Unit I: The Cold War Period (1945—1965)
What do we know about WWII?
• Working with a partner, construct a
  paragraph explaining the key aspects of
  WWII using t...
Some Brief Reminders About WWII

• 1939: Hitler begins to invade countries
  throughout Europe in an attempt to
  expand G...
Some Brief Reminders about WWII
• From 1939 until 1945 most of the world
  will be involved in a war between the
  forces ...
Major Players
         • Allies                 • Axis
              –   US                – Germany
Democracies   –   Gre...
Fast-forward…Ending the War
• Germany surrenders in May, 1945

• Japan surrenders in August, 1945
  – Japanese surrender o...
Impact of World War II

   56 Million Deaths…
   U.S.S.R.     21.3 Million
   China        11 Million
  Germany        7 M...
The Problem
• The alliance between the pro-Democratic
  nations (US, GB, FR) and the Communist
  USSR was one of convenien...
THE
COLD
WAR
Daily Learning Objective
The clash between the U.S. and U.S.S.R is marked by the
   combinations of capitalism and democra...
Define the following 2 terms in
       your own words:

            ‘Cold’

            ‘War’
• Cold: Distant, “cold shoulder” angry, ignoring; when
  rifle range is cold when no rounds are being sent
  down range, h...
Conflict         United States                Soviet Union
Economic Reasons    Capitalism                  Communism
Polit...
• Expansionism – Efforts of the U.S.S.R to
  expand its nation’s territory
• Containment – Efforts of the U.S. to block th...
Harry Truman
• United States

Joseph Stalin
• Soviet Union

Winston Churchill
• Great Britain
• Ideology: the ideas reflecting the
  social needs and desires of an
  individual, group, class or culture

        Capit...
The United States Wanted To             The Soviet Union Wanted To
•Encourage democracy in other           •Encourage comm...
• Yalta
  – Stalin promised to hold “free and unfettered”
    elections in Eastern Europe

  – Later, prevented
     elect...
• Yalta Conference           Potsdam, Germany
                             Conference
• In the Crimean Peninsula
• Feb. 19...
- Winston Churchill Speech, 1946


               Listen to
           Churchill's Speech


       1. What is he saying?
 ...
“An iron
curtain has
descended
across…
Europe.”

-Churchill
Exit Ticket

 In your own words,
define the Iron Curtain.
Daily Learning Objectives
   Drawing a “boundary” between communist nations and
   western democracies only helped to keep...
Warm-Up: Rock, Paper, Scissors Activity
          Action/Object                          Symbolizes
Candy                 ...
“THEY made it, of course; they drew the iron curtain
across the middle of Europe, partly to stop us looking in,
partly to ...
List 3 synonyms
Containment
• George Kennan was the mastermind
  - U.S. must take measures to prevent the expansion
    of Soviet Union
  ...
BIG IDEA
The US realizes that the best way to spread
democracy is to eliminate the conditions that
are a breeding ground f...
• Truman Doctrine
  • “It must be the policy of the United States to support free
    peoples who are resisting attempted ...
Effects
                   Causes
Truman       Turkey and Greece
                                     Congress approves
  ...
The Marshall Plan
                                   Podcast
As you listen, consider the following questions:
1. What meas...
Berlin Airlift
                                Cause and Effect

             Britain, France and United States form Trizo...
Berlin




         Interactive Berlin Wall
U.S.S.R, if you
 shoot down
 ONE PLANE
  …it’s war!
FYI – At its peak, the airlift had a plane
landing every few minutes. Over 10 months,
U.S. and British planes carried more...
• North Atlantic Treaty Organization [1949]
  - Military alliance formed by U.S., Canada,
    Iceland and 9 European natio...
WWII Review, Origins of the Cold War and Containment Policy
WWII Review, Origins of the Cold War and Containment Policy
WWII Review, Origins of the Cold War and Containment Policy
WWII Review, Origins of the Cold War and Containment Policy
WWII Review, Origins of the Cold War and Containment Policy
WWII Review, Origins of the Cold War and Containment Policy
WWII Review, Origins of the Cold War and Containment Policy
WWII Review, Origins of the Cold War and Containment Policy
WWII Review, Origins of the Cold War and Containment Policy
WWII Review, Origins of the Cold War and Containment Policy
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WWII Review, Origins of the Cold War and Containment Policy

  1. 1. Unit I: The Cold War Period (1945—1965)
  2. 2. What do we know about WWII? • Working with a partner, construct a paragraph explaining the key aspects of WWII using the following ten terms: President Winston Adolph Germany Japan Roosevelt Churchill Hitler Pearl December June 6, D-Day Hiroshima Harbor 7, 1941 1944
  3. 3. Some Brief Reminders About WWII • 1939: Hitler begins to invade countries throughout Europe in an attempt to expand German power • 1930’s: Japan invades Korea, China, and many other areas of Asia in an attempt to expand Japanese control over the Pacific
  4. 4. Some Brief Reminders about WWII • From 1939 until 1945 most of the world will be involved in a war between the forces of freedom, and those of fascism and totalitarianism – US enters into the fight after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941
  5. 5. Major Players • Allies • Axis – US – Germany Democracies – Great Britain – Japan Fascist Dictatorships – France – Italy Communist – Soviet Union Hmm…why are these people fighting on the same side?
  6. 6. Fast-forward…Ending the War • Germany surrenders in May, 1945 • Japan surrenders in August, 1945 – Japanese surrender only after…
  7. 7. Impact of World War II 56 Million Deaths… U.S.S.R. 21.3 Million China 11 Million Germany 7 Million Japan 2.6 Million United States 500,000 Great Britain 326,000
  8. 8. The Problem • The alliance between the pro-Democratic nations (US, GB, FR) and the Communist USSR was one of convenience… • As soon as the war ended, the former friends quickly gave in to self-interest and suspicion U.S. and U.S.S.R. emerge as the world’s Dominant Powers This leads to…
  9. 9. THE COLD WAR
  10. 10. Daily Learning Objective The clash between the U.S. and U.S.S.R is marked by the combinations of capitalism and democracy versus totalitarian dictatorship and communism. Specific Learning Outcomes • Define the Cold War • Compare the interests of the United States and the Soviet Union to identify the causes of the Cold War • Differentiate between communism and capitalism and democracy and totalitarianism • Interpret the significance of the conferences at Yalta and Potsdam
  11. 11. Define the following 2 terms in your own words: ‘Cold’ ‘War’
  12. 12. • Cold: Distant, “cold shoulder” angry, ignoring; when rifle range is cold when no rounds are being sent down range, hot when rounds are being fired • War: Conflict between two nations, groups or people. Oftentimes associated with physical fighting • Cold War: Time of conflict ranging from 1945 to 1991 between the United States and the Soviet Union. It was a verbal, and psychological war between the two nations
  13. 13. Conflict United States Soviet Union Economic Reasons Capitalism Communism Political Reasons Democracy Totalitarianism/Dictatorships /Communism Philosophical Political Freedom State controlled all aspects of a person’s life Post War Europe Desired countries to hold Sought for countries to free elections and become “satellite establish democracies nations” under their control Atomic Weapons Possessed weapons but Desired weapons did not want to share
  14. 14. • Expansionism – Efforts of the U.S.S.R to expand its nation’s territory • Containment – Efforts of the U.S. to block the spread of Soviet influence • Both nations competed in the Arms Race where each nation tried to gain more and more weapons, creating bigger and better weapons • Mutual Assured Destruction (MAD): “He who fires first, dies second”
  15. 15. Harry Truman • United States Joseph Stalin • Soviet Union Winston Churchill • Great Britain
  16. 16. • Ideology: the ideas reflecting the social needs and desires of an individual, group, class or culture Capitalism vs. Communism Democracy vs. Totalitarianism
  17. 17. The United States Wanted To The Soviet Union Wanted To •Encourage democracy in other •Encourage communism in other countries to help prevent the rise of countries as part of the worldwide new totalitarian governments struggle between workers and the wealthy •Gain access to raw materials and markets for its booming industries •Transfer the industrial equipment of Eastern Europe to the S.U. to help •Rebuild European governments to rebuild its war ravaged economy ensure stability and to create new markets for American goods •Control Eastern Europe to balance the U.S. influence in Western Europe •Reunite Germany believing that Europe would be more secure if Germany were •Keep Germany divided and weak, since productive and less bitter about defeat the Germans has waged war against Russia twice in 30 years and had caused most of the 20 million Soviet deaths in WWII
  18. 18. • Yalta – Stalin promised to hold “free and unfettered” elections in Eastern Europe – Later, prevented elections in satellite nations
  19. 19. • Yalta Conference Potsdam, Germany Conference • In the Crimean Peninsula • Feb. 1945: Stalin, • July 1945: Truman, Churchill, and Clement Atlee, and Stalin Roosevelt • Create United Nations • Final Wartime Conference • Stalin promised to hold “free and unfettered” • Soviet Union – wanted elections in Eastern all parts of Germany to Europe pay & Refused free elections in Poland
  20. 20. - Winston Churchill Speech, 1946 Listen to Churchill's Speech 1. What is he saying? 2. What do you think the Soviet reaction was? Iron Curtain: symbolic boundary dividing Europe in half (‘45-’91)
  21. 21. “An iron curtain has descended across… Europe.” -Churchill
  22. 22. Exit Ticket In your own words, define the Iron Curtain.
  23. 23. Daily Learning Objectives Drawing a “boundary” between communist nations and western democracies only helped to keep them separate. Tensions mounted when the U.S.S.R. attempted to expand and the West tried to contain them. Specific Learning Outcomes • Evaluate the success of containment during the Cold War (and Truman Administration) • Summarize the efforts that the U.S. took in containing Soviet influence as tension increased • Describe how the Truman Doctrine and Marshall Plan further defined and deepened the Cold War in Europe.
  24. 24. Warm-Up: Rock, Paper, Scissors Activity Action/Object Symbolizes Candy Money Random Distribution of Candy What you are born with. Rock, Paper, Scissors Work/Free Enterprise Collection of Candy Government What happens in a free enterprise Kids who didn’t play by the rules society; can be illegal and corrupt Redistribution of Candy (wealth) Communist Theory Questions for Discussion 1. If you had a lot of candy before we started, how did you feel? 2. If you lost all your candy, how did you feel? 3. How did you feel about me collecting your candy if you were ‘rich’? 4. How did you feel about me collecting your candy if you were ‘poor’?
  25. 25. “THEY made it, of course; they drew the iron curtain across the middle of Europe, partly to stop us looking in, partly to stop their own poor wretches looking out enviously at the boundless goods and comforts on our side. Behind the iron curtain were the hapless peoples held captive by the grim-faced Russians and their stooges in office in the satellites; in front of it were ourselves, expressing sympathy for the captives but apologetically remaining very thoroughly armed, in however subdued a way. “ Fred Inglis, The Cruel Peace: Everyday Life and the Cold War (1991)
  26. 26. List 3 synonyms
  27. 27. Containment • George Kennan was the mastermind - U.S. must take measures to prevent the expansion of Soviet Union - According to Kennan, Russia’s policy was: “to undermine the general and strategic potential of major western powers by a host of subversive measures to destroy individual governments that might stand in the Soviet path, to do everything possible to set the major Western powers against each other.” • U.S. Foreign Policy for next 30 + Years.
  28. 28. BIG IDEA The US realizes that the best way to spread democracy is to eliminate the conditions that are a breeding ground for communism (hunger, poverty, economic instability…)
  29. 29. • Truman Doctrine • “It must be the policy of the United States to support free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation (conquest) by armed minorities or by outside pressures” • Truman’s speech to Congress when Greece and Turkey were threatened by communism • In support, Congress approved $400 million to aid Greece and Turkey • Marshall Plan • Developed by Secretary of State George C. Marshall • Plan to provide aid to war torn Europe to prevent communist take over • In support, Congress approved $17 billion in economic aid to Europe
  30. 30. Effects Causes Truman Turkey and Greece Congress approves $400 billion in aid to Doctrine faced communist take over prevent the spread of communism Effects Causes Marshall Economic condition of Europe after WWII Congress approves $17 billion in economic aid Plan made it susceptible to to war torn Europe. Marshall wins the Nobel communism Peace Prize
  31. 31. The Marshall Plan Podcast As you listen, consider the following questions: 1. What measures did Marshall outline to assist the countries of Europe? 2. How much money did the U.S. offer to Europe? 3. How would the plan benefit the U.S. economy? Was it successful? Source: http://stream.state.gov/streamvol/libmedia/usinfopodcasts/ 4770/interactive/05_22_2007_marshall_plan_1.mp3
  32. 32. Berlin Airlift Cause and Effect Britain, France and United States form Trizonia, a united West German government Soviets oppose action and block all roads, canals, and railways linking Berlin to western Germany. They cut off shipments of food, fuel and other crucial supplies to the city hoping to drive Western powers out of Berlin Rather than risking war by sending supplies overland, U.S. and Great Britain sent planes of supplies into West Berlin
  33. 33. Berlin Interactive Berlin Wall
  34. 34. U.S.S.R, if you shoot down ONE PLANE …it’s war!
  35. 35. FYI – At its peak, the airlift had a plane landing every few minutes. Over 10 months, U.S. and British planes carried more than 2 million tons of food and supplies to the people of West Berlin. Finally, the Soviets relented and the blockade was lifted in May 1949.
  36. 36. • North Atlantic Treaty Organization [1949] - Military alliance formed by U.S., Canada, Iceland and 9 European nations - “Attack one, attack all” • Warsaw Pact - Military alliance between communist countries in Eastern Europe

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