US Imperialism SA2


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US Imperialism SA2

  1. 1. America Becomes an Imperial Power
  2. 2. I. Why did America join the imperialist club at the end of the 19th Century?
  3. 3. 1. Commercial/Business Interests <ul><li>Exports and investments in foreign lands increases dramatically as a result of the Industrial Revolution. </li></ul><ul><li>Farmers and some manufacturers depend on exports for financial success. </li></ul><ul><li>Producers wanted markets for ‘excess’ production. </li></ul><ul><li>Result: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Important business leaders argue that US prosperity and security requires expansion overseas and global activity. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. 1. Commercial/Business Interests U. S. Foreign Investments: 1869-1908
  5. 5. American Foreign Trade: 1870-1914 1. Commercial/Business Interests
  6. 6. 2. Military/Strategic Reasons <ul><li>The US needed a powerful navy and military bases throughout the world to protect its economic interests. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Need a powerful navy to protect the highway. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Need military bases at strategic points (in the Pacific, and Caribbean) to have a powerful navy. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. 2. Military/Strategic Interests Alfred T. Mahan - The Influence of Sea Power on History: 1660-1783
  8. 8. <ul><li>Many intertwined ideas encourage empire </li></ul><ul><ul><li>nationalism, capitalism, Social Darwinism, and prejudice </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Imperialists assert racial hierarchy of “civilized” peoples; White Anglo-Saxons at top; dark skinned (Africans, Indians) on bottom. </li></ul><ul><li>“ White Man’s Burden”: Belief that white peoples are dominant and need to expand to civilize the inferior peoples of the world. </li></ul>3. Belief in Cultural Superiority
  9. 9. 3. Social Darwinist Thinking The White Man’s Burden The Hierarchy of Race
  10. 10. II. Alaska
  11. 11. “ Seward’s Folly”: 1867 Secretary of State William Seward negotiates the U.S. purchase of Alaska from Russia for $7.2 million
  12. 12. “ Seward’s Icebox”: 1867
  13. 13. III. Hawaii: &quot;Crossroads of the Pacific&quot;
  14. 14. Hawaiian Queen Liliuokalani Hawaii for the Hawaiians!
  15. 15. Annexation of Hawaii <ul><li>US missionaries, businessmen, and navy see Hawaii as base for profit and expansion </li></ul><ul><li>White (American) sugar planters came to dominate the island by the 1890s. </li></ul><ul><li>Hawaiians attempt to regain control, but U.S. Marines seize power. </li></ul><ul><li>Result : 1898, Hawaii is annexed (becomes a territory of the U.S.) </li></ul>
  16. 16. U. S. View of Hawaiians Hawaii becomes a U. S. Protectorate in 1849 by virtue of economic treaties.
  17. 17. III. Cuba
  18. 18. The Imperialist Taylor
  19. 19. A. Why Interest in Cuba? <ul><li>Cubans want freedom from Spanish rule and they revolt. </li></ul><ul><li>2. US profits from trade with Cuba </li></ul><ul><li>3. US public support grows for Cubans. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cuban rebellion is hurting trade. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spanish Gen. Weyler began to put population into concentration camps. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Yellow journalism —Exaggerated news stories stirred up emotions in US. Stirred up excessive Patriotism </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Spanish Misrule in Cuba
  21. 21. Valeriano Weyler’s “Reconcentration” Policy
  22. 22. “ Yellow Journalism” & Jingoism Joseph Pulitzer William Randolph Hearst Hearst to Frederick Remington: You furnish the pictures, and I’ll furnish the war!
  23. 23. <ul><li>Feb. 9, 1898: Spanish Minister de Lome’s letter criticizes President McKinley as weak. </li></ul><ul><li>Feb. 15: USS Maine, a U.S. navy ship in Cuba explode killing 266 men. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unclear the cause, but in the American public blames Spain. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>April 20, 1898: U.S. declares war on Spain. </li></ul>B. McKinley’s Ultimatum and War Decision
  24. 24. USS Maine
  25. 25. USS Maine Post-Explosion
  26. 26. Maine Post-Explosion
  27. 27. Artist’s Rendering of Maine Explosion
  28. 29. Remember the Maine and to Hell with Spain! Funeral for Maine victims in Havana
  29. 31. C. Spanish-American War <ul><li>Less than 10% of US deaths were from combat; most died from yellow fever/typhoid </li></ul><ul><li>First US victory in war in Philippines via new navy; imperialists see islands as key to US expansion in Pacific/Asia </li></ul><ul><li>Spanish, already weakened, lose quickly. </li></ul>
  30. 33. Theodore Roosevelt <ul><li>Assistant Secretary of the Navy in the McKinley administration. </li></ul><ul><li>Imperialist and American nationalist. </li></ul><ul><li>Criticized President McKinley as having the backbone of a chocolate éclair! </li></ul><ul><li>Resigns his position to fight in Cuba. </li></ul>
  31. 34. D. Theodore Roosevelt in the War <ul><li>He resigns his position as Assistant Secretary of the Navy to join the army. </li></ul><ul><li>He leads a group of calvary known as __. </li></ul>
  32. 35. The “Rough Riders”
  33. 37. E. Treaty of Paris (1898) <ul><li>Cuba gains independence </li></ul><ul><li>US gets Puerto Rico, Guam, and Philippines from Spain </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pay $20M for Philippines </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Teller Amendment (in war declaration) blocks US annexation of Cuba, but McKinley assumes Cuba needs US help </li></ul><ul><li>Senate debates treaty and empire (1899) </li></ul>
  34. 38. F. Should Cuba be Independent? Senator Orville Platt Platt Amendment (1903) 1. Cuba was not to enter into any agreements with foreign powers that would endanger its independence. 2. U.S. could intervene in Cuban affairs if necessary. 3. Cuba must lease Guantanamo Bay to the U.S. for naval and coaling station.
  35. 39. IV. The Philippines
  36. 40. The Spanish-American War (1898): “That Splendid Little War”
  37. 41. Dewey Captures Manila!
  38. 42. Is He To Be a Despot?
  39. 43. A. What to do with the Philippines? <ul><li>Grant the Philippines independence? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NO! </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Why? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Naval strategists wanted a base in Asia. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Could be key to maintaining influence in China. </li></ul></ul>
  40. 44. What to do w/ the Philippines? <ul><li>McKinley to a group of ministers (p. 313 Zinn) : </li></ul><ul><li>“ I sought counsel from all sides… but got little help…. I went down on my knees and prayed Almighty God for guidance…. [I]t came: </li></ul><ul><li>We could not give them back to Spain… </li></ul><ul><li>We could not turn them over to [our rivals] </li></ul><ul><li>We could not leave them to themselves- they were unfit for self-government </li></ul><ul><li>There was nothing left for us to do but to take them all and to educate… uplift… civilize… and Christianize them. </li></ul><ul><li>And then I went to bed and slept soundly.” </li></ul>
  41. 45. B. Emilio Aguinaldo <ul><li>Leads rebellion against American occupation of the Philippines after the Spanish-American War. </li></ul><ul><li>It took the US 3 years and 70,000 troops to crush the rebellion. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>War ended in the Philippines, with more than 4,200 U.S. soldiers, 20,000 Filipino soldiers, and 200,000 Filipino civilians dead. </li></ul></ul>
  42. 46. Emilio Aguinaldo <ul><li>L eader of the Filipino Uprising. </li></ul><ul><li>July 4, 1946: Philippine independence </li></ul>
  43. 47. William H. Taft, 1st Gov.-General of the Philippines
  44. 48. Our “Sphere of Influence”
  45. 49. The American Anti-Imperialist League <ul><li>Founded in 1899. </li></ul><ul><li>Mark Twain, Andrew Carnegie, William James, and William Jennings Bryan among the leaders. </li></ul><ul><li>Campaigned against the annexation of the Philippines and other acts of imperialism. </li></ul>
  46. 50. V. Panama
  47. 51. A. Panama Canal <ul><li>US wanted a canal across Central America Why? To avoid shipping goods and naval vessels around tip of South America </li></ul><ul><li>US supported a revolt in Panama by a pro-US group willing to allow the canal to be built by Americans. </li></ul><ul><li>US bought rights to canal for $10M. </li></ul>
  48. 52. Panama Canal TR in Panama (Construction begins in 1904)
  49. 53. <ul><li>Declares that the US could intervene first in order to prevent European interference. </li></ul><ul><li>Result : U.S. gave themselves the power to act as they wished with the Americas. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Roosevelt’s Motto: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Speak Softly, But Carry a Big Stick! </li></ul></ul></ul>B. The Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine: 1905
  50. 54. The Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine: 1905 Chronic wrongdoing… may in America, as elsewhere, ultimately require intervention by some civilized nation, and in the Western Hemisphere the adherence of the United States to the Monroe Doctrine may force the United States, however reluctantly, in flagrant cases of such wrongdoing or impotence, to the exercise of an international police power .
  51. 55. Speak Softly, But Carry a Big Stick!
  52. 56. China
  53. 57. Stereotypes of the Chinese Immigrant Oriental [Chinese] Exclusion Act, 1887
  54. 58. The Boxer Rebellion: 1900 <ul><li>The Peaceful Harmonious Fists. </li></ul><ul><li>“ 55 Days at Peking.” </li></ul>
  55. 59. The Open Door Policy <ul><li>Secretary John Hay . </li></ul><ul><li>Give all nations equal access to trade in China. </li></ul><ul><li>Guaranteed that China would NOT be taken over by any one foreign power. </li></ul>
  56. 60. The Open Door Policy
  57. 61. America as a Pacific Power
  58. 62. VI. America's New Role
  59. 63. The Cares of a Growing Family
  60. 64. Constable of the World
  61. 65. Treaty of Portsmouth: 1905 Nobel Peace Prize for TR
  62. 66. The Great White Fleet: 1907
  63. 67. President Taft’s “Dollar Diplomacy” <ul><li>Improve financial opportunities for American businesses. </li></ul><ul><li>Use private capital to further U. S. interests overseas. </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore, the U.S. should create stability and order abroad that would best promote America’s commercial interests. </li></ul>
  64. 68. President Wilson’s “Moral Diplomacy” <ul><li>The U. S. should be the conscience of the world. </li></ul><ul><li>Spread democracy. </li></ul><ul><li>Promote peace. </li></ul><ul><li>Condemn colonialism. </li></ul>
  65. 69. U. S. Global Investments & Investments in Latin America, 1914
  66. 70. U. S. Interventions in Latin America: 1898-1920s
  67. 71. Uncle Sam: One of the “Boys?”
  68. 72. What the U. S. Has Fought For