 th Amendment and requires that southern states ratify it before rejoining the Union. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Johnson campaigns against the 14 th amendment, but instead ends up turning people against him </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Republicans win majorities in both the House and Senate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>South continues refusing the ratification of the 14 th Amendment </li></ul></ul>
  12. 13. <ul><li>What does this picture represent? </li></ul><ul><li>What does it tell you about black and white relations in America during this time? </li></ul>
  13. 14. <ul><li>Republican victories in Congress allow for Radical Republicans to control Reconstruction </li></ul><ul><li>Congress passes the 1 st Reconstruction Act: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Divided the 10 Southern States that hadn’t ratified the 14 th Amendment into 5 military districts under the command of a Northern General </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>African Americans could vote in state elections </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Former Confederate leaders could not hold political office </li></ul></ul><ul><li>White southerners refuse to take part in state elections and African Americans register and vote – By 1870 the rest of the South rejoined the Union </li></ul>
  14. 15. <ul><li>Congress passes the Tenure of Office Act (president can’t remove any government official without Congressional approval) in order to limit the power of the president </li></ul><ul><li>Johnson fires Edwin Stanton (Sec. of War) and is impeached (accused of wrongdoing) for doing so. </li></ul><ul><li>Johnson misses being removed from office by 1 vote. </li></ul>
  15. 16. <ul><li>Ulysses S. Grant (Republican) wins the election – War Hero of the Civil War </li></ul><ul><li>Congress passes the 15 th Amendment allowing African Americans the right to vote </li></ul>
  16. 17. <ul><li>Support for Republicans came from: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>African Americans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>White Southerners who supported their policies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>White settlers from the North </li></ul></ul>
  17. 18. <ul><li>African Americans in Government </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mostly in State governments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>16 in the House of Representatives – 2 in the Senate (Hiram Revels and Blanche K. Bruce) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Scalawags </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Southerners who supported Republican policies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Carpetbaggers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Northerners who moved to the south to help out the Freedmen’s Bureau and settle in the South. </li></ul></ul>
  18. 20. <ul><li>Some were corrupt (dishonest or illegal) and took advantage of the South </li></ul><ul><li>Southern plantation owners used fear and illegal means against African Americans </li></ul><ul><li>KKK (Ku Klux Klan) – Secret organization which used fear and violence to intimidate those who supported Radical Reconstruction </li></ul>
  19. 21. <ul><li>Education improved for both blacks and whites </li></ul><ul><li>Black and white public schools </li></ul><ul><li>Morehouse College and Atlanta University </li></ul><ul><li>Few states required schools to be integrated </li></ul><ul><li>Sharecropping became a major way for African Americans to get land </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Using what you grow on the land to rent out the land itself </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>little better than slavery – not much left over to sell after paying rent </li></ul></ul>
  20. 22. <ul><li>How did Reconstruction decline and end? </li></ul><ul><li>What changes did the South see after Reconstruction? </li></ul><ul><li>How were African Americans treated after Reconstruction ends? </li></ul><ul><li>Was Reconstruction a success or failure? </li></ul>
  21. 23. <ul><li>Freedmen go back to working for former landholders </li></ul><ul><li>Republican leaders leave office </li></ul><ul><li>Racial prejudice in the North </li></ul><ul><li>Republicans in Congress split and disagree with Reconstruction </li></ul><ul><li>Amnesty Act – pardons nearly all former Confederate officials </li></ul>
  22. 24. <ul><li>Democrats regain political power in the South </li></ul><ul><ul><li>KKK and other violent groups help Democrats regain power by terrorizing Southern Republicans and Blacks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Republican scandals in the federal government and an economic depression led to Republicans losing power in government </li></ul><ul><li>Democrats win back some power in Congress </li></ul>
  23. 25. <ul><li>Election of 1876 (Rutherford B. Hayes v. Samuel Tilden) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Congress creates a special commission </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The election creates controversy (Hayes wins) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Compromise of 1877 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Appease Democrats who felt cheated by the election results </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Withdraw all Northern troops from the South </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Democrats promise to uphold African American rights </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reconstruction Ends! </li></ul>
  24. 26. <ul><li>African Americans face poverty, indignity, and despair after Reconstruction ends! </li></ul><ul><li>Political power in the South shifts from Republicans to Democrats </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Redeemers – Southern business leaders who vowed to economically develop the South </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many public services cut, such as public education </li></ul></ul>
  25. 27. <ul><li>The “New South” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Creation of new economies in the South </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The textile, tobacco, and steel industries made huge advances – Bessemer process (forming steel from iron) </li></ul><ul><li>The railroad boom and low-wages helped to industrialize the South very quickly </li></ul><ul><li>Rural economy fails </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tenant farming and sharecropping damaged the rural agricultural economy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cotton as a “cash crop” in order to pay off debt </li></ul>
  26. 28. <ul><li>African American voting restrictions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Poll tax </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Literacy test </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grandfather clauses </li></ul></ul><ul><li>African American voting severely declines </li></ul><ul><li>Jim Crow Laws and segregation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plessy v. Ferguson – justifies the use of segregation in public facilities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Many African Americans were lynched (death by hanging) by angry mobs </li></ul>