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Spanish american war computer version 2013


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Spanish american war computer version 2013

  1. 1. The Spanish American War & Pacific Expansion of the United States • 1898
  2. 2. U.S. Expansionism in the 1800sall of the frontier lands In 1890 the Census Bureau announces have been settled. The U.S. now has motivation to expand and become a World Power. There were four reasons the U.S. had a desire to expand. 1. Find new Economic markets. 2. Social Darwinism – Survival of the fittest. 3. Christianize “uncivilized” people of the world. 4. Did not want to be left out of international scramble for territory.
  3. 3. 1890 – The Influence of Sea Power Upon History is written by Alfred Thayer Mahan, a U.S. navy strategist. ● Mahan said the U.S. needs a strong navy and bases to serve as stepping stones to markets in Latin America and Asia. ● Believed we should construct a canal through Central America (Panama Canal) ● U.S. Navy increases in world status from 12th in 1889 to 3rd in 1899.
  4. 4. The Anti-Imperialists Anti- imperialists were people who did not believe in taking over other countries because thought the idea was undemocratic and invites war. Many Americans were uneasy about forcing colonial rule on others. Opponents of colonialism, like Mark Twain and Andrew Carnegie, felt this went against principals of American Government. Heavily debated topic in Congress, but in the end the imperialists won the argument and proceeded to become involved in World Affairs.
  5. 5. Revolution in Cuba Cuba was originally a Spanish colony. Due to this Spain Controlled Cuba. The Cubans would revolt against Spanish in the 1890s. During this same time the U.S. is interested in Cuba because of Sugar plantations ($50 million invested) and the proximity Cuba was to U.S. Concentration Camps in Cuba were created by Spanish military commanders. These camps put Cuban revolutionaries in “reconcentration” camps. While imprisoned in the camps many Cubans died from disease & starvation.
  6. 6. Valeriano Weyler’s “Reconcentration” Policy
  7. 7. 3 Causes of the Spanish American War 1. De Lôme Letter 2. The U.S.S. Maine exploded on Feb 15, 1898 in Havana Harbor. 3. Yellow Journalism
  8. 8. De Lôme Letter: Cause of the Spanish American War • Dupuy de Lôme was the Spanish Ambassador to the U.S. • Delome wrote a letter that criticized President McKinley as weak. • The letter outraged Americans.
  9. 9. “We Blamed the Maine on Spain”: Cause of the Spanish American War The U.S.S. Maine was sent to Cuba to protect American citizens & property in due riots breaking out over Spanish-Cuban conflicts. The U.S.S. Maine exploded on Feb 15, 1898 in the Havana Harbor (Cuba). During this explosion 258 American soldiers were killed Americans and Military leaders assumed this was a result of the Spanish military. What really caused explosion? It was discovered in 1976 the reason the U.S.S. Maine exploded was due to a faulty boiler
  10. 10. Yellow Journalism: Cause of the Spanish American War Yellow Journalism- Sensational headlines & stories designed to stir up emotions of readers. The NY World and NY Journal sought to gain new readers & increase their circulation. They would use yellow journalism to achieve this feat. On Feb 17, 1898, the headlines of the NY World & NY Journal blamed the Spanish for U.S.S. Maine explosion. Spain was willing to free Cuban prisoners as a result of US protests, but would not grant them independence President McKinley asks Congress to declare war on Spain in April 1898.
  11. 11. Theodore Roosevelt • Roosevelt was the Assistant Secretary of the Navy in the McKinley administration. • Roosevelt was an Imperialist and American nationalist. Theodore Roosevelt was a supporter of Mahan’s ideals. • He criticized President McKinley as having the backbone of a chocolate éclair (spineless)! • He would Resign his position to go and fight in Cuba.
  12. 12. Picture A
  13. 13. War in Cuba The U.S. declares war on the Spanish in April 1898 17,000 U.S. troops arrive when they land in Cuba on June 1898 Rough Riders was a special unit of the U.S. Army cavalry soldiers led by T. Roosevelt Most of them were • Cowboys • College students • Ex-polo players • Spanish are defeated and war in Cuba is won by Americans when they stormed San Juan Hill, took it from Spanish. War ends November of 1898
  14. 14. Picture B
  15. 15. Now what? -Spanish have left Cuba and U.S. allows independence . -U.S. also sends military to the Philippines to aid them as they were in a revolt against the Spanish who were controlling them as a Spanish colony. -The Philippines were a Spanish territory and the U.S. wanted to take have a naval base that was near China.
  16. 16. Emilio Aguinaldo • Leader of the Filipino Uprising. • July 4, 1946: Philippine independence
  17. 17. Philippines Asst. Sec of Navy, T. Roosevelt decided to send the U.S. Navy to Manila Bay to attack Spanish in May 1898. Emilio Aguinaldo was a Filipino leader helped U.S. fight. However he became angry & revolts when U.S. does not leave. President McKinley reasons for not leaving: ● Christianize the people ● The Philippines were not fit for self gov’t
  18. 18. Dewey Captures Manila!
  19. 19. Another U.S. Victory -U.S. defeats the Spanish at the Battle of Manila Bay -Result of victory, Spanish territories in the Pacific are lost to the United States. Guam- Island that was port of call (rest stop) between U.S. to Asia Midway & Samoa- U.S. would create Navy bases on these islands.
  20. 20. The Treaty of Paris: 1898 • When the Treaty of Paris was signed Cuba was free from Spanish rule. • The Treaty stated Spain would give up Puerto Rico and the island of Guam. • The U. S. paid Spain $20 mil. for the Philippines. • The U. S. becomes an imperial (world bully) power!
  21. 21. U.S. Emerges as an Imperialist Power New Territories adds 100,000 square miles & 10 million people to U.S. Hawaii -Americans go into Hawaii for sugar and pineapple plantations -Missionaries were sent to convert the natives -Queen Liliuokalani (native ruler) tries to take back land from Americans -Sandford B. Dole (lawyer) leads a movement to limit native rights and overthrow the queen -Dole’s actions leads to him the leader of the colony until it is annexed in 1898. - His cousin develops the Dole pineapple company in 1898. Platt Amendment: U.S. can send troops to keep Cuba in order Goals Accomplished through American Imperialism: U.S. Influence in Cuba and the U.S. gets naval stations
  22. 22. U.S. Imperialism in the 1890s • U.S. becomes an imperialist nation – takes over weaker nations. • U.S. President Foreign policies: – Roosevelt Corollary-Theodore Roosevelt declared the U.S. could intervene in Latin America to serve as “International Police Power”. – Open Door Policy -allow equal trade to all nations in China. – William Taft – created “Dollar Diplomacy” – U.S. businesses invested in foreign nations. Troops would be sent to countries that could not repay loans and banks would seize businesses
  23. 23. Panama Canal • Ships were sailing 16,000 miles around the tip of S. America to reach to Pacific/Atlantic Coast in U.S. • A canal built between the isthmus of Panama was the the best place to solve this problem. • Roosevelt helps Panama receive their independence from Colombia. • Building of the Panama Canal occurs in 1903 by Americans (finished in 1914)
  24. 24. Completion of Panama Canal • Obstacles in building canal were mudslides and diseases, such as malaria and yellow fever. • Diseases came from mosquitoes so swamps were drained, vegetation cut down, and standing water sprayed prevent mosquitoes from breeding. • The canal made a 68 day trip into a 20 day trip (over 7,000 miles) and millions of dollars annually off of the trip from the Pacific and Atlantic. • United States granted control of Panama Canal as a result of helping them become independent.