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Chapter 28 - The New Frontier And Great Society


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Chapter 28 - The New Frontier And Great Society

  1. 1. Chapter 28
  2. 2. <ul><li>Election of 1960 </li></ul><ul><li>The Kennedy Mystique </li></ul><ul><li>Success and Setbacks on the Domestic Front </li></ul><ul><li>Warren Court Reforms </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>1960 Presidential election begins era of television politics </li></ul><ul><li>TV becomes a voting tool </li></ul><ul><li>Democratic – Catholic – Massachusetts: John F. Kennedy </li></ul><ul><li>Republican – Quaker – Former V.P.: Richard Nixon </li></ul><ul><li>Millions spent by Democrats and Republicans on television and radio ads </li></ul><ul><li>Campaigns </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kennedy shows concerns about the “missile gap” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nixon believed foreign policy was on the right track </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Televised debates influence the outcome of the election </li></ul><ul><li>Kennedy win by a narrow margin </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Youth, optimism, and charisma inspired Americans </li></ul><ul><li>Inaugural address: “ask not what your country can do for you – ask what you can do for your country” </li></ul><ul><li>1 st president to broadcast his press conferences live on television </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>New Frontier </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase education aid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide health insurance to the elderly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Create Dept. of Urban Affairs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Help migrant workers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Congress defeats many of his proposals – too costly </li></ul><ul><li>Kennedy advocated deficit spending </li></ul><ul><li>Congress wanted to invest funds into defense and space exploration </li></ul><ul><li>Kennedy creates the Commission on the Status of Women </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Calls for the federal action against gender discrimination and equal pay for women </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Earl Warren (Chief Justice) (Warren Court) activist role in social issues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Civil rights for African Americans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Freedom of the press </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Separation of church and state </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rights of the accused </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reapportionment –all votes would have equal weight </li></ul><ul><li>Due process – courts must treat individuals fairly, and reasonably and use proper procedures </li></ul><ul><li>States could not imposed prayer in public schools </li></ul><ul><li>Warren Court plays an immense role in shaping national policy </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Global Challenges </li></ul><ul><li>Bay of Pigs Invasion </li></ul><ul><li>Berlin Wall </li></ul><ul><li>Cuban Missile Crisis </li></ul><ul><li>Death of a President </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Curb communism and reduce the threat of nuclear war </li></ul><ul><li>Flexible response – build-up of conventional weapons and troops </li></ul><ul><li>Supported Special Forces designed to wage guerilla warfare </li></ul><ul><li>Alliance for Progress designed to improve Latin American relations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cooperative aid projects to Central and South American countries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some governments made reforms, Some governments used the aid to remain in power </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Peace Corp established – designed to help less developed countries fight poverty </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Young Americans trained to assist countries (2 years) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Increased tensions caused the space race (Kennedy pushes to put the 1 st man on the moon) </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Cuba’s leader Fidel Castro forms an alliance with the Soviet Union </li></ul><ul><li>Cuban exiles (La Brigada) trained to retake Cuba from Castro </li></ul><ul><li>1961 – Kennedy order the Bay of Pigs Invasion – La Brigada is either killed or captured by Castro’s army </li></ul><ul><li>Failed attempt to overthrow Cuban government </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Kennedy refuses to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Recognize East Germany </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Withdraw from West Berlin </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Berlin to prevent movement between the Soviet sector and the rest of the city </li></ul><ul><li>Symbolized the Cold War division of East and West </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Soviets had placed long-range ballistic missiles in Cuba </li></ul><ul><li>Agreement reached: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>US not to invade Cuba and takes missiles out of Turkey </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>USSR takes missiles out of Cuba </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Brought the world to the brink of nuclear war </li></ul><ul><li>US and USSR agree to ban test of nuclear warheads in the atmosphere </li></ul><ul><li>Khrushchev’s fall attributed to the Cuban Missile Crisis </li></ul><ul><li>New leadership will spur on a huge Soviet arms buildup </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Lee Harvey Oswald </li></ul><ul><li>Dallas, TX </li></ul><ul><li>Oswald killed two days later by Jack Ruby </li></ul><ul><li>The Warren Commission investigates the shooting and proclaims that Oswald was the lone shooter. </li></ul><ul><li>Conspiracy theories arise but none gain wide acceptance </li></ul><ul><li>Lyndon Johnson continues Kennedy’s programs </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Johnson Takes the Reins </li></ul><ul><li>The Great Society </li></ul><ul><li>Legacy of the Great Society </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>50 million in poverty: made the elimination of poverty a major policy goal </li></ul><ul><li>Johnson was direct and rough, unlike Kennedy </li></ul><ul><li>Tries to work towards a consensus: general agreement between political parties </li></ul><ul><li>Declares a War on Poverty: Office of Economic Opportunity (OEO) = create jobs and fight poverty </li></ul><ul><li>Wins the election of 1964 against Barry Goldwater </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Johnson’s vision for a more equitable society </li></ul><ul><li>Medicare </li></ul><ul><li>Medicaid </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on education: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Elementary and Secondary Education Act (1965) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Project Head Start </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Department of Housing and Urban Development: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Robert Weaver (1 st African American to Serve in Cabinet) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Immigration Reform Act of 1965: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strict limit on number of immigrants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eliminated national origins system </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>All aspects of American life improved for many Americans </li></ul><ul><li>Some Americans criticized the growth of federal funds and criticized the government for intruding upon their lives </li></ul><ul><li>How much should the government do for Americans? </li></ul>