Cold war ap

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Cold war ap

  1. 1. ORIGINS OF THE COLD WAR 1945-1959 B117 MONDAY
  2. 2. THE COLD WAR  battle of diplomacy, propaganda and nerves  not a direct confrontation  world divided into three sides after WW II…
  3. 3. Soviet Union (USSR)•Leader of thecommunist world• vowed to spread communism
  4. 4. United States• leader of the free world• vowed to contain communism
  5. 5. THIRD WORLD (DEVELOPING NATIONS)COLD WAR BATTLEGROUND Asia Africa and the Latin Middle East America
  6. 6. SELF DETERMINATION All countries would have the right of self determination Democracy or Communism in nations that had been under Nazi rule Stalin had agreed to allow free elections in Eastern Europe
  7. 7.  Soviets refused free elections in Eastern Europe after WW II  installed communist governments  became known as “satellite nations” countries dominated by USSR
  8. 8.  Churchill says an “Iron Curtain” has descended across the continent  referring to Soviet control of Eastern Europe  no news allowed in or out of Soviet controlled territory
  9. 9. TRUMAN DOCTRINE-1947 main goal was to help free nations resist the spread of communism  initially helped Greece and Turkey
  10. 10. U.S. ADOPT S A “CONTAINMENT POLICY” keep communism from spreading  foundation of U.S. foreign policy for next 50 years The Marshall Plan - 1948  economic aid to Europe to rebuild Europe  over 3 years $13 billion sent  offered to Russia, but refused
  11. 11. HAMBURG IN 1947EFFECTS OF THE MARSHALL PLAN HAMBURG IN1952
  12. 12. BERLIN AIRLIFT-1948 Germany divided into 4 sectors after WW II – each allied nation occupies a sector  Berlin in East Germany Allies wanted to reunite Germany Stalin did not  Wanted Berlin to himself
  13. 13.  Soviets tried to isolate Berlin by setting up a blockade U.S., Britain flew in tons of goods everyday for a
  14. 14. AUGUST 1949 Soviet Union develops the Atomic Bomb
  15. 15. 1949 – CHINESE REVOLUTION communists win control of China seen as proof that communists wanted to dominate the world
  16. 16. CHAIRMAN MAO
  17. 17. 1949 - U.S. CREATES NATO  North Atlantic Treaty Organization  U.S. and 15 European countries pledge to defend each other
  18. 18. SOVIETS CREATE THE WARSAW PACT, 1955 USSR plus 7 Eastern European countries form military alliance
  19. 19. KOREAN WAR, 1950-1953 Korea was divided after WW II  At the 38th parallel  North - communist  South - free, democratic June, 1950 North Korea invades South Korea
  20. 20. 1ST WEEKS WERE GRIM  U.S. almost pushed out of Korea  South Korean and US Army forces were pushed back to city of Pusan
  21. 21.  Marines land at Inchon  behind North Korean lines North Koreans begin withdrawal U.N. forces push into North Korea Nov. 27, 1950 Chinese troops attack  drove U.N. troops back to 38th parallel
  22. 22. MACARTHUR AND TRUMAN DISAGREED HOW TO WAGE THE WAR eventually MacArthur is fired returned home as a hero  1st time back in States since WW II ended
  23. 23.  War continued back and forth until 1953  Stalemate Armistice signed in 1953 maintaining the status quo
  24. 24. Korean War Memorial
  25. 25. TWO NATIONS LIVE ON THE EDGE H-Bomb tested on Pacific Island Nov. 1952 (because USSR now had the atomic bomb 150 times more powerful than A-Bomb tested on Pacific island, island disappeared within one year USSR had one arms race begins
  26. 26. PRESIDENT RELIED HEAVILY ON CIA FOR INFORMATION SPYORGANIZATION, INTELLIGENCE GATHERING
  27. 27. NEW LEADERSHIP IN USSR Stalin dies in 1953 Replaced by Nikita Khrushchev
  28. 28.  Continue Cold War Sem 2 Exercise in Accountability starting at 9:14 Homework Read 38.1
  29. 29. NUCLEAR WAR DRILLS air raid drills
  30. 30. BERT THE TURTLE – COMMERCIALS, COMIC BOOKS(DUCK AND COVER)
  31. 31. BUILT EMERGENCY SHELTERS IN BACK YARD
  32. 32. MORE COLD WAR!!! HW Read 38.2
  33. 33. RUSSIANS LAUNCH FIRST SATELLITE Sputnik I  Oct. 4, 1957  Soviets first in space Effects?
  34. 34. COLD WAR AT HOME - RED SCARE, PART II concern about communism overseas caused a fear of communism at home Loyalty Review Board created in 1947  investigated government employees 3.2 million investigated from 1947-1951 dismissed those found disloyal 212 dismissed, 2,900 resigned Workers had to sign loyalty oaths to get a job
  35. 35. J EDGAR HOOVER Head of FBI Hunting Communists Says 1 in 1,800 Americans are Communists – They are everywhere (churches, schools, government, etc.) Develops “Security Index” – List of suspected Communists that should be rounded up
  36. 36. HOUSE UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES COMMITTEE (HUAC)  investigated communist influence in the movie industry  “Blacklist” started by movie producers  kept approximately 500 people from working
  37. 37. HOLLYWOOD 10 - REFUSED TO COOPERATE, FELTHEARINGS WERE UNCONSTITUTIONALSENT TO PRISON
  38. 38. SPY TRIALS TWO SPY CASES ADDED TO FEAR Alger Hiss, 1948  State Dept. official  accused by former communist  claimed to have documents proving Hiss was a spy (Pumpkin Papers) Hiss sues other guy for libel Hiss loses libel case not convicted of spying, but indicted for perjury by Congress 3 Years in jail Some proof of innocence; some of
  39. 39. ETHEL AND JULIUS ROSENBERG, 1950 Members of American Communist Party Implicated by British scientist who admitted giving the secrets to the Soviets convicted of selling atomic bomb secrets executed in 1953 for espionage  1st civilians to be executed for espionage
  40. 40. SENATOR JOE MCCARTHY 1954, claimed communists infiltrated American life  in the military and government investigation was televised  accusations got wilder succeeded in ruining many careers, reputations never found a spy
  41. 41.  Eisenhower televises hearing s against members of the military America saw witnesses being “bullied”  turned against McCarthy Senate censures him for improper conduct
  42. 42.  to label someone’s activities as McCarthyism would be to suggest that the person is making unsupported accusations 1953  39 States had laws making it illegal to advocate violent overthrow of Government  steps were taken to clean out radical, un- American/disloyal workers 1957  Supreme Court, Yates vs. U.S., said that believing or teaching an idea, even revolution, is not a crime

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