The Cold War During the Cold War, the Soviet army never fired a shot at the American army. The Soviet Union hoped to increase its strength by converting other governments to communism.
Containment The United States committed itself to containment. Stopping the spread of communism and promoting the growth of democracy around the world. Truman Doctrine- Stated that the United States would help freedom-based nations that were resisting Soviet domination.
Truman Doctrine Greece Turkey Civil War Pressure from the Soviets.Defeated the Resisted Soviet Communists. Pressure.
NATO & Warsaw Pact In 1949, NATO formed an alliance that agreed to protect the others if attacked. In 1955, Warsaw pact was formed to suppressed democratic movements within members nations.
NATO & Warsaw Pact NATO Warsaw Pact1. Belgium 1. Albania2. Britain 2. Bulgaria3. Canada 3. Czechoslovakia4. Denmark 4. East Germany5. France 5. Hungary6. Greece 6. Poland7. Iceland 7. Romania8. Italy 8. Soviet Union9. Luxembourg10. Netherlands11. Norway12. Portugal13. Turkey14. United States15. West Germany
Soviet Expansion Following WWII, the Soviets took back Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania. Soviet Union refused to remove its troops from some parts of Eastern Europe. Took control of the governments of East Germany, Poland, Romania, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, and Bulgaria.
Communism in Asia China became Communist in 1949. Indochina divided into Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos. Soviet Union backed Ho Chi Minh and his communist movement in Vietnam. Will lead to conflict later.
Korean Conflict 1950, N. Korea invaded S. Korea. United Nations jumped to defend S. Korea. • U.S. provided the majority of soldiers to the U.N. forces in Korea. China aided the North. The war was stopped in 1953, although there was never a peace treaty.
The Korean War: A “Police Action” (1950-1953)Kim Il-Sung Syngman Rhee “Domino Theory”
Vietnam In the 1950s the U.S. began helping S. Vietnam in its struggle against Communist N. Vietnam. 1964, N. Vietnam attacked an American Ship at the Gulf of Tonkin. Congress passed Gulf of Tonkin Resolution that allowed President Johnson to take military action.
Vietnam continued From 1964-1973 more than 8 million American served in the military during the Vietnam War. A cease-fire agreement was signed in 1973. 1975 N. Vietnam conquered S. Vietnam and established a communist government.
Crisis in Cuba 1959Fidel Castro overthrew the government of Cuba. Began to seek economic aid from the Soviet Union. In October 1962, American spy planes discovered that the Soviet Union was putting nuclear weapons in Cuba.
JFK John F. Kennedy demanded that the missiles be removed. For several days the Soviets refused, and it seemed a world war was close. The Soviet Union backed down, however, and the Cuban Missile Crisis came to a peaceful end.
Superpower Rivalry As long as the U.S. was the only country with nuclear weapons, it held the upper hand. Soviet Union developed an atomic bomb in 1949. Both countries started the nuclear arms race.
Space Race First satellite Sputnik. Americans felt they had fallen behind and needed to catch up. 1st American spacecraft Explorer I was sent into orbit in 1958. When the Soviets sent Yuri Gagarin into space in 1961, the U.S. quickly matched the feat by sending John Glenn in 1962. Apollo 11 first human to walk on the moon.
End of the Cold War Detente- A peaceful coexistence between the superpowers began with Nixon visited both China and Soviet Union in 1972. Both nations agreed to limit the number of nuclear warheads and missiles that each country would keep. Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty (SALT).
During the 1970s the U.S. began cutting its military budget. Since tensions had eased, large complex weapons systems were not necessary. Ronald Reagan in 1981 pushed higher levels of military spending through Congress. Reagan-Gorbachev met to reduce the nuclear threat. Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty- (INF) limited medium-range nuclear arms.
Fall of the Soviet Union In the late 1980s, Soviet-dominated governments in E. Europe began to fall one by one. In 1989, the Berlin Wall, a longtime symbol of Communist domination, came down.
Fall of the Soviet Union Without the Communist political system to hold countries together, borders changed. Countries divided themselves, sometimes along ethnic lines. For example; Czechoslovakia split peacefully into the Czech Republic and Slovakia. East Germany and West Germany reunited.
Soviet Union Mikhail Gorbachev came to power in 1985. He sought to open up Soviet society and to restructure the Communist system. Communist leaders tried to reestablish power, but Soviet citizens were unwilling to give up the reforms Gorbachev had brought to them.