18 Origins Of The Cold War

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  • PHOTOS, U-2 IN FLIGHT, CRASHED U-2 IN RUSSIA, GARY POWERS ON TRIAL IN MOSCOW. HE WAS CONVICTED AND GIVEN A TEN YEAR PRISON TERM BUT IN 1961 HE WAS EXCHANGED FOR A CAPTURED SOVIET SPY AND RETURNED HOME.
  • 18 Origins Of The Cold War

    1. 1. ORIGINS OF THE COLD WAR 1945-1959
    2. 2. The Cold War <ul><li>battle of diplomacy, propaganda and nerves </li></ul><ul><ul><li>not a direct confrontation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>world divided into three sides after WW II… </li></ul>
    3. 3. <ul><li>Soviet Union (USSR) </li></ul><ul><li>Russia leader of the communist world </li></ul><ul><li>vowed to spread communism </li></ul>
    4. 4. <ul><li>United States </li></ul><ul><li>leader of the free world </li></ul><ul><li>vowed to contain communism </li></ul>
    5. 5. Third World (developing nations) Cold War battleground Asia Africa and the Middle East Latin America
    6. 6. Self Determination <ul><ul><li>All countries would have the right of self determination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Democracy or Communism in nations that had been under Nazi rule </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stalin had agreed to allow free elections in Eastern Europe </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. <ul><li>Soviets refused free elections in Eastern Europe after WW II </li></ul><ul><ul><li>installed communist governments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>became known as “satellite nations” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>countries dominated by USSR </li></ul></ul></ul>
    8. 8. <ul><li>Churchill says an “Iron Curtain” has descended across the continent </li></ul><ul><ul><li>referring to Soviet control of Eastern Europe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>no news allowed in or out of Soviet controlled territory </li></ul></ul>
    9. 10. Truman Doctrine-1947 <ul><li>main goal was to help free nations resist the spread communism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>initially helped Greece and Turkey </li></ul></ul>
    10. 11. U.S. adopt a “containment policy” <ul><li>keep communism from spreading </li></ul><ul><ul><li>foundation of U.S. foreign policy for next 50 years </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Marshall Plan - 1948 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>economic aid to Europe/rebuild Europe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>over 3 years $13 billion sent to Europe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>offered to Russia, but refused </li></ul></ul>
    11. 15. HAMBURG IN 1947 HAMBURG IN1952 EFFECTS OF THE MARSHALL PLAN
    12. 17. Berlin Airlift-1948 <ul><li>Germany divided into 4 sectors after WW II </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Berlin in East Germany </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Allies wanted to reunite Germany </li></ul><ul><li>Stalin did not </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wanted Berlin to himself </li></ul></ul>
    13. 18. <ul><li>Soviets tried to isolate Berlin by setting up a blockade </li></ul><ul><li>U.S., Britain flew in tons of goods everyday for a year </li></ul><ul><li>Soviets end blockade in 1949 </li></ul>
    14. 24. August 1949 <ul><li>Soviet Union develops the Atomic Bomb </li></ul>
    15. 25. 1949 – Chinese Revolution <ul><li>communists win control of China </li></ul><ul><li>seen as proof that communists wanted to dominate the world </li></ul>
    16. 29. 1949 - U.S. creates NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization <ul><li>U.S. and 15 European countries pledge to defend each other </li></ul>
    17. 30. Soviets create the Warsaw Pact , 1955 <ul><li>USSR plus 7 Eastern European countries form military alliance </li></ul>
    18. 32. Korean War, 1950-1953 <ul><li>Korea was divided after WW II </li></ul><ul><ul><li>At the 38th parallel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>North - communist </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>South - free, democratic </li></ul></ul><ul><li>June, 1950 North Korea invades South Korea </li></ul>
    19. 33. 1st weeks were grim <ul><li>U.S. almost pushed out of Korea </li></ul><ul><ul><li>South Korean and US Army forces were pushed back to city of Pusan </li></ul></ul>
    20. 34. <ul><li>Marines land at Inchon </li></ul><ul><ul><li>behind North Korean lines </li></ul></ul><ul><li>North Koreans begin withdrawal </li></ul><ul><li>U.N. forces push into North Korea </li></ul><ul><li>Nov. 27, 1950 Chinese troops attack </li></ul><ul><ul><li>drove U.N. troops back to 38th parallel </li></ul></ul>
    21. 35. MacArthur and Truman disagreed how to wage the war <ul><li>eventually MacArthur is fired </li></ul><ul><li>returned home as a hero </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1st time back in States since WW II ended </li></ul></ul>
    22. 36. <ul><li>War continued back and forth until 1953 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stalemate </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Armistice signed in 1953 maintaining the status quo </li></ul>
    23. 37. THE WAR IN KOREA TURNED INTO A STALEMATE RESEMBLING WORLD WAR I TRENCH WARFARE.
    24. 38. Korean War Memorial
    25. 39. Two Nations Live on the Edge <ul><li>H-Bomb tested on Pacific island, Nov. 1952 because Russia now had the A-bomb </li></ul><ul><ul><li>150 times more powerful then A-Bomb </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>island disappeared </li></ul></ul><ul><li>within one year USSR had one </li></ul><ul><li>arms race begins </li></ul>
    26. 42. President relied heavily on CIA for information spy organization, intelligence gathering
    27. 43. New Leadership in USSR <ul><li>Stalin dies in 1953 </li></ul><ul><li>Replaced by Nikita Khrushchev </li></ul>
    28. 44. Brinkmanship <ul><li>Containment Policy changed by President Eisenhower </li></ul><ul><ul><li>go to edge of all out nuclear war </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>massive retaliation from now on </li></ul></ul><ul><li>prepared for all-out nuclear war with USSR </li></ul><ul><ul><li>no more limited wars like Korea </li></ul></ul>
    29. 47. Nuclear War Drills <ul><li>air raid drills </li></ul>
    30. 48. Bert the Turtle – commercials, comic books (duck and cover)
    31. 50. Built emergency shelters in back yard
    32. 52. Nuclear Naivism
    33. 55. Russians Launch First Satellite <ul><li>Sputnik I </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Oct. 4, 1957 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Russians first in space </li></ul></ul>
    34. 56. America’s Space program <ul><li>First 100 attempts to launch satellite a failure </li></ul><ul><li>Jan. 31,1958 we finally launch our own satellite </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Explorer I </li></ul></ul>
    35. 57. Cold War at Home Red Scare, part II <ul><li>concern about communism overseas caused a fear of communism at home </li></ul><ul><li>Loyalty Review Board created in 1947 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>investigated government employees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3.2 million investigated from 1947-1951 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>dismissed those found disloyal </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>212 dismissed, </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2,900 resigned </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Workers had to sign loyalty oaths to get a job </li></ul>
    36. 58. House of Unamerican Activities Committee (HUAC) <ul><li>investigated communist influence in the movie industry </li></ul><ul><li>“ Blacklist” started by movie producers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>kept approximately 500 people from working </li></ul></ul>
    37. 59. Hollywood 10 - refused to cooperate, felt hearings were unconstitutional sent to prison
    38. 61. Spy Trials two spy cases added to fear <ul><li>Alger Hiss, 1948 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>State Dept. official </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>accused by former communist spy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>claimed to have documents proving he was a spy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hiss claimed documents were forged </li></ul><ul><li>not convicted of spying, but was for perjury </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lying about documents </li></ul></ul>
    39. 62. Ethel and Julius Rosenberg, 1950 <ul><li>Members of American Communist Party </li></ul><ul><li>Implicated by British scientist who admitted giving the secrets to the Soviets </li></ul><ul><li>convicted of selling atomic bomb secrets </li></ul><ul><li>executed in 1953 for espionage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1st civilians to be executed for espionage </li></ul></ul>
    40. 63. Senator Joe McCarthy <ul><li>1954, claimed communists infiltrated American life </li></ul><ul><ul><li>was in the military and government </li></ul></ul><ul><li>investigation was televised </li></ul><ul><ul><li>accusations got wilder </li></ul></ul><ul><li>succeeded in ruining many careers, reputations </li></ul><ul><li>never found a spy </li></ul>
    41. 64. <ul><li>America saw witnesses being “bullied” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>turned against McCarthy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Senate censors him for improper conduct </li></ul>
    42. 65. <ul><li>to label someone’s activities as McCarthyism would be to suggest that the person is making unsupported accusations </li></ul><ul><li>1953 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>39 States had laws making it illegal to advocate violent overthrow of Government </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>steps were taken to clean out radical, un-American/disloyal workers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1957 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Supreme Court, Yates vs. U.S., said that believing or teaching an idea, even revolution, is not a crime </li></ul></ul>
    43. 66. Gary Powers and the U-2 Incident <ul><li>Shot down over Russia May 1, 1960 </li></ul><ul><li>Held for 2 years in Russian prison </li></ul><ul><li>Exchanged for Russian Spy on Feb. 10, 1962 </li></ul>
    44. 67. May 1960: the U-2 incident Powers

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