Chapter 18 - The Western Frontier


Published on

Published in: Education
  • subscribe to the site and it should give you access to download any public files. All of mine are public.
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • Nice!!!!!!!!!!! How do I download it.
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Chapter 18 - The Western Frontier

  1. 1. Chapter 18
  2. 2. Section 1: The Mining Booms <ul><li>Mining is Big Business </li></ul><ul><li>The Mining Frontier </li></ul><ul><li>Railroad Connect East to West </li></ul>
  3. 3. Mining is Big Business <ul><li>After the California Gold Rush (mid-1850s) miners find less and less gold in streams </li></ul><ul><li>Most gold was to be found in ore , which were found in lodes </li></ul><ul><li>Expensive machinery was required – mining companies </li></ul><ul><li>The Comstock Lode: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carson River in Nevada </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Henry Comstock, who owned a large claim to the land </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Worth hundreds of millions of dollars </li></ul>
  4. 4. The Mining Frontier <ul><li>Boomtowns – created by gold strikes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Attract other types of businesses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lawless and lively </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fortunes made and lost very quickly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vigilantes dealt out justice </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Women small % </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Open businesses and start schools </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Boomtowns turn into ghost towns </li></ul><ul><li>Mining: copper, silver, lead, and zinc </li></ul><ul><li>New states are formed and enter the Union </li></ul>
  5. 5. Railroads Connect East and West <ul><li>Western mines could reach eastern markets faster </li></ul><ul><li>1865 – 1890: US rapidly increased railroad track across the nation </li></ul><ul><li>Government would loan subsidies and give land to railroad companies </li></ul><ul><li>Much of the land was purchased or obtained from Native Americans </li></ul><ul><li>States and local communities offered subsidies and cash as well </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Union Pacific Company (Omaha) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Irish and African American laborers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Central Pacific Company (Sacramento) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chinese laborers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Low wages and harsh conditions </li></ul><ul><li>1869 – Promontory Point, Utah – Leland Stanford </li></ul><ul><li>Consequences: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Brought thousands of workers to the West </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coal and Construction companies flourish </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New industries of ranching and farming in the West </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Creation of the 4 time zones across the US </li></ul>Railroads Connect East and West
  7. 7. Section 2: Ranchers and Farmers <ul><li>Cattle on the Plains </li></ul><ul><li>Life on the Trail </li></ul><ul><li>The Cattle Kingdom </li></ul><ul><li>Farmers Settle the Plains </li></ul>
  8. 8. Cattle on the Plains <ul><li>Longhorn cattle - Mexico and Texas </li></ul><ul><li>Geography of Texas = open range </li></ul><ul><li>Branding: shows ownership </li></ul><ul><li>Railroads allowed cattle ranchers to sell their beef in the East </li></ul><ul><li>Cow towns spring up near railroad locations – ranchers move cattle (cattle drives) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Abilene, Dodge City, Cheyenne </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Long Drive – massive cattle drive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chisholm Trail </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Goodnight-Loving Trail </li></ul>
  9. 9. Life on the Trail <ul><li>Lonely, hard work – 15 hour days in harsh conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Confederate soldiers, African Americans, and Hispanics – tradition of the vaqueros </li></ul><ul><li>Language / vocabulary - Spanish </li></ul><ul><li>Rustlers, violent storms, swift-flowing rivers, stampedes </li></ul><ul><li>Discrimination and segregation of African Americans and Chinese </li></ul>
  10. 10. The Cattle Kingdom <ul><li>Cow towns could become lawless and violent </li></ul><ul><li>Cattle business became very prosperous and spread north </li></ul><ul><li>Cattle market busted in the 1880s </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Depletion of grasslands, cold winters killed many cattle </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fall of the Cattle Kingdom marks the beginning of Farming in the Midwest </li></ul>
  11. 11. Farmers Settle the Plains <ul><li>Railroads = easier and cheaper </li></ul><ul><li>“ Exodusters” – Some had to return South due to lack of money </li></ul><ul><li>Fires, drought, floods, pests, winter </li></ul><ul><li>All worked on the farm: Women bore the most responsibility </li></ul><ul><li>Sodbusters – Plains farmers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dry farming, steel plow, barbed wire </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Oklahoma Land Rush </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sooners vs. Boomers </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Section 3: Native American Struggles <ul><li>Following the Buffalo </li></ul><ul><li>Conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Apache Wars </li></ul><ul><li>Changing Culture </li></ul><ul><li>Wounded Knee </li></ul>
  13. 13. Following the Buffalo <ul><li>Plains Indians: nomadic life </li></ul><ul><li>Buffalo = main food source </li></ul><ul><li>Tribes organized into “nations” – governing council at the head </li></ul><ul><li>Railroad companies killed buffalo to feed workers </li></ul><ul><li>William Cody “Buffalo Bill” – said to have killed over 4,000 buffalo in 18 months </li></ul>
  14. 14. Conflict <ul><li>New Indian policy </li></ul><ul><li>Indian Peace Commission – move Native Americans to large reservations. </li></ul><ul><li>Bureau of Indian Affairs – managed the reservations (Dakota, Oklahoma) </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. Government uses trickery </li></ul><ul><li>Some Native Americans refuse to move to the reservations </li></ul><ul><li>Battle of Little Bighorn </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cheyenne and Sioux under Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>George Custer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Native American victory – short-lived as US army crushed the uprising </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Apache Wars <ul><li>Led by Apache leader, Geronimo vs. the US army in Arizona </li></ul><ul><li>Eventually moved back to, and fled, his reservation </li></ul><ul><li>Last Native American to surrender to the U.S. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Changing Culture <ul><li>Caused by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Whites moving to the west </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decline of buffalo </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>US army attacks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reservation Policy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reformer Helen Hunt Jackson appalled by massacres of Native Americans and cruelty of the reservation system </li></ul><ul><li>1887: Dawes Act: broke up reservations and ended US recognition of tribal groups </li></ul>
  17. 17. Wounded Knee <ul><li>Sioux perform the Ghost Dance in order to regain their culture </li></ul><ul><li>Reservation officials ban the dance – scuffle to arrest Sitting Bull leaving him dead </li></ul><ul><li>Sioux gather at Wounded Knee, SD – a shot rings out and leads to the slaughter of 150 Sioux and 25 soldiers </li></ul><ul><li>Ended the armed conflict between whites and Native Americans. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Section 4: Farmers in Protest <ul><li>Farmers Organize </li></ul><ul><li>Farmers’ Alliances </li></ul><ul><li>Party of the People </li></ul><ul><li>Free Silver </li></ul><ul><li>The Populist Legacy </li></ul>
  19. 19. Farmers Organize <ul><li>Farmers continually face economic hardships and bitter feelings arise: Railroads, manufacturers, and bankers </li></ul><ul><li>Farmers organize into the National Grange </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fellowship </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Support </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Setup cooperatives – charged lower prices and provided an outlet for unsold crops </li></ul><ul><li>Attempted to take away the problems and burdens of credit. </li></ul><ul><li>State regulations and economic issues cause The Grange to fail </li></ul>
  20. 20. Farmers’ Alliances <ul><li>Supported education </li></ul><ul><li>Cooperated buying and selling </li></ul><ul><li>Proposed plan for government to store farmers crops in warehouses and lend money to farmers </li></ul><ul><li>Alliances become powerful political forces, though neglect to unite as a single entity </li></ul>
  21. 21. Party of the People <ul><li>Populist Party (Party of the farmers’ alliances) – belief in populism (appeal to the common people) </li></ul><ul><li>Government owned railroads </li></ul><ul><li>Replace gold standard with a currency system based on free silver </li></ul><ul><li>Limiting presidential terms </li></ul><ul><li>National income tax </li></ul><ul><li>Presidential nominee (James Weaver) loses the national election to Grover Cleveland </li></ul>
  22. 22. Free Silver <ul><li>Farmers wanted free silver to pay of debts </li></ul><ul><li>Banks warn that making unlimited amounts of new currency would lead to inflation and ruin the economy </li></ul>
  23. 23. Populist Legacy <ul><li>Reformers will adopt many populist ideas </li></ul><ul><li>US abandons the gold standard </li></ul><ul><li>Adopted the 8 hour work day </li></ul><ul><li>Introduced the national income tax </li></ul><ul><li>Brought in the secret ballot and the direct election of senators </li></ul>