Cold War: Causes and Characteristics


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A History 12 lesson to introduce the Cold War.

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  • Clockwise from left: Yuri Gargarin (first man in space), Marshall Plan poster, Konrad Adenauer (first W. German Chancellor), DDR flag, George Kennan (“X” writer of containment treatise), Lenin et al, falling dominoes, one Reichsmark +“Cold War”in Cyrillic script under main title.
  • Although France was not a part of the Grand Alliance, she was awarded a zone in Germany and she was a key pre-war imperial power that lost influence on the world stage.
  • Poster from the film and view of “the War Room” (you can’t fight in here - this is the War Room.”)
  • Poster from the film and view of “the War Room” (you can’t fight in here - this is the War Room.”)
  • L-R: 1. Zinoviev 1936 (helped Stalin over Trotsky), 2. Bukharin 1938 (leader of right wing - supported Kulaks), 3. Trotsky, 4. Lenin, 5. Radek 1937? (Comintern/ Central Committee). All three purged in year shown.
    *****Use COLDWARESSAYHELPER.DOC to outline fears.
  • Clockwise from 11: Czech, , Bulgaria, ,Poland
    Image: US Vanguard satellite
  • Nine months after Sir Winston Churchill failed to be reelected as Britain's Prime Minister, Churchill traveled by train with President Harry Truman to make a speech. On March 5, 1946, at the request of Westminster College in the small Missouri town of Fulton (population of 7,000), Churchill gave his now famous "Iron Curtain" speech to a crowd of 40,000. In addition to accepting an honorary degree from the college, Churchill made one of his most famous post-war speeches.
    From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended across the continent.
  • Igor Gouzenko, Russian embassy cipher clerk who unmasked Soviet spy ring
    operating in Canada, 1945.
  • 3. Other alliances ex. SEATO see page 137 of Handbook
    4. Non-interference ex. Hungary Rev ‘56 and Cuban Crisis ‘61
  • Yuri Gagarin, first man in space / NASA Van Allen Explorer
  • After the war,Kennan submitted an anonymous 8000 word document published in the journal “Foreign Affairs” discussing how the USSR would extend its power into its border region and how these moves would have to be stopped through “containment;” He signed the document “X.” The best way to stop this from happening, he said, was to make the governments of the surrounding nations strong enough to resist Soviet pressure.
  • Secretary of State George Marshall with the front page of the Plan passed in Congress.
  • Signing the Marshall Plan
  • “The Men Responsible”: Hoffman was the Pres of Studebaker Corp + head of the Econ Coop Admin (ECA) and its Economic Recovery Plan (ERP). He was the #2 man in the Plan, During the war he had been head of Lend-Lease in the UK and later the US Ambassador to USSR
  • The poll was taken July, 1947: this add was published in the 23 Nov, ‘47 edition of the Washington Post.
    “Bare Bread” was given to Dutch professional groups in Nov 1949 - about 25% of the population received this bulletin - teachers, employers, etc.
    “Doing Business” Washington DC magazine cover, Nay 1948.
    The USA fought hard to win the propaganda war aboard and at home!
  • The West ids throwing Stalin the ball; what will he do with it? Will he go for a “slam dunk” or not?
  • Published in Isvestia, Nov 3, 1949.
  • Centurion Tank - symbol of the type of war both sides seemed to prepare for in Western Europe.
  • NSC = National Security Council
  • Cold War: Causes and Characteristics

    1. 1. Part One:Themes 1. Imperialism 2. Bipolar Super Power World 3. Ideologies / Mistrust 4. Domino Theory 5. Satellite States - Iron Curtain 6. Espionage 7. Aid / Guns and Butter 8. Dollar Imperialism 9. Backyards / Containment 10. Buffer Zones 11. Space Race 12. Brinkmanship
    2. 2. 1. Imperialism: • At the end of WW1 the USA slipped into isolationism - not so in 1945; as well as economic power, she kept a huge military capability + she had nukes! She wanted a new world order in line with western notions of democracy and free markets. • The USSR ended the war severely damaged and poor, but with a huge military. Stalin planned to bring his “neighbours” into line and use them to increase his empire. • Superpower imperialism was new: it is not centred around simply taking resources from colonial territories.
    3. 3. 2. Bipolar Super Power World •Competition quickly fractured the Grand Alliance. •A by-product of this tension was the nuclear arms race. •The traditional powers like Britain and France were broke and spent after the war - the USA and USSR emerged alone at the top.
    4. 4. The film was a satire, but many people who lived during the Cold War thought that some day “they” would move to DEFCON1 and push The Button.
    5. 5. 3. Ideologies • Fear and suspicion • Capitalism vs.. Marx’s world revolution • The Soviets feared encirclement
    6. 6. 4. Domino Theory • The USA feared the European countries would fall in turn to communism - Stalin’s Yalta promise of elections was not realized. • Later this fear was applied to Asia and the Americas.
    7. 7. 5. Satellite States Bulgaria, 1945 referendum Yugoslavia, (45, kind of) Hungary, Romania, 1947 Poland, 1947 Czechoslovakia, 1948 Greece, Turkey, Finland ?
    8. 8. Iron Curtain
    9. 9. ? “From Stettin… 45/9 47 48 47 45 to Trieste….an iron curtain has descended across the continent. 47 45 ?
    10. 10. 6. Espionage • • • • • Agents/double-agents State and military secrets Scandals Paranoia All of the 007 clichés 
    11. 11. 7. Aid • Marshall Plan • Comecon In other words…
    12. 12. GUNS OR BUTTER
    13. 13. 8. Dollar Imperialism • Companies invest in econ. weak countries If company leaves the local economy is ruined. If companies are backed by their domestic govt, then govt gains influence (think USA + Latin America)
    14. 14. 9. Back Yards/Containment • • • • NATO 1949 Warsaw Pact 1955 Other Alliances/Pacts (see Handbook: page 137) Non-interference in opponent’s sphere
    15. 15. 10.
    16. 16. 10.
    17. 17. 11. Space Race= Prestige • National heroes Astronauts/Cosmonauts • Military applications (delivery platforms) • Transferable technologies (R&D)
    18. 18. SPUTNIK: 1st in space 1 0
    19. 19. 12. Brinkmanship (Playing chicken with very high stakes) • In 1948, during the Berlin Blockade, the USA moved B29s capable of carrying nukes to Britain. • In the early ’60s, the Soviets put missiles in Cuba while the USA had them in Turkey - neither side wanted to back down.
    20. 20. 12. Brinkmanship (Playing chicken with very high stakes) • In 1948, during the Berlin Blockade, the USA moved B29s capable of carrying nukes to Britain. • In the early ’60s, the Soviets put missiles in Cuba while the USA had them in Turkey - neither side wanted to back down.
    21. 21. Part One: Recap (How many can you define in the context of the Cold War?) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. Imperialism Bipolar Super Power World Ideologies / Mistrust Domino Theory Satellite States - Iron Curtain Espionage Aid / Guns and Butter Dollar Imperialism Backyards / Containment Buffer Zones Space Race Brinkmanship
    22. 22. Part Two: Events 1946 - 1954 • Truman Doctrine ‘47 • Marshall Plan ‘47 • Berlin Airlift ‘48 • NATO ‘49 • Korean War ‘50
    23. 23. 1. The Truman Doctrine ’S N A E M TH U R IN T E D N I N L SA ? On 12 March, 1947 (speaking to Congress) Truman declared $250 mil to Greece and $150 mil to Turkey “to support free peoples who are resisting subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures.” - Who were the “armed minorities” and what were the “outside pressures”? Th e its ra St Greece ? Turkey
    24. 24. Communist vs. Royalist
    25. 25. REFERENCES  See “Truman Doctrine” (6 pages) with highlights and marginal notes:  See “Truman Doctrine” (2 pages) adapted with highlights: George Kennan, US Embassy in Moscow: “X”
    26. 26. 2. The Marshall Plan
    27. 27. Truman Marshall Paul Hoffman Averell Harriman
    28. 28. The Government initiated a strong PR campaign to promote the plan that only 51% of the population understood.
    29. 29. Facts: page 132-33 of Handbook • Pre-Plan loans (USA/Cda) only enough for relief. • Plan called for self-sufficiency in 4 years. • 16 recipient nations - Paris conference (agree to balance budgets, reduce inflation, stabilize currency, free-up trade). • OEEC - (Org. Eur. Econ. Coop.) manage $28 bil. • USSR can’t meet demands = econ/political split. • Timeline not met BUT still very rapid recovery & it stopped communism. • The Congress blocked the bill at first (but the Feb 1948 Czech crisis convinced them). Remember the Truman Doctrine and the Marshall Plan go hand-in-hand!
    30. 30. • At first: For European Recovery - Supplied by the USA • After 1955: Strength for the Free World - From the USA
    31. 31. 2 years after the war w/o Marshall aid / 10 years after the war with Marshall aid
    32. 32. Why would the speech be read at Harvard? W.German Chancellor Willie Brandt’s Thank-you Speech, 25 years later.
    33. 33. Marshall Aid Compared
    34. 34. 3 Things the Plan achieved: 1) A post-war global economy that would avoid previous problems (like the Depression). 2) It helped shape political/military affairs in this era - Greece/Turkey, Truman Doctrine, NATO, currency reform (the Plan evolved into a military suppt prgm). 3) It promoted a move toward European unity - vs. pre-war isolationism: ex. Bretton Woods (IMF). These economic considerations led to a trade triangle: SA U Euro pe Developing Nations
    35. 35. And what was the Soviet response?
    36. 36. COM ECON: Council for Mutual Economic Assistance, est.1949
    37. 37. Comecon: est 1949
    38. 38. 3. Berlin Airlift
    39. 39. Bizonia: JAN. 1947 (and Trizonia) • Remember the Zones from Yalta • Allied Control Council (at first it was all USSR) • USSR and France more interested in reparations • USA and UK unify in economic matters = Bizonia…
    40. 40. Currency Reform At first all zones had the Reichsmark. Next, Bizonia introduced the USminted Deutchmark *THIS CAUSED THE BERLIN CRISIS! rk s ma tch al eu qu ll D o t e a en er w Later, the USSR introduced its own Deutchmark - notice European format: if you can’t beat ’em…
    41. 41. THE FTER DAY A THE ONE ON OF UCTI irect TROD IN K=D (the HMAR C EUT Stalin D on by hey’re ontati wn; t Confr ck do will ba West fing). bluf
    42. 42. General Lucius Clay decides to fight back. B29s are moved to Britain. Some talked of abandoning Berlin.
    43. 43. Hmmm, they don’t seem to be backing down…
    44. 44. FOOD & FUEL
    45. 45. OP VIT las T LE ted S eve ’EVERY 2 ti l S n th 1 PLANE blo oug ept cka h MINUTES (1/min at lifte de the do wa s n1 height) for 2.5 million 2M ay. people.
    46. 46. Capt Gail Halvorsen “Capt Wiggle Wings”
    47. 47. 4. Formation of NATO CAUSE AND EFFECT: • The Berlin Crisis led to the formation of NATO
    48. 48. Background to NATO: 1. Brussels Treaty Mar. 1948 5 Members: mutual assistance plan for 20 years. (Czech Coup Jun. 1948 - wakeup call) 2. N.Atlantic Treaty (T. of Washington) Apr. 1949 12 Members: alliance Check out p.133 of your handbook for their names. Who joined in 1952? In 1954? Who quit in the 60s? 3. NSC #68 April 1950 = larger armed forces: will not risk the “free character of our economy” Truman
    49. 49. 5. Korean War • See PPT End