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  • Imperialism

    1. 1. The Spanish-American War and the Growth of America as a World Power
    2. 2. Four stances on foreign policy <ul><li>Isolationism- Strict non-involvement in the affairs of other nations </li></ul><ul><li>Collective Security- Working with other countries to influence world affairs </li></ul><ul><li>Internationalism- Intervening in other countries’ affairs to promote important national interests and/or to safe guard national security </li></ul><ul><li>Imperialism- Extending power by acquiring territory around the globe or exploiting weaker nations to serve national interests </li></ul>
    3. 3. U. S. Expansionism in the 1800s <ul><li>A. Manifest Destiny </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Notion Americans were a superior people and had the right to control the North American continent- </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Americans purchased land from France </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. Americans purchased Florida and Alaska </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4. Gained Oregon Territory, Texas, and California </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5. Used negotiations and bloodshed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>led to Native Americans being killed or forced off their land. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>6. Civil War interrupted expansion, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>7. By 1890, conquering and settling the continental United States was complete. </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. U. S. Expansionism in the 1800s <ul><li>A. The Turn to Expansionism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. late 1800s, economic expansionism part of the American experience. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Communication and travel improved. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. Businesses began to export goods to foreign markets and developed foreign trade </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>important to the country’s economic health and prosperity. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4. Political leaders began to develop new foreign policy based on expansionism. </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. U. S. Expansionism in the 1800s <ul><li>B. From Expansionism to Imperialism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1.desire new economic markets = idea of an American empire. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. investing in and trading with foreign markets would give profits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3.Captain Alfred Thayer Mahan, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a . believed that to be strong U. S. must sell its products to a global market. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>b. the nation needed an improved, enlarged, and powerful navy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>c. navy would require colonies for overseas naval bases. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>d. book propelled the modernization of the U.S. Navy in 1883. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4. Americans’ belief in a moral obligation to spread democratic and Christian values to other lands. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5. Reverend Josiah Strong, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a congregational minister </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>b. author of book Our Country </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1. Americans were a special, God-favored Anglo-Saxon race </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2.should “lift up” other societies. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    6. 6. U. S. Expansionism in the 1800s <ul><li>C. The Debate over Imperialism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. anti-imperialists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a. trade should lead to the domination of one nation over another. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>b. empire might weaken institutions at home and invite a war </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. imperialists and anti-imperialists fiercely debated which course U.S. foreign policy should take </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. Revolution in Cuba <ul><li>A. Trouble Brewing in Cuba </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Island 90 miles off tip of Florida. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Involvement brought U.S. into potential conflict with Spain. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. From 1868 the Cuban people struggled for independence from Spain. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>B. U.S. Interest in Cuba </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Some believed Cubans’ fight for independence was similar to ours </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Others Cuba as a natural extension of U.S. territory. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. Cuba’s productive sugar plantations attracted the attention of those interested in its economic potential. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4. Cuban expatriate Jose’ Marti gathered arms, money, and men in New York to fight Spanish rule. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5. 1894 the United States imposed a tariff on sugar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a. Sugar prices fell </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>b. Cuban economy was hurt </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>C. De Lome letter </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Published by New York Journal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Written by de Lome- Spanish minister to U.S. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. Criticized President McKinley </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4. Angered Americans </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. Revolution in Cuba <ul><li>D. The Revolution Begins </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Marti launched a revolution from the U.S. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a. A destructive war resulted </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>b. Marti’s followers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1) burned sugar fields </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2) destroyed mills </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3) fought Spanish soldiers </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>c. Spanish troops </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1)under the command of Valereano “Butcher” Weyler </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2)forced hundreds of thousands of Cubans into “reconcentration” towns </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a)Horrifying conditions existed in the camps, </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>b) deaths of tens of thousands of Cubans </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>c) Cuba’s economy fell apart </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    9. 9. Revolution in Cuba <ul><li>E. Americans Keep Watch </li></ul><ul><li>1. Investments in plantations and sugar refineries nearing $50 million </li></ul><ul><li>2. Cuban exports to the United States plummeting </li></ul><ul><li>3. Conditions of the reconcentration camps reported in American press </li></ul><ul><li>4. Americans began to side with the Cubans and grow angry toward Spain. </li></ul><ul><li>F. McKinley Wants to Avoid War </li></ul><ul><li>1. William McKinley elected president in 1896 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a. sought to avoid was with Spain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b. a new government came to power in Spain in 1898 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1) proposed reform in the reconcentration policy and the promise to some autonomy for Cubans </li></ul></ul></ul>
    10. 10. The Maine Incident <ul><li>A. The Maine Explosion </li></ul><ul><li>1. In 1898 Spanish troops rioted in the Cuban capital city, Havana. </li></ul><ul><li>2. In January, President McKinley ordered the battleship Maine to Havana Harbor to protect American citizens and property </li></ul><ul><li>3. February 15, the Maine was destroyed by an explosion in Havana </li></ul><ul><ul><li>-killed 260 American officers and crew. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>4. Headlines in American papers called for revenge: </li></ul><ul><li>-“Remember the Maine ! To War with Spain!” </li></ul><ul><li>5. Most Americans believed the Spanish had blown up the Main , </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a. there was no evidence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b. naval board concluded that a mine had caused the explosions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>c. investigation by Spanish officials reported the explosion had been internal and presumably, accidental. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(In 1976 U.S. admiral Hymn Rickover conducted a study of the sinking of the Maine and concluded that an internal accident, probably a faulty boiler, had caused the explosion.) </li></ul></ul>
    11. 11. Yellow Journalism Pushes the United States Toward War <ul><li>A. Yellow Journalists Push for Military Action </li></ul><ul><li>1. In response to Maine incident, American newspapers featured articles against Spain and their role in Cuba. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Some American journalists resorted to “yellow” journalism </li></ul><ul><li>a. sensational headlines and stories with little attention to facts </li></ul><ul><li>b. designed to grab the attention and stir up the emotions of readers </li></ul><ul><li>c. fabricated stories of Spanish cruelty in Cuba that did not exist </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>d. called for U.S. intervention in Cuba. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>4. Key proponents of the yellow journalism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a. William Randolph Hearst, publisher of the New York Journal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b. Joseph Pulitzer, publisher of The World </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5. Critics claimed that yellow journalists pressed U.S. politicians into calling for war. </li></ul></ul>
    12. 12. Yellow Journalism Pushes the United States Toward War <ul><li>B. McKinley Calls for War </li></ul><ul><li>1. March 1898 McKinley sent Spain an ultimatum </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a. demanding an armistice, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b. ending reconcentration, and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>c. appointing himself as arbiter. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2. Spain’s insufficient concessions, </li></ul><ul><li>3. April 11, asked Congress to use force against Spain. </li></ul><ul><li>4. April 19 Congress declared Cuba’s independence </li></ul><ul><li>5. Spain responded with its own declaration of war five days later </li></ul><ul><li>6. April 25, McKinley signed a congressional declaration of war with Spain. </li></ul>
    13. 13. The Outbreak of War in Philippines <ul><li>A. War began in Spanish colony of Philippine Islands. </li></ul><ul><li>B. Commodore George Dewey </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. moved six U.S. ships to prepare to invade the Philippines. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. May 1 Dewey attacked the Spanish squadron </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. In seven hours, all ten Spanish ships sunk </li></ul></ul><ul><li>C. The Storming of Manila </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Dewey blockaded the harbor and waited for ground troops. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. 11,000 reinforcements arrived, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3.Dewey collaborates with Filipino patriot Emilio Aguinaldo, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a. Led an uprising against Spain in 1896. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b. Ousted Spanish rule in all territories except Manila. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4. U. S. captured Manila on August 13, 1898. </li></ul></ul>
    14. 14. The War Moves to Cuba <ul><li>A. U.S. Troops Land in Cuba </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1.Under command of General Nelson A. Miles and General William R. Shafter, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. 17,000 troops landed near Santiago, the base of the Spanish troops. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-included many African Americans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. Fighting on the island began on June 20, 1898. </li></ul></ul>
    15. 15. The United States Defeats Spain <ul><li>A. The Battle of San Juan Hill </li></ul><ul><li>1. 1 st major land Battle of the War, </li></ul><ul><li>a. turned out to be the last. </li></ul><ul><li>B. U.S. blockade of Santiago Harbor </li></ul><ul><li>1. July 3- Spanish fleet tried to run </li></ul><ul><li>2. U.S. Navy destroyed the Spanish fleet </li></ul><ul><li> -ended Spanish resistance in Cuba. </li></ul><ul><li>C. U.S. turned to Spanish-held Puerto Rico </li></ul><ul><li>1. easily conquered in July. </li></ul>
    16. 16. The United States Defeats Spain <ul><li>D. The War’s Toll on U.S. Soldiers </li></ul><ul><li>1. 385 Americans were killed in action. </li></ul><ul><li>2. 5,000 died of tropical diseases and the effects of bad food </li></ul><ul><li>3. Many of the troops had to be quarantined when they came back to U.S. </li></ul><ul><li>4. The Treatment of African Americans </li></ul><ul><li>a. as troops passed through the South </li></ul><ul><li> 1) called epithets and were refused service in restaurants </li></ul><ul><li> 2) some not allowed to go ashore to bathe or exercise unless they were escorted by an officer. </li></ul><ul><li>b. race riots occurred in June 1898. </li></ul>
    17. 17. The United States Emerges as an Imperialist Power <ul><li>A. Spain signed a cease fire on August 12, 1898, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. A day before Dewey and his ground troops, unaware that the war was over, captured Manila. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Treaty of Paris October 1898. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a. Permanent settlement </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>b. Granted independence to Cuba </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>c. Ceded Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines to the United States for a payment of $20 million. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>- This added 100,000 square miles and close to 10 million people to the American empire. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    18. 18. The United States Emerges as an Imperialist Power <ul><li>B. Continuing U.S. Influence in Cuba </li></ul><ul><li>1. U.S. involvement did not end with the war </li></ul><ul><li>2. President McKinley set up a military government to administer Cuba. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Cubans began to draft a constitution, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a. U.S. insisted that it included the Platt Amendment. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1. Limited Cuba’s foreign interaction </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2. gave U.S. right to establish naval stations on the island, and if necessary, to send troops to keep order. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    19. 19. The United States Emerges as an Imperialist Power <ul><li>C. The Philippines Become a U.S. Colony </li></ul><ul><li>1. President decided the Filipinos were “unfit for self-government.” </li></ul><ul><li>- Best choice was for U.S. to “educate Filipinos, and uplift and civilize and Christianize them.” </li></ul><ul><li>2. Most Filipinos Catholic and wanted self-government. </li></ul><ul><li>-They were refused. </li></ul><ul><li>3. 3 year battle between Filipinos and U.S. ended in 1901 </li></ul><ul><li>- U.S. crushed the revolt. </li></ul><ul><li>D. The U.S. Emerges as a World Power </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. By 1899 U.S. expanded its control to include </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a. Puerto Rico, Guam, the Philippines, Hawaii (1898) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>b. Many other Pacific Islands, including Samoa (1899). </li></ul></ul></ul>
    20. 20. The United States Emerges as an Imperialist Power <ul><li>E. Anti-Imperialism </li></ul><ul><li>1. unhappy and angry about the United States’ new imperial status </li></ul><ul><li>2. included both Democrats and Republicans and members of all social classes. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Some driven by moral and humanitarian sentiments. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>-Rejected the exploitation of indigenous peoples </li></ul></ul><ul><li>4. Other cautioned the United States to stay out of the colonialism and militarism. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>-Feared that U.S. intervention, abroad would lead to war </li></ul></ul><ul><li>5. Others feared that dark-skinned peoples </li></ul><ul><li>a. might detract from “Anglo-Saxon purity” </li></ul><ul><li>b. they would never embrace democracy, </li></ul><ul><li>c. their labor might reduce the value of American workers . </li></ul>
    21. 21. The United States Emerges as an Imperialist Power <ul><li>F. The Anti-Imperialist League </li></ul><ul><li>1. Organized by prominent U.S. leaders </li></ul><ul><li>2. Opposed U.S. control of the Philippines </li></ul><ul><li>3. Supported an amendment to the Treaty of Paris </li></ul><ul><li>a. promising Filipinos independence as soon as they formed a stable government. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>b. amendment was narrowly defeated </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4. Democratic and anti-imperialist candidate William Jennings Bryan lost the presidential nomination in 1900 </li></ul></ul>
    22. 22. U.S. Imperialism in the Early 1900s <ul><li>A. U.S. Influence Abroad Grows </li></ul><ul><li>1. In the first two decades of the twentieth century, </li></ul><ul><li>a. U.S. presidents Theodore Roosevelt, William Howard Taft, and Woodrow Wilson all involved the United States in the affairs of various Latin American and Asian countries. </li></ul>
    23. 23. U.S. Imperialism in the Early 1900s <ul><li>B. Roosevelt’s “Big Stick” Policy </li></ul><ul><li>1. Became president when McKinley was assassinated </li></ul><ul><li>a. He was elected in his own right in 1904. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Pushed for greater U.S. involvement in world affairs. </li></ul><ul><li>a. His policy actively meet any challenge to national interest. </li></ul><ul><li>b. Advocated peaceful resolutions with other nations </li></ul><ul><li>c. Wanted a strong international presence that would insure American prosperity. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Roosevelt’s foreign policy best summarized by the West African proverb that became one of his favorite sayings: “Speak softly and carry a big stick.” </li></ul>
    24. 24. U.S. Imperialism in the Early 1900s <ul><li>C. Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine </li></ul><ul><li>1.asserted the right of the United States to act as international police power in Latin America. </li></ul><ul><li>2. From 1900 to 1917, the Roosevelt Corollary was used to justify intervention </li></ul><ul><li>a. In Dominican Republic, Panama, Cuba, Nicaragua, Honduras, Mexico, and Haiti. </li></ul><ul><li>b. Included sending troops, controlling governmental budgets, running elections, and beginning construction of the Panama Canal. </li></ul>
    25. 25. U.S. Imperialism in the Early 1900s <ul><li>D. “Big Stick” Policy in Asia, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Roosevelt fostered “Open Door” policy, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a. called for equal commercial opportunity for all nations trading with China </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>b. preservation of China’s independence. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>E. Boxer Rebellion </li></ul><ul><li>1. Chinese led rebellion to oust foreign influence from China </li></ul><ul><li>2. Roosevelt sent troops to join the Japanese, British, and others to squash the rebellion </li></ul>
    26. 26. U.S. Imperialism in the Early 1900s <ul><li>F. Taft’s “Dollar Diplomacy” </li></ul><ul><li>1. Name given to his foreign policy </li></ul><ul><li>2. Encouraged U.S. Businesses to invest in foreign countries. </li></ul><ul><li>a. strong economic role-using dollars, not bullets-would advance U.S. authority and prosperity while promoting worldwide stability. </li></ul><ul><li>3. He ordered troops to Haiti, the Dominican Republic, and Mexico, 4. He justified the use of force to teach other nations how to establish law and order. </li></ul>
    27. 27. U.S. Imperialism in the Early 1900s <ul><li>G. Wilson’s “Moral Diplomacy” </li></ul><ul><li>1.Wanted to secure U.S. economic interests abroad, </li></ul><ul><li>2. also maintain that U.S. should champion democracy around the globe </li></ul><ul><li>3. U.S. help maintain world peace. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Emphasized American ideals such as self-determination. </li></ul><ul><li>5. Let U.S. continue to meddle in and dominate affairs of Latin America and Asia. </li></ul><ul><li>6. Under Wilson, U.S. continued to develop an empire by expanding its political and economic influence around the world. </li></ul>