USH Chap. 4


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USH Chap. 4

  1. 1. Becoming A World Power. Chapter Four-1898. Growing imperialism: Manifest Destiny and Anglo-Saxonism. “White man’s burden.” Need for international markets. Alfred Mahan-Sea power. U.S. became the first non-European country to become a top tier power.
  2. 2. Expansion In The Pacific. <ul><li>Com. Matthew Perry ordered to MAKE Japan trade with the U.S. 1853. </li></ul><ul><li>Why was Japan voluntary closed off from the rest of the world? </li></ul><ul><li>Annexed Hawaii-1898. </li></ul><ul><li>Hawaii was/is the most important naval base in Pacific! </li></ul>
  3. 3. Building A Modern Navy. Alfred T. Mahan. <ul><li>Expand or die. America needed new overseas markets. </li></ul><ul><li>America had to have merchant ships for trade. </li></ul><ul><li>We also needed a navy to protect these ships and overseas possessions. </li></ul><ul><li>“Rimland” theory of being a world power. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Cuban Rebellion. <ul><li>Cuba was one of Spain’s oldest colonies. </li></ul><ul><li>Jose Marti was the leader of rebels who wanted to oust Spain. </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. and Cuba become linked economically-Sugar. </li></ul><ul><li>Spain’s/Cuba’s problems becomes our problem too. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Yellow Journalism=War! <ul><li>William Randolph Hearst and John Pulitzer were fierce newspaper competitors. </li></ul><ul><li>Papers made up a lot of whoppers about events in Cuba in order to sell papers. </li></ul><ul><li>Photographer sent to Cuba found little going on their. </li></ul>
  6. 6. U.S.S. Maine Blows Up In Havana Harbor. <ul><li>Of the 354 sailors, 266 were killed in the blast. </li></ul><ul><li>Because of “Yellow” journalism, many Americans believed that Spain had planted a mine. </li></ul><ul><li>Years later, it was determined that it was an accident. Oh well…. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Jingoism: Aggressive Nationalism. <ul><li>1898 war is declared on Spain. </li></ul><ul><li>McKinley is forced by public opinion and Cuban investors to ask Congress for war. </li></ul><ul><li>Spain’s navy is very old and out dated. </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. has the brand new Great White Fleet. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Where The Battles Took Place. <ul><li>Cuba was invaded by a mostly amateur and voluntary American army. </li></ul><ul><li>The Spanish though were not motivated to fight. </li></ul><ul><li>Teddy Roosevelt became famous for taking San Juan Hill in Cuba. “The Rough Riders.” No horses? </li></ul>
  9. 9. Philippines. <ul><li>Com. George Dewey Hunts down the Spanish fleet in the Pacific and then sinks it. </li></ul><ul><li>The war ends with the U.S. getting control of: Cuba, Guam, and the Philippines. They are annexed. </li></ul><ul><li>With the addition of Hawaii, the U.S. is now the major Pacific power. </li></ul>
  10. 10. America Expands Abroad <ul><li>Key Terms: </li></ul><ul><li>Imperialism </li></ul><ul><li>Protectorate </li></ul><ul><li>Anglo-saxonism </li></ul><ul><li>Pan-Americanism </li></ul>
  11. 11. Causes of American Imperialism <ul><li>Nationalism: </li></ul><ul><li>By the end of the 19 th century the U.S. had conquered the West </li></ul><ul><li>Manifest Destiny had been realized </li></ul><ul><li>Many Americans felt the U.S. should still expand </li></ul><ul><li>By 1898 many Americans were supporting the idea of Anglo-Saxonism </li></ul>
  12. 12. Anglo-Saxonism and Nationalism <ul><li>American imperialists argued defended imperialism with Social Darwinism: </li></ul><ul><li>international competition only the strongest would survive </li></ul><ul><li>A nation with a superior military and economy had a right to conquer weaker nations </li></ul>
  13. 13. More Causes of Imperialism <ul><li>Economic: </li></ul><ul><li>As westward expansion ended new markets were needed to sustain economic growth </li></ul><ul><li>Americans wanted to develop overseas markets to keep the economy strong. </li></ul>
  14. 14. More Causes of Imperialism <ul><li>Humanitarian/Religious: </li></ul><ul><li>American missionaries linked missionary work to Anglo-Saxonism </li></ul><ul><li>Missionaries went to foreign nations and set up schools and hospitals </li></ul><ul><li>The earliest forms of American influence in these countries were often missionaries </li></ul>
  15. 15. More Causes of Imperialism <ul><li>Military: </li></ul><ul><li>In order to compete with other world powers America needed a strong navy </li></ul><ul><li>In order to support a strong modern navy the U.S. needed overseas ports </li></ul><ul><li>The farther away American ports were the farther the Navy could travel </li></ul>
  16. 16. Countries affected by Imperialism <ul><li>Japan: </li></ul><ul><li>Refused to trade with the U.S. </li></ul><ul><li>Feared contact with the West would destroy their culture </li></ul><ul><li>In 1853 America forced its way into Japan </li></ul><ul><li>By 1868 Japan had an internal revolution and began to westernize </li></ul>
  17. 17. Countries affected by Imperialism <ul><li>Hawaii: </li></ul><ul><li>In 1820 American missionaries settled in Hawaii </li></ul><ul><li>As more Americans settled there they began setting up sugar plantations </li></ul><ul><li>Over time these planters sought more power </li></ul><ul><li>In 1891 American planters and Marines overthrew the Hawaiian government </li></ul>
  18. 18. Latin America (cont.) <ul><li>U.S. wanted to reduce tariffs with these countries and create a system to solve disputes </li></ul><ul><li>Latin American leaders saw both these proposals as a threat to their independence </li></ul>
  19. 19. Countries Affected by Imperialism <ul><li>Latin America: </li></ul><ul><li>Americans wanted uncontested influence in Central and South America </li></ul><ul><li>The U.S. proposed Pan-Americanism </li></ul><ul><li>Argued Latin America and the U.S. should work together </li></ul>
  20. 20. 1898. Watershed Year. <ul><li>There are dates in history that signify a great change. </li></ul><ul><li>Why was 1898 a watershed year for the U.S.A. and the rest of the world? </li></ul>
  21. 21. Election Of 1900. <ul><li>McKinley reelected president with Teddy Roosevelt as V.P. </li></ul><ul><li>McKinley assassinated by anarchist. </li></ul><ul><li>Roosevelt becomes youngest ever president at age 42. </li></ul><ul><li>Critics: “Loose cannon is now president.” </li></ul>
  22. 22. Open Door Policy-1894. <ul><li>Foreign powers cut up China like a piece of pie for economic gain. </li></ul><ul><li>These were called “Sphere’s of influence.” </li></ul><ul><li>The countries that exploited China were: U.S., Britain, Japan, Germany, Russia, and France. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Boxer Rebellion-1900. <ul><li>Chinese people tried to kick out the foreigners by force. </li></ul><ul><li>They resented the economic exploitation and Christian missionaries. </li></ul><ul><li>The occupiers put down the rebellion. </li></ul><ul><li>Open Door policy was continued. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Growing U.S. Presence In The Caribbean. <ul><li>“Speak softy, but carry a big stick.” Teddy Roosevelt. </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. instigated a revolt in Columbia in order to create the country of Panama. </li></ul><ul><li>The canal could now be build. </li></ul><ul><li>A short cut of 8,000 nautical miles! </li></ul>
  25. 25. Roosevelt Corollary-1904. <ul><li>The U.S. would intervene when necessary to maintain stability in the Caribbean, Central, and South America. </li></ul><ul><li>This was a vast expansion of the Monroe Doctrine. </li></ul><ul><li>Taft and Dollar Diplomacy. </li></ul>