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  • 1. The Spanish-American War and the Growth of America as a World Power
  • 2. Four stances on foreign policy
    • Isolationism- Strict non-involvement in the affairs of other nations
    • Collective Security- Working with other countries to influence world affairs
    • Internationalism- Intervening in other countries’ affairs to promote important national interests and/or to safe guard national security
    • Imperialism- Extending power by acquiring territory around the globe or exploiting weaker nations to serve national interests
  • 3. U. S. Expansionism in the 1800s
    • A. Manifest Destiny
      • 1. Notion Americans were a superior people and had the right to control the North American continent-
      • 2. Americans purchased land from France
      • 3. Americans purchased Florida and Alaska
      • 4. Gained Oregon Territory, Texas, and California
      • 5. Used negotiations and bloodshed
        • led to Native Americans being killed or forced off their land.
      • 6. Civil War interrupted expansion,
      • 7. By 1890, conquering and settling the continental United States was complete.
  • 4. U. S. Expansionism in the 1800s
    • A. The Turn to Expansionism
      • 1. late 1800s, economic expansionism part of the American experience.
      • 2. Communication and travel improved.
      • 3. Businesses began to export goods to foreign markets and developed foreign trade
        • important to the country’s economic health and prosperity.
      • 4. Political leaders began to develop new foreign policy based on expansionism.
  • 5. U. S. Expansionism in the 1800s
    • B. From Expansionism to Imperialism
      • 1.desire new economic markets = idea of an American empire.
      • 2. investing in and trading with foreign markets would give profits
      • 3.Captain Alfred Thayer Mahan,
        • a . believed that to be strong U. S. must sell its products to a global market.
        • b. the nation needed an improved, enlarged, and powerful navy
        • c. navy would require colonies for overseas naval bases.
        • d. book propelled the modernization of the U.S. Navy in 1883.
      • 4. Americans’ belief in a moral obligation to spread democratic and Christian values to other lands.
      • 5. Reverend Josiah Strong,
        • a congregational minister
        • b. author of book Our Country
          • 1. Americans were a special, God-favored Anglo-Saxon race
          • 2.should “lift up” other societies.
  • 6. U. S. Expansionism in the 1800s
    • C. The Debate over Imperialism
      • 1. anti-imperialists
        • a. trade should lead to the domination of one nation over another.
        • b. empire might weaken institutions at home and invite a war
      • 2. imperialists and anti-imperialists fiercely debated which course U.S. foreign policy should take
  • 7. Revolution in Cuba
    • A. Trouble Brewing in Cuba
      • 1. Island 90 miles off tip of Florida.
      • 2. Involvement brought U.S. into potential conflict with Spain.
      • 3. From 1868 the Cuban people struggled for independence from Spain.
    • B. U.S. Interest in Cuba
      • 1. Some believed Cubans’ fight for independence was similar to ours
      • 2. Others Cuba as a natural extension of U.S. territory.
      • 3. Cuba’s productive sugar plantations attracted the attention of those interested in its economic potential.
      • 4. Cuban expatriate Jose’ Marti gathered arms, money, and men in New York to fight Spanish rule.
      • 5. 1894 the United States imposed a tariff on sugar
        • a. Sugar prices fell
        • b. Cuban economy was hurt
    • C. De Lome letter
      • 1. Published by New York Journal
      • 2. Written by de Lome- Spanish minister to U.S.
      • 3. Criticized President McKinley
      • 4. Angered Americans
  • 8. Revolution in Cuba
    • D. The Revolution Begins
      • 1. Marti launched a revolution from the U.S.
        • a. A destructive war resulted
        • b. Marti’s followers
          • 1) burned sugar fields
          • 2) destroyed mills
          • 3) fought Spanish soldiers
        • c. Spanish troops
          • 1)under the command of Valereano “Butcher” Weyler
          • 2)forced hundreds of thousands of Cubans into “reconcentration” towns
            • a)Horrifying conditions existed in the camps,
            • b) deaths of tens of thousands of Cubans
            • c) Cuba’s economy fell apart
  • 9. Revolution in Cuba
    • E. Americans Keep Watch
    • 1. Investments in plantations and sugar refineries nearing $50 million
    • 2. Cuban exports to the United States plummeting
    • 3. Conditions of the reconcentration camps reported in American press
    • 4. Americans began to side with the Cubans and grow angry toward Spain.
    • F. McKinley Wants to Avoid War
    • 1. William McKinley elected president in 1896
      • a. sought to avoid was with Spain
      • b. a new government came to power in Spain in 1898
        • 1) proposed reform in the reconcentration policy and the promise to some autonomy for Cubans
  • 10. The Maine Incident
    • A. The Maine Explosion
    • 1. In 1898 Spanish troops rioted in the Cuban capital city, Havana.
    • 2. In January, President McKinley ordered the battleship Maine to Havana Harbor to protect American citizens and property
    • 3. February 15, the Maine was destroyed by an explosion in Havana
      • -killed 260 American officers and crew.
    • 4. Headlines in American papers called for revenge:
    • -“Remember the Maine ! To War with Spain!”
    • 5. Most Americans believed the Spanish had blown up the Main ,
      • a. there was no evidence
      • b. naval board concluded that a mine had caused the explosions.
      • c. investigation by Spanish officials reported the explosion had been internal and presumably, accidental.
      • (In 1976 U.S. admiral Hymn Rickover conducted a study of the sinking of the Maine and concluded that an internal accident, probably a faulty boiler, had caused the explosion.)
  • 11. Yellow Journalism Pushes the United States Toward War
    • A. Yellow Journalists Push for Military Action
    • 1. In response to Maine incident, American newspapers featured articles against Spain and their role in Cuba.
    • 2. Some American journalists resorted to “yellow” journalism
    • a. sensational headlines and stories with little attention to facts
    • b. designed to grab the attention and stir up the emotions of readers
    • c. fabricated stories of Spanish cruelty in Cuba that did not exist
        • d. called for U.S. intervention in Cuba.
    • 4. Key proponents of the yellow journalism
      • a. William Randolph Hearst, publisher of the New York Journal
      • b. Joseph Pulitzer, publisher of The World
      • 5. Critics claimed that yellow journalists pressed U.S. politicians into calling for war.
  • 12. Yellow Journalism Pushes the United States Toward War
    • B. McKinley Calls for War
    • 1. March 1898 McKinley sent Spain an ultimatum
      • a. demanding an armistice,
      • b. ending reconcentration, and
      • c. appointing himself as arbiter.
    • 2. Spain’s insufficient concessions,
    • 3. April 11, asked Congress to use force against Spain.
    • 4. April 19 Congress declared Cuba’s independence
    • 5. Spain responded with its own declaration of war five days later
    • 6. April 25, McKinley signed a congressional declaration of war with Spain.
  • 13. The Outbreak of War in Philippines
    • A. War began in Spanish colony of Philippine Islands.
    • B. Commodore George Dewey
      • 1. moved six U.S. ships to prepare to invade the Philippines.
      • 2. May 1 Dewey attacked the Spanish squadron
      • 3. In seven hours, all ten Spanish ships sunk
    • C. The Storming of Manila
      • 1. Dewey blockaded the harbor and waited for ground troops.
      • 2. 11,000 reinforcements arrived,
      • 3.Dewey collaborates with Filipino patriot Emilio Aguinaldo,
      • a. Led an uprising against Spain in 1896.
      • b. Ousted Spanish rule in all territories except Manila.
      • 4. U. S. captured Manila on August 13, 1898.
  • 14. The War Moves to Cuba
    • A. U.S. Troops Land in Cuba
      • 1.Under command of General Nelson A. Miles and General William R. Shafter,
      • 2. 17,000 troops landed near Santiago, the base of the Spanish troops.
      • -included many African Americans
      • 3. Fighting on the island began on June 20, 1898.
  • 15. The United States Defeats Spain
    • A. The Battle of San Juan Hill
    • 1. 1 st major land Battle of the War,
    • a. turned out to be the last.
    • B. U.S. blockade of Santiago Harbor
    • 1. July 3- Spanish fleet tried to run
    • 2. U.S. Navy destroyed the Spanish fleet
    • -ended Spanish resistance in Cuba.
    • C. U.S. turned to Spanish-held Puerto Rico
    • 1. easily conquered in July.
  • 16. The United States Defeats Spain
    • D. The War’s Toll on U.S. Soldiers
    • 1. 385 Americans were killed in action.
    • 2. 5,000 died of tropical diseases and the effects of bad food
    • 3. Many of the troops had to be quarantined when they came back to U.S.
    • 4. The Treatment of African Americans
    • a. as troops passed through the South
    • 1) called epithets and were refused service in restaurants
    • 2) some not allowed to go ashore to bathe or exercise unless they were escorted by an officer.
    • b. race riots occurred in June 1898.
  • 17. The United States Emerges as an Imperialist Power
    • A. Spain signed a cease fire on August 12, 1898,
      • 1. A day before Dewey and his ground troops, unaware that the war was over, captured Manila.
      • 2. Treaty of Paris October 1898.
        • a. Permanent settlement
        • b. Granted independence to Cuba
        • c. Ceded Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines to the United States for a payment of $20 million.
        • - This added 100,000 square miles and close to 10 million people to the American empire.
  • 18. The United States Emerges as an Imperialist Power
    • B. Continuing U.S. Influence in Cuba
    • 1. U.S. involvement did not end with the war
    • 2. President McKinley set up a military government to administer Cuba.
    • 3. Cubans began to draft a constitution,
      • a. U.S. insisted that it included the Platt Amendment.
        • 1. Limited Cuba’s foreign interaction
        • 2. gave U.S. right to establish naval stations on the island, and if necessary, to send troops to keep order.
  • 19. The United States Emerges as an Imperialist Power
    • C. The Philippines Become a U.S. Colony
    • 1. President decided the Filipinos were “unfit for self-government.”
    • - Best choice was for U.S. to “educate Filipinos, and uplift and civilize and Christianize them.”
    • 2. Most Filipinos Catholic and wanted self-government.
    • -They were refused.
    • 3. 3 year battle between Filipinos and U.S. ended in 1901
    • - U.S. crushed the revolt.
    • D. The U.S. Emerges as a World Power
      • 1. By 1899 U.S. expanded its control to include
        • a. Puerto Rico, Guam, the Philippines, Hawaii (1898)
        • b. Many other Pacific Islands, including Samoa (1899).
  • 20. The United States Emerges as an Imperialist Power
    • E. Anti-Imperialism
    • 1. unhappy and angry about the United States’ new imperial status
    • 2. included both Democrats and Republicans and members of all social classes.
    • 3. Some driven by moral and humanitarian sentiments.
      • -Rejected the exploitation of indigenous peoples
    • 4. Other cautioned the United States to stay out of the colonialism and militarism.
      • -Feared that U.S. intervention, abroad would lead to war
    • 5. Others feared that dark-skinned peoples
    • a. might detract from “Anglo-Saxon purity”
    • b. they would never embrace democracy,
    • c. their labor might reduce the value of American workers .
  • 21. The United States Emerges as an Imperialist Power
    • F. The Anti-Imperialist League
    • 1. Organized by prominent U.S. leaders
    • 2. Opposed U.S. control of the Philippines
    • 3. Supported an amendment to the Treaty of Paris
    • a. promising Filipinos independence as soon as they formed a stable government.
        • b. amendment was narrowly defeated
      • 4. Democratic and anti-imperialist candidate William Jennings Bryan lost the presidential nomination in 1900
  • 22. U.S. Imperialism in the Early 1900s
    • A. U.S. Influence Abroad Grows
    • 1. In the first two decades of the twentieth century,
    • a. U.S. presidents Theodore Roosevelt, William Howard Taft, and Woodrow Wilson all involved the United States in the affairs of various Latin American and Asian countries.
  • 23. U.S. Imperialism in the Early 1900s
    • B. Roosevelt’s “Big Stick” Policy
    • 1. Became president when McKinley was assassinated
    • a. He was elected in his own right in 1904.
    • 2. Pushed for greater U.S. involvement in world affairs.
    • a. His policy actively meet any challenge to national interest.
    • b. Advocated peaceful resolutions with other nations
    • c. Wanted a strong international presence that would insure American prosperity.
    • 3. Roosevelt’s foreign policy best summarized by the West African proverb that became one of his favorite sayings: “Speak softly and carry a big stick.”
  • 24. U.S. Imperialism in the Early 1900s
    • C. Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine
    • 1.asserted the right of the United States to act as international police power in Latin America.
    • 2. From 1900 to 1917, the Roosevelt Corollary was used to justify intervention
    • a. In Dominican Republic, Panama, Cuba, Nicaragua, Honduras, Mexico, and Haiti.
    • b. Included sending troops, controlling governmental budgets, running elections, and beginning construction of the Panama Canal.
  • 25. U.S. Imperialism in the Early 1900s
    • D. “Big Stick” Policy in Asia,
      • 1. Roosevelt fostered “Open Door” policy,
        • a. called for equal commercial opportunity for all nations trading with China
        • b. preservation of China’s independence.
    • E. Boxer Rebellion
    • 1. Chinese led rebellion to oust foreign influence from China
    • 2. Roosevelt sent troops to join the Japanese, British, and others to squash the rebellion
  • 26. U.S. Imperialism in the Early 1900s
    • F. Taft’s “Dollar Diplomacy”
    • 1. Name given to his foreign policy
    • 2. Encouraged U.S. Businesses to invest in foreign countries.
    • a. strong economic role-using dollars, not bullets-would advance U.S. authority and prosperity while promoting worldwide stability.
    • 3. He ordered troops to Haiti, the Dominican Republic, and Mexico, 4. He justified the use of force to teach other nations how to establish law and order.
  • 27. U.S. Imperialism in the Early 1900s
    • G. Wilson’s “Moral Diplomacy”
    • 1.Wanted to secure U.S. economic interests abroad,
    • 2. also maintain that U.S. should champion democracy around the globe
    • 3. U.S. help maintain world peace.
    • 4. Emphasized American ideals such as self-determination.
    • 5. Let U.S. continue to meddle in and dominate affairs of Latin America and Asia.
    • 6. Under Wilson, U.S. continued to develop an empire by expanding its political and economic influence around the world.