The BeginningSuperpowers – US & Soviet UnionDifferences led to Cold WarWeapons used – Threat of force – Propaganda – Military and economic aid for weaker nations
Types of Governments Democracy CommunismGovernment by the Totalitarian system of people; citizens hold government in which a single party controls the power state-owned means of production; a society without class distinctions or private property
EconomicsA study of choices of people trying to satisfy their wants in a world of scarcity.Economic SystemThe way in which a society decides what goods to produce, how to produce them, and for whom goods will be produced.
2 Types of Economic Systems Free Enterprise SocialismIndividuals own most of Government owns and the resources used and controls most of the control their use; resources; government plays government plays very small role in the major role in the economy. economy.
ORIGINS OF THE COLD WAR WWII Alliance of Britain and U.S. with Soviet Union was pragmatic ―marriage of convenience‖ to defeat Germany 1. Lack of trust of Stalin. • unified wartime command • atomic bomb 2. Soviets believed western allies not sharing load 3. Soviet mistreatment of eastern Europeans during WWII
ORIGINS OF THE COLD WAR: Wartime Diplomacy―Big Three‖ Allied leaders were consistently unable to resolve their basicdisagreements over the structure of post-war Europe Tehran Conference (November 1943) Stalin, Roosevelt & Churchill at Tehran, 1943 – U.S. and Britain would open a second front within six months – Allies would create a post-war international organization
ORIGINS OF THE COLD WAR : Wartime Diplomacy Yalta Conference (January-February 1945) – Loose set of principles that avoided the most divisive issues. – Division of Germany (and Berlin) into four ―zones of occupation‖; Reunification of Germany at a future date; process not specified – Soviets would enter Pacific war within 3 months after Germany had been defeated – United Nations – Poland – free elections at some unspecified date after the war ― Churchill, Roosevelt and Stalin at Yalta, February 1945
ORIGINS OF THE COLD WAR : Wartime Diplomacy San Francisco Conference - United Nations Formed (April 1945) – Security Council • 11 members • Permanent seats with veto power for U.S., Britain, France, China and USSR – General Assembly – Secretariat • Secretary-General – International Court of Justice
ORIGINS OF THE COLD WAR : Wartime Diplomacy Potsdam Conference (July-Aug. 1945) – Reparations: Stalin allowed to take 25% of West German industry – Nazi leaders: to be tried as war criminals at Nuremberg – Poland: Free elections – Japan: Unconditional surrender – Korea: to be temporarily Churchill, Truman and Stalin at Potsdam divided
ORIGINS OF THE COLD WAR: Causes of Cold War Soviets the main cause (Original U.S. view) – Aggressive policies of expansion (in eastern Europe) and violation of Yalta agreements U.S. the main cause (Revisionist interpretation) – By insisting that entire world be open to American trade and influence (capitalist expansionism & internationalism) Neither/Both the cause (post-revisionist interpretation) – Two most powerful nations in world bound to clash – Through ignorance and misconceptions, both countries helped to create an atmosphere of tension and suspicion that touched off the Cold War Could the Cold War have been avoided? How?
Iron Curtain Speech Churchill used phrase March 1946 Represents the Soviet-made barrier splitting Europe into non-Communist Western Europe and Communist Eastern Europe Became symbol of the Cold War
Marshall Plan Massive aid package to Europe Billions of dollars spent to speed recovery measures Stalin thought it was trick Western European economies thrived Helped stop spread of communism
Marshall Plan On June 5, U.S. Secretary of State George Marshall – proposes a massive aid program to rebuild Europe from the ravages of World War II. Nearly $13 billion in U.S. aid was sent to Europe from 1948 to 1952. – The Soviet Union and communist Eastern Europe decline U.S. aid, citing "dollar enslavement."
Truman Doctrine March 12, 1947 Greece and Turkey in danger of falling to communist insurgents Truman requested $400 million from Congress in aid to both countries. Successful effort
Truman Doctrine Made clear intentions to resist Soviet expansion in Europe and elsewhere Took on international responsibilities as leader of Western world Aid to Greece and Turkey Stalin saw containment policy as ―encirclement‖ by capitalist world to isolate Soviet Union
Containment Policy George F. Kennan, Senior State Department official, posted to USSR during war. Containment was a United States policy using military, economic, and diplomatic strategies to stall the spread of communism, enhance America’s security and influence abroad, and prevent a "domino effect".
Berlin Airlift Blockade of Berlin began on June 24, ’48 From June 1948 to May 1949, U.S. and British planes airlift 1.5 million tons of supplies to the residents of West Berlin. After 200,000 flights, the Soviet Union lifts the blockade.
1949 – Fall of China In June, Jiang Jieshi defeated by Mao – Flee to island of Taiwan Oct 1, Mao proclaims People’s Republic of China (PRC) Two months later, Mao travels to Moscow, – negotiates the Sino- Soviet Treaty of Friendship, Alliance and Mutual Assistance.
Korean War, 1950-1953 On June 25, North Korean communist forces cross the 38th parallel and invade South Korea. On June 27, Truman orders U.S. forces to assist the South Koreans The U.N. Security Council condemns the invasion and est’d a 15-nation fighting force. Chinese troops enter the conflict by years end. Cease fire eventually brings war to close by 1953
Dien Bien Phu, Vietnam After a long siege, Vietnamese communists under Ho Chi Minh defeat French colonial forces at Dien Bien Phu on May 7. In July, the Geneva Accords divide the country at the 17th parallel, creating a North and South Vietnam. The United States assumes the chief responsibility of providing anti-communist aid to South Vietnam.
1959 - Castro takes power January 1, 1959 communist forces under Fidel Castro takeover in CUBA Castro nationalizes the sugar industry and signs trade agreements with the Soviet Union. The next year, Castro seizes U.S. assets on the island.
1961 - Bay of Pigs U.S.-organized invasion force of 1,400 Cuban exiles is defeated by Castros government forces on Cubas south coast at the Bay of Pigs. Launched from Guatemala in ships and planes provided by the United States, the invaders surrender on April 20 after three days of fighting.Captured Cubans Kennedy takes full responsibility for the disaster.
1960 - The U-2 Affair On May 1, an American high- altitude U-2 spy plane is shot down on a mission over the Soviet Union. After the Soviets announce the capture of pilot Francis Gary Powers, the United States recants earlier assertions that the plane was on a weather research mission.
•Mad Magazine makes fun of the Cold War withtheir Spy vs. Spy column.•CIA vs. KGB
Sputnik On October 4, the Soviet Union launches Sputnik, the first man- made satellite to orbit the Earth. In 1958, the U.S. creates the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and the space race is in full gear. ***Significant because it shows that Soviets have technological advancements that USA has not mastered***
Sputnik I (1957)The Russians have beaten America in space—they have the technological edge!
1957 Russians launch SPUTNIK I Effects on the United States •Americans fear a Soviet attack with missile technology •Americans resolved to regain technological superiority over the Soviet Union•In July 1958, President Eisenhower created NASA or National Space and Aeronautics Agency •1958 --> National Defense Education Act
Effects of Sputnik on United States Atomic Anxieties: •“Duck-and-Cover Generation”Atomic Testing:•Between July 16, 1945 and Sept. 23,1992, the United States conducted1,054 official nuclear tests, most ofthem at the Nevada Test Site. Americans began building underground bomb shelters and cities had underground fallout shelters.
McCarthyism Claimed 205 communists working for State Department Attacked wealthy & privileged—popular appeal Even Eisenhower wouldn’t challenge him Army hearings in 1954 televised – McCarthy exposed as a bully (―reckless cruelty‖
•Red Scare was Americans response to the fear of Communism •Senator Joseph McCarthy accused 205 US Govt. officials of being Communist. •McCarthyism to destroy or assassinate one’s character without proof and it ruined the careers of many Americans. Became a witch hunt that led to Americanspledging a ―loyalty oath‖ to the United States……. red scare
1961 - Berlin Wall On August 15, communist authorities begin construction on the Berlin Wall to prevent East Germans from fleeing to West Berlin.
JFK in Berlinhttp://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=5359589
1962 - Cuban MissileCrisis After Bay of Pigs invasion, the Soviet Union installed nuclear missiles in Cuba. After U-2 flights Kennedy ordered a naval blockade of Cuba on October 22 until the Soviet Union removed its missiles. On October 28, the Soviets agreed to remove the missiles, defusing one of the most dangerous confrontations of the Cold War.
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1972 –Nixon visits China Nixon becomes the first U.S. president to visit China, meeting with Mao Tse-tung on February 21. The two countries issue a communique recognizing their "essential differences" while making it clear that "normalization of relations" was in all nations best interests. The rapprochement changes the balance of power with the Soviets.
1985 - Gorbachevcomes to power On March 11, Mikhail Gorbachev came to power in the Soviet Union. Gorbachev ushered in an era of reform. – perestroika • Economic reform- restructuring – glasnost – means openness, allowed greater free expression and criticism of Soviet policies
1987 - INF On December 8, 1987, Reagan and Gorbachev signed the Intermediate Range Nuclear Forces Treaty Started the trend of “DISARMAMENT”… which is the destruction of nuclear weapons around the globe.
1989 - Berlin Wall falls Gorbachev renounced the Brezhnev Doctrine, which pledged to use Soviet force to protect its interests in Eastern Europe. On September 10, Hungary opened its border with Austria, allowing East Germans to flee to the West. After massive public demonstrations in East Germany and Eastern Europe, the Berlin Wall fell on November 9. Signified the END of the Cold WAR.
1990 – German unification At a September 12 meeting in Moscow, the United States, Soviet Union, Great Britain, France and the two Germanys agreed to end Allied occupation rights in Germany. On October 3, East and West Germany united as the Federal Republic of Germany.