HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENTAND MANAGEMENT by Jason O. Manaois, Psychology Department
ObjectivesAt the end of the learning period, the students will beable to be: Familiarize and Examine the nature of different facets of HRD Actualize the different functional components of HRD Analyze the process incorporated in the each facet of HRD
Context and Definition Human Resource Development (HRD) is the framework for helping employees develop their personal and organizational skills, knowledge, and abilities. Human Resource Development includes such opportunities as employee training, employee career development, performance management and development, coaching, mentoring, succession planning, key employee identification, tuition assistance, and organization development. The focus of all aspects of Human Resource Development is on developing the most superior workforce so that the organization and individual employees can accomplish their work goals in service to customers. http://humanresources.about.com/od/glossaryh/f/hr_development.htm
Context and Definition Organizations have many opportunities for human resources or employee development, both within and outside of the workplace. Human Resource Development can be formal such as in classroom training, a college course, or an organizational planned change effort. Or, Human Resource Development can be informal as in employee coaching by a manager. Healthy organizations believe in Human Resource Development and cover all of these bases. http://humanresources.about.com/od/glossaryh/f/hr_development.htm
Context and Definition HRD is "organized learning activities arranged within an organization in order to improve performance and/or personal growth for the purpose of improving the job, the individual, and/or the organization" (1). HRD includes the areas of training and development, career development, and organization development. This is related to Human Resource Management -- a field which includes HR research and information systems, union/labor relations, employee assistance, compensation/benefits, selection and staffing, performance management systems, HR planning, and organization/job design (2). http://alumnus.caltech.edu/~rouda/T1_HRD.html
Context and Definition Human Resource Management (HRM) is the function within an organization that focuses on recruitment of, management of, and providing direction for the people who work in the organization. HRM can also be performed by line managers. HRM is the organizational function that deals with issues related to people such as compensation, hiring, performance management, organization development, safety, wellness, benefits, employee motivation, communication, administration, and training. http://humanresources.about.com/od/glossaryh/f/hr_management.htm
Context and Definition HRM is also a strategic and comprehensive approach to managing people and the workplace culture and environment. Effective HRM enables employees to contribute effectively and productively to the overall company direction and the accomplishment of the organizations goals and objectives. HRM is moving away from traditional personnel, administration, and transactional roles, which are increasingly outsourced. HRM is now expected to add value to the strategic utilization of employees and that employee programs impact the business in measurable ways. The new role of HRM involves strategic direction and HRM metrics and measurements to demonstrate value. http://humanresources.about.com/od/glossaryh/f/hr_management.htm
Components of a Human Resource Management System8
The Facets of H.R. Department Recruitment and Selection Training and Development Employee Relations Compensation and Benefits Organizational Development
RECRUITMENT AND SELECTIONhttp://www.peoples-edge.de/en/home/
Definition Recruitment can be defined as: all activities directed towards locating potential employees the attraction of applications from suitable applicants. The aim of recruitment is to get the best person suited to the job based on objective criteria for a particular job. Used to attract and hire new employees who have the abilities, skills, and experiences that will help an organization achieve its goals. 11
Recruitment and Selection Recruitment: Attracting qualified candidates to work in an organization. is the process of generating a pool of capable people to apply for employment to an organization. Selection: Selecting among the applicants. is the process by which managers and others use specific instruments to choose from a pool of applicants a person or persons most likely to succeed in the job(s), given management goals and legal requirements.
Purpose of Recruitment Determine present and future needs for personnel Increase the pool of qualified applicants Increase the fit of the applicants attracted Increase chances of retention by attracting the right candidates Provide realistic job previews Adhere to legal and social requirements Analyze the labor pools 13
Why is recruitment and selection so important?Costs of mistakes:engaging incompetent, Element of PRunderqualified, unmotivated strategyemployees; employinganother person requiresrepeating the process andgenerates costs 14
Rules of recrutiment and selection Commonality Openess Competitiveness Legality Non-discrimination Constancy of criteria Neutrality Objectivism Transparency Personal data security Acting without delay 15
The typical staffing process Planning and approval for staffingRecruitment Position announcement Selection of recruitment strategies Selection of “tests”Selection Screen, interview, and checks (reference and other) Final selection / Negotiate and hire Postselection considerations 16
Employer recruitment Elements influencing effectiveness of recruitment: The breadth and quality of the process The size of the labour pool and the location of jobs Offered pay and benefits Job quality and requirements of the position Organizational image 19
Position announcement20 Agency Affiliation Job Title Salary range Description of duties & responsibilities Minimum qualifications Application procedures Time and place of applications
Analysis: Candidates Who is the ideal candidate for the agency? What has attracted qualified candidates to the agency? How did those qualified candidates learn about openings? Why is the pool of qualified candidates shrinking? What is the value system of the new generation and how can the agency package itself to show potential candidates that the agency has what they desire? 21
Recruitment strategies Job posting Electronic posting Personal contact recruitment Recruitment by mail Head-hunting Noncompetive recruitment Develop a recruiting DVD 22
Recruitment strategies: PartnershipsUniversity/college/ Student Internshigh schoolcommunications, artand computerscience programs ProfessionalOther city productiondepartments or companies andagencies to advertisingadvertise agencies 23
Analysis: recruitment strategies What has worked or not worked in terms of recruitment strategies and advertising in the past? Are signing bonuses or other incentives important? How can current employees be ambassadors for the agency and help recruit qualified candidates? What recruitment materials does the agency already have and how current are they? Does the agency have a recruitment website and how many hits is it generating? Has the agency used paid advertisement in the past and, if so, what value did it ad to the recruitment process? What strategies is the agency using to attract the interest of grade school up to high school students? 24
Selection criteria Selection criteria should be expressed in terms of: Essential – requirements that are critical to successful performance in the position without which a person could not be appointed; and Desirable – requirements that would enable the person to perform at a higher level in the position, but without which the person could still be appointed. The total number of essential and desirable criteria shall not exceed 10. 25
Selection criteria Selection criteria shall: be written in simple and clear language; be specific and not overlapping or repetitive; be based on the real requirements of the position; not be excessive in number (i.e. not more than 10 in total) not discriminate unlawfully either directly or indirectly against applicants not favour either internal or external applicants; and be consistent with the classification standards of the position. 26
Screening Retention Survey found that nationally small agencies took an average of 6.84 weeks to conduct the screening processes, while large agencies took an average of 11.51 weeks (U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Hiring and Keeping Police Officers) GOAL: reduce this time so that valuable candidates are still available 27
Screening Process • Discriminating among the qualified and the unqualified 1 • Identifying most highly qualified candidates 2 • Screening particular candidates; results in offering position 3 to the best candidate • Confirming the qualifications and ability of the chosen 4 candidate; it may include the first period of employment 28
Principles of the screening A fair set of screening criteria The criteria must be in line with the job content and appointment as well as advertised requirements Applicants should be clear on the criteria that apply The criteria should apply to all applicants in a consistent manner Any waivers should be fully motivated and approved Declarations should be made of whether any candidate is related to or friends of an official in the component where the vacancy exists The various activities of the screening process should be documented and put on record 29
Initial reviewing and testing Education and experience evaluations Letters of recommendation Self-assessment General aptitude and trait test Performance test for specific jobs 31
Reducing the pool: interview1. Plan how it should proceed: persons, place, roles2. Prepare list of written questions asked of all candidates3. Use a work sample as part of the process Critique or evaluate sth Solve a problem Deliver oral presentation, etc4. Explain basic facts about the position5. Use the job description and advertisement guides to ensure that the focus is on essential job functions 32
Reducing the pool: interview6. Set up interviews in private job-settings where distractions are unlikely7. Concentrate on listening to applicant‘s answers and take notes during the interview8. Be careful that no oral commitments or suggestions about employment prospects are made9. Complete your evaluation notes when impressions are fresh 33
Reducing the pool: interview Subjects to Avoid Marital status Children and other dependants Religion Politics Ethnic origins 34
Final selection1. Keep a list of all applicants considered for final selection.2.Identify fair selection criteria for the final selection phase.3.Ensure that the criteria are in line with the advertised requirements as well as the job content.4. Ensure that each selection committee member is provided with all the relevant information pertaining to each short-listed applicant.5. Ensure that the interviews are conducted in a fair and effective manner and that each candidate is weighed comprehensively against the requirements as advertised.6. Ensure that a comprehensive motivation is compiled in respect of all the applicants interviewed.7. Ensure that all applicants are informed about the outcome of the final selection phase.8. Ensure that all relevant information is put on record. 35
Closing selection• Phone call and further clarification• Letter of intent• Completing employment forms• Protocols may be available for intetested individuals• Number of candidates• Names, surenames and adresses of 5 top candidates• Recruitment and selection criteria• Justification of the decision 36
Trends in recruitment and selection Procedural Changes: Eliminating arbitrary rules and regulations that restrict the choices of hiring managers and supervisors Adopting flexible and appealing hiring procedures. Screening applicants quickly Validating entry requirements and examinations. Instituting worker-friendly personnel policies, Creating more flexible job descriptions. 37
Trends in recruitment and selection Improvements to the Recruitment and Selection Process: The decentralization movement — "New Public Management" is known in many quarters as devolution, often characterized by the decentralization of HR responsibility. Aggressive outreach efforts Current employees as recruiters 38
Trends in recruitment and selection Use of Technology: Many scholars believe that technology will be the most notable HRM trend of the next few decades Many large public organizations use computer bulletin boards and electronic mail to improve recruitment process Managers can have online access to applicants test scores, qualifications and contact information Software programs: to administer online examinations, track applicants, match resumes with skill sets, expedite background checks, and shepherd job candidates through a paperless staffing process 39
10 golden rules of recruitment & selection40 1. Develop a Recruitment Plan 2. Conduct Research 3. Personalize the Recruitment Process 4. Select and Train the Right People as Recruiters 5. Build Strong Partnerships 6. Develop an Employee Referral Program 7. Improve the Selection Process 8. Develop an Advertising Plan 9. Develop an Internet Presence 10. Employ Effective Recruitment Strategies
Internal Sources of Candidates:Hiring from Within Advantages Disadvantages Foreknowledge of Failed applicants become candidates‘ strengths and discontented weaknesses Time wasted interviewing More accurate view of inside candidates who will candidate‘s skills not be considered Candidates have a Inbreeding of the status stronger commitment to the quo company Increases employee morale Less training and orientation required
Internal vs External Labor Markets Germany, Japan, France, and Switserland use more internal sources for promotions Britaion, USA, Denmark, Hong Kong use external sources more
Offshoring/Outsourcing White-Collarand Other Jobs• Specific issues in outsourcing jobs abroad – Political and military instability – Likelihood of cultural misunderstandings – Customers‘ security and privacy concerns – Foreign contracts, liability, and legal concerns – Special training of foreign employees – Costs associated with companies supplying foreign workers
Selection Techniques assessment centre psychometric test application forms for management for management for management Interview panel references for interviews for Management management management One-to one graphology used forUK 78.1 51.7 66.7 47.6 26.7 1.1 79.7France 22.1 92.1 75.7 23.6 12.9 19.3 46.4Germany 56.8 60.2 13.5 6.1 23.3 2.0 45.8Turkey 29.2 53.2 47.4 15.8 11.1 1.8 60.8Australia 77.2 53.3 44.4 37.1 5.8 1.2 77.6USA 59.6 68.5 59.2 10.0 7.3 0.4 64.6Tunisia 9.0 65.6 50.8 34.9 5.3 3.7 29.6
Best practices63 National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Problem: A review of the hiring practices found that job announcements were filled with jargon, lots of facts and information, and extensive list of job duties which made it difficult to identify major features and selling points of the job. Recruitment was passive… NNSA waited for applicants to apply.
64 Makeover: A new look to convey the importance and excitement of their positions, as well as why they were a great place to work Added photos to depict the unique work environment at NNSA. Implemented an internet-based targeted recruitment strategy to identify potential candidates from job boards and other locations They sent recruiters to fifteen universities in the South and West to recruit interns with an emphasis on diversity The results produced 28 qualified candidates, up from three unqualified candidates in the previous recruitment process + 30 highly qualified interns
Best practices65 U.S. Department of Education Problem: The hiring process took too long and did not always deliver qualified candidates. Upon mapping out the hiring process, it was discovered that there were discrete steps with over 45 handoffs between different managers, administrative officers and HR specialists. Managers were disengaged from the hiring process. Job descriptions were problematic. When managers could not find good candidates they had a tendency to sit on the list, until ultimately it was re-posted.
66 Makeover: The hiring process was streamlined by eliminating redundancies and unnecessary steps resulting in a reduction of more than half of the steps…down to 53. The automated process for assessing applicants has been overhauled and questions are more closely aligned with skills needed to be successful on the job. The process of change has not been easy and has taken a commitment of time and effort on the part of leaders, HR, managers and others involved in the hiring process.
Best practices67 Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services Problem: Federal law changed requiring the agency to add 500 new positions. The length of time to complete the hiring process was long and the quality of candidates was lacking. The automated staffing system in place was believed to be inadequate to meet the demands of the hiring needs. The agency wanted top talent and a faster process.
68 Makeover: The agency started with an ―end-to-end‖ mapping of the hiring process and identified both short and long term fixes. They used focus groups to document the process, identify roles and responsibilities, and assess obstacles. Through the process the agency eventually reduced the number of steps in the hiring process by more than twenty percent. Other key things they did included better marketing positions using visually appealing, plain-English announcements, proactively targeting qualified candidates via internet, resume databases and built tools to effectively screen applicants to ensure they were a good fit for the position. They eventually assigned responsibility for the process to one person at the executive level.
Figure 12.3 Steps in the selection process: the case of a rejected job applicant.71 Management - Chapter 12
How do organizations attract a quality workforce?72 Step 1—application forms Declares individual to be a job candidate. Documents applicant‘s personal history and qualifications. Personal résumés may be included. Applicants lacking appropriate credentials are rejected at this step. Management - Chapter 12
How do organizations attract a quality workforce?73 Step 2—interviews Exchange of information between job candidate and key members of the organization. Opportunity for job candidate and organizational members to learn more about each other. Management - Chapter 12
How do organizations attract a quality workforce?74 Step 3 — employment tests Used to further screen applicants by gathering additional job-relevant information. Common types of employment tests: Intelligence Aptitude Personality Interests Management - Chapter 12
How do organizations attract a quality workforce?75 Criteria for selection devices: Reliability The selection device is consistent in measurement. Validity There is a demonstrable relationship between a person‘s score or rating on a selection device and his/her eventual job performance. Management - Chapter 12
How do organizations attract a quality workforce?76 Behaviorally-oriented employment tests: Assessment center Evaluates a person‘s performance in simulated work situations. Work sampling Evaluates a person‘s performance on actual job tasks. Management - Chapter 12
How do organizations attract a quality workforce?77 Step 4 — reference and background checks Inquiries to previous employers, academic advisors, coworkers and/or acquaintances regarding applicant‘s: Qualifications. Experience. Past work records. Can better inform potential employer. Can enhance candidate‘s credibility. Management - Chapter 12
How do organizations attract a quality workforce?78 Step 5 — physical examinations Ensure applicant‘s physical capability to fulfill job requirements. Basis for enrolling applicant in life, health, and disability insurance programs. Drug testing is done at this step. Management - Chapter 12
How do organizations attract a quality workforce?79 Step 6 — final decision to hire or reject Best selection decisions will involve extensive consultation among multiple parties. Selection decision should focus on all aspects of the candidate‘s capacity to perform the designated job. Management - Chapter 12
TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENThttp://www.peoples-edge.de/en/home/
Training and Development Training and Development Ensures that organizational members develop the skills and abilities that will enable them to perform their jobs effectively in the present and the future Changes in technology and the environment require that organizational members learn new techniques and ways of working
Study Question 4: How do organizations develop a quality workforce?82 Socialization Process of influencing the expectations, behavior, and attitudes of a new employee in a way considered desirable by the organization. Orientation Set of activities designed to familiarize new employees with their jobs, coworkers, and key aspects of the organization. Management - Chapter 12
Study Question 4: How do organizations develop aquality workforce? Training On-the-job training A set of activities that Job rotation provides the Coaching opportunity to acquire Mentoring and improve job- Modeling related skills. Off-the-job training Management development Management - Chapter 12 83
Training and Development12-84 Training Teaching organizational members how to perform current jobs and helping them to acquire the knowledge and skills they need to be effective performers.
Training and Development12-85 Development Buildingthe knowledge and skills of organizational members to enable them to take on new responsibilities and challenges.
Training and Development12-86 Needs Assessment Anassessment of which employees need training or development and what type of skills or knowledge they need to acquire.
Types of Training12-88 Classroom Instruction Employees acquire skills in a classroom setting. Includes use of videos, role-playing, and simulations. On-the-Job Training Employee learning occurs in the work setting as new worker does the job. Trainingis given by co-workers and can be done continuously to update the skills of current employees.
Types of Development12-89 Varied Work Experiences Top managers have need to and must build expertise in many areas. Employees identified as possible top managers are assigned different tasks and a variety of positions in an organization. Formal Education Tuitionreimbursement is common for managers taking classes for MBA or job-related degrees. Long-distancelearning can also be used to reduce travel and other expenses for managerial training.
HUMAN RESOURCE PRACTICESOrientation And Training Orientation the process of formally introducing new employees to their jobs and socializing them with performance expectations. Training keeping workers‘ skills up to date and job relevant; important training approaches include coaching and mentoring. Coaching An experienced person offers performance advice to a less experienced person Mentoring Assigns early career employees as protégés to more senior ones
Employee Relations Labor relations Stepsthat managers take to develop and maintain good working relationships with the labor unions that may represent their employees‘ interests
Study Question 5: How do organizations maintain a quality workforce?93 Career development Career — a sequence of jobs that constitute what a person does for a living. Career path — a sequence of jobs held over time during a career. Career planning —matching career goals and individual capabilities with opportunities for their fulfillment. Career plateau — a position from which someone is unlikely to move to a higher level of responsibility. Progressive employers seek ways to engage plateaued employees. Management - Chapter 12
Study Question 5: How do organizations maintain a quality workforce?94 Work-life balance How people balance career demands with personal and family needs. Progressive employers support a healthy work-life balance. Contemporary work-life balance issues: Single parent concerns Dual-career couples concerns Family-friendliness as screening criterion used by candidates Management - Chapter 12
Study Question 5: How do organizations maintain a quality workforce?95 Retention and turnover Replacement is the management of promotions, transfers, terminations, layoffs, and retirements. Replacement decisions relate to: Shifting people between positions within the organization. Retirement. Termination. Management - Chapter 12
Study Question 5: How do organizations maintain a quality workforce?96 Labor-management relations Labor unions deal with employers on the workers‘ behalf. Labor contracts specify the rights and obligations of employees and management regarding wages, work hours, work rules, seniority, hiring, grievances, and other conditions of employment Collective bargaining is the process of negotiating, administering, and interpreting a labour contract. Management - Chapter 12
Figure 12.5 The traditional adversarial view of labor-management relations.97 Management - Chapter 12
Study Question 5: How do organizations maintain aquality workforce? Unions can create Management can difficulties for create difficulties for management by… unions by… Striking Using lockouts Boycotting Hiring strike-breakers Picketing Seeking injunctions Management - Chapter 12 98
The Legal Environment of HRM12-99 Equal Employment Opportunity (EEO) The equal right of all citizens to the opportunity to obtain employment regardless of their gender, age, race, country of origin, religion, or disabilities. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) enforces employment laws.
The Legal Environment of HRM12-100 Contemporary challenges for managers How to eliminate sexual harassment How to make accommodations for employees with disabilities How to deal with employees who have substance abuse problems How to manage HIV-positive employees and employees with AIDs
Question?12-101 What are the activities managers engage in to ensure they have effective working relationships with unions? A. Collective bargaining B. Labor relations C. Employee negotiations D. Labor deal
Labor Relations12-102 Labor Relations The activities managers engage in to ensure they have effective working relationships with the labor unions that represent their employees interests.
Labor Relations12-103 Laws regulating areas of employment. Fair Labor Standards Act (1938) prohibits child labor, sets a minimum wage and maximum working hours. Equal Pay Act (1963) men and women doing equal work will get equal pay. Work Place Safety (1970) OSHA mandates procedures for safe working conditions.
Unions12-104 Unions Represent worker‘s interests to management in organizations. The power that a manager has over an individual worker causes workers to join together in unions to try to prevent this.
Unions12-105 Collective bargaining Negotiation between labor and management to resolve conflicts and disputes about issues such as working hours, wages, benefits, working conditions, and job security.
Movie Example: The Firm Were any or the partners‘ questions inappropriate? How should Mitch have responded to these questions? 12-106
COMPENSATION AND BENEFITShttp://www.peoples-edge.de/en/home/
Compensation and Benrfits Pay and Benefits Rewarding high performing organizational members with raises, bonuses and recognition. Increased pay provides additional incentive. Benefits, such as health insurance, reward membership in firm.
Study Question 5: How do organizations maintain a quality workforce?109 Compensation and benefits Base compensation Salary or hourly wages Fringe benefits Additionalnon-wage or non-salary forms of compensation Flexible benefits Employees can select a set of benefits within a certain dollar amount Management - Chapter 12
Study Question 5: How do organizations maintain a quality workforce?110 Compensation and benefits (cont.) Family-friendly benefits Help in balancing work and nonwork responsibilities Employee assistance programs Help employees deal with troublesome personal problems. Management - Chapter 12
Pay and Benefits12-111 Pay Includes employees‘ base salaries, pay raises, and bonuses Determined by characteristics of the organization and the job and levels of performance Benefits are based on membership in an organization
Pay and Benefits12-112 Pay level The relative position of an organization‘s incentives in comparison with those of other firms in the same industry employing similar kinds of workers Managers can decide to offer low, average or high relative wages. High wages attract and retain high performers but raise costs; low wages can cause turnover and lack of motivation but provide lower costs.
Pay and Benefits Pay Structure CEO The arrangement of jobs into categories based on VP VP VP their relative importance to the organization and Director Director its goals, level of skills, and other characteristics. Dept Manager 12-113
Pay and Benefits12-114 Benefits Legally required: social security, workers‘ compensation Voluntary: health insurance, retirement, day care Cafeteria-style benefits plans allow employees to choose the best mix of benefits for them; can be hard to manage.
Organizational Development Performance Appraisal and Feedback Provides managers with the information they need to make good human resources decisions about how to train, motivate, and reward organizational members Feedback from performance appraisal serves a developmental purpose for members of an organization
HUMAN RESOURCE PRACTICESPerformance Appraisals Performance Appraisal The process of formally evaluating performance and feedback to an employee Two Purposes of Performance Appraisal 1. Evaluation—document and let people know how well they are doing; judgmental role. 2. Development—identify how training and support can improve performance; counseling role.
HUMAN RESOURCE PRACTICESPerformance Appraisals Critical Incident Technique Keeps a log of a person‘s effective and ineffective job behavior 360 Degree feedback Includes superiors, subordinates, peers and even customers in the appraisal process Multi-person Comparison Rates employees against each other Graphic Rating Scale Uses a checklist of characteristics or traits to evaluate performance
HUMAN RESOURCE PRACTICES Performance Appraisals Behaviorally Anchored Rating ScaleUses specific descriptions of actual behaviors to rate various levels of actual performance
Study Question 4: How do organizations develop a quality workforce?120 Performance management systems ensure that— Performance standards and objectives are set. Performance results are assessed regularly. Actions are taken to improve future performance potential. Management - Chapter 12
Study Question 4: How do organizations develop a quality workforce?121 Performance appraisal Formallyassessing someone‘s work accomplishments and providing feedback. Purposes of performance appraisal: Evaluation— lets people know where they stand relative to objectives and standards. Development— assists in training and continued personal development of people. Management - Chapter 12
Study Question 4: How do organizations develop a quality workforce?123 Graphic rating scales Uses checklists of traits or characteristics to evaluate performance. Relatively quick and easy to use. Questionable reliability and validity. Management - Chapter 12
Study Question 4: How do organizations develop a quality workforce?124 Behaviorally anchored rating scales (BARS) Describes actual behaviors that exemplify various levels of performance achievement in a job. More reliable and valid than graphic rating scales. Helpful in training people to master important job skills. Management - Chapter 12
Study Question 4: How do organizations develop a quality workforce?125 Critical-incident techniques Keeping a running log or inventory of effective and ineffective behaviors. Documents success or failure patterns. Management - Chapter 12
Study Question 4: How do organizations develop a quality workforce?126 Multiperson comparisons Formally compare one person‘s performance with that of one or more others. Types of multiperson comparisons: Rank ordering Paired comparisons Forced distributions Management - Chapter 12
Study Question 4: How do organizations develop a quality workforce?127 Alternatives to supervisory appraisal: Peer appraisal Occurs when people who work regularly and directly with a jobholder are involved in the appraisal. Upward appraisal Occurs when subordinates reporting to the jobholder are involved in the appraisal. 360° feedback Occurs when superiors, subordinates, peers, and even internal and external customers are involved in the appraisal of a jobholder‘s performance. Management - Chapter 12
Performance Appraisal and Feedback12-128 Performance Appraisal Theevaluation of employees‘ job performance and contributions to their organization. Performance Feedback Theprocess through which managers share performance appraisal information, give subordinates an opportunity to reflect on their own performance, and develop with subordinates, plans for the future.
Types of Performance Appraisal12-129 Trait Appraisals Assessing subordinates on personal characteristics that are relevant to job performance. Disadvantages of trait appraisals Employees with a particular trait may choose not to use that particular trait on the job. Traits and performance are not always obviously linked It is difficult to give feedback on traits.
Performance Appraisal and Feedback12-130 Behavior Appraisals Assesses how workers perform their jobs—the actual actions and behaviors that exhibit on the job. Focuses on what a worker does right and wrong and provides good feedback for employees to change their behaviors. Results appraisals Managers appraise performance by the results or the actual outcomes of work behaviors
Performance Appraisal and Feedback12-131 Objective appraisals Assesses performance based on facts (e.g., sales figures). Subjective appraisals Assessments based on a manager‘s perceptions of traits, behavior, or results. Graphic rating scales Behaviorally anchored rating scales (BARS) Behavior observation scales (BOS) Forced ranking systems
Question?12-132 Which is the most effective type of performance appraisal? A. Trait appraisal B. Behavior appraisal C. Results appraisal D. Objective appraisal
Subject Measures of Performance: Graphic Rating Scale12-133 Figure 12.5
Who Appraises Performance?12-137 Self Self appraisals can supplement manager view. Peer appraisal Coworkers provide appraisal; common in team settings. 360 Degree A performance appraisal by peers, subordinates, superiors, and clients who are in a position to evaluate a manager‘s performance
Effective Performance Feedback12-138 Formal appraisals An appraisal conducted at a set time during the year and based on performance dimensions that were specified in advance Informal appraisals An unscheduled appraisal of ongoing progress and areas for improvement
Effective Feedback Tips12-139 Be specific and focus on behaviors or outcomes that are correctable and within a worker‘s ability to improve. Approach performance appraisal as an exercise in problem solving and solution finding, not criticizing. Express confidence in a subordinate ability to improve. Provide performance feedback both formally and informally.
Effective Feedback Tips12-140 Praise instances of high performance and areas of a job in which a worker excels. Avoid personal criticisms and treat subordinates with respect. Agree to a timetable for performance improvements.
HUMAN RESOURCE PRACTICESRetention And Career Development Career Development Manages how a person grows and progresses in their career Career Planning The process of managing career goals and individual capabilities with opportunities for their fulfillment
Human Resource Planning12-142 Human Resource Planning (HRP) Activities that managers engage in to forecast their current and future needs for human resources.
Human Resource Planning12-143 Demand forecasts Estimates the qualifications and numbers of employees the firm will need given its goals strategies. Supply forecasts Estimates the availability and qualifications of current employees now and in the future, as well as the supply of qualified workers in the external labor market.
Human Resource Planning12-144 Outsourcing Using outside suppliers and manufacturers to produce goods and services Using contract workers rather than hiring them. More flexible for the firm. Provides human capital at a lower cost.
Human Resource Planning12-145 Problems with Outsourcing Loss of control over output; outsource contractors are not committed to the firm. Unions are against outsourcing that has potential to eliminate member‘s jobs.