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Chapter 6 The American Revolution


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Events and battles of the American Revolution

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Chapter 6 The American Revolution

  1. 1. The American Revolution Chapter 6 pp. 166 - 197
  2. 2. Section 1: Fighting Begins in the North <ul><li>Even while Congress tried to make peace with Britain, fighting began in New England. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Peace or War? <ul><li>At the 2 nd Continental Congress, the delegates tried to avoid war by sending King George the Olive Branch Petition. </li></ul><ul><li>The King refused and sent 20,000 troops to crush the rebellion. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Green Mountain Boys <ul><li>Ethan Allen led an attack on Fort Ticonderoga in Vermont to steal cannons from the British. </li></ul>
  5. 5. What is and Who were “Patriots”? <ul><li>Patriots : the colonists who favored war with the British. </li></ul><ul><li>What made someone a Patriot during the American Revolution? </li></ul><ul><li>What makes someone a Patriot today? </li></ul>
  6. 6. Opposing Sides… <ul><li>Patriots </li></ul><ul><li>+ Good with firearms , many owned their own. </li></ul><ul><li>+ Strong leadership (George Washington) </li></ul><ul><li>+ The will to defend their homes/property </li></ul><ul><li>+ Knew the land well because they lived here </li></ul><ul><li>--------------------------- </li></ul><ul><li>- Lack of experience , not as organized </li></ul><ul><li>British </li></ul><ul><li>+ Well trained and experienced </li></ul><ul><li>+ Excellent Navy </li></ul><ul><li>+ Had support of many colonists </li></ul><ul><li>------------------------------ </li></ul><ul><li>- Far from home (news and supplies) </li></ul><ul><li>- Did not know the land as well as their opposition. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Fight for Boston <ul><li>Battle of Bunker Hill (Breed’s Hill) </li></ul><ul><li>June 16 th , 1775 </li></ul><ul><li>Colonists first held Bunker Hill, but went to Breed’s Hill for better position. </li></ul><ul><li>1200 Colonial Militia vs. 2400 British Regulars </li></ul><ul><li>After 3 attempts the British took Breed’s Hill (and Bunker Hill) </li></ul><ul><li>1000 British and 400 Colonial casualties </li></ul>
  8. 8. Section 2: The Colonies Declare Independence <ul><li>In July 1776, the colonies declared independence from Britain. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Common Sense by Thomas Paine <ul><li>Common Sense was Paine’s attempt to break some colonists’ loyalty to Britain. </li></ul><ul><li>Stated that monarchy was wrong </li></ul><ul><li>Colonies did not “owe” anything to Britain </li></ul><ul><li>Staying under British control was bad for the colonies </li></ul>
  10. 10. Congress declares independence… <ul><li>Hard decision for Congress… they would be traitors to England and executed. </li></ul><ul><li>Decided to have Thomas Jefferson draft a document that… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Declared the colonies “ free and independent states.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Signed by the Continental Congress. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>JULY 4, 1776 </li></ul>
  11. 11. The Declaration of Independence Parts of the Declaration Preamble: An Introduction Natural Rights: Rights that belong to all people from birth Wrongs done by The King : Justification for the Revolution Colonies Declare Independence : A formal statement of independence
  12. 12. Section 3: Struggles in the Middle States <ul><li>After a series of Patriot defeats, an American victory at Saratoga marked a major turning point in the Revolution </li></ul>
  13. 13. Battle of Long Island <ul><li>British - General William Howe </li></ul><ul><li>Continentals – Gen. George Washington </li></ul><ul><li>Summer 1776 on Long Island, New York </li></ul><ul><ul><li>British had a both land and sea forces and outnumbered the Americans by a lot. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Washington’s forces fought into the fall but kept losing ground. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A captured spy, Nathan Hale, said “I only regret that I have but one life to lose for my country.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Washington suffered 1,400 casualties and had to retreat to Pennsylvania. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Battle of Trenton (Princeton) <ul><li>British – General Charles Cornwallis </li></ul><ul><li>Continentals – Gen. George Washington </li></ul><ul><li>December 26, 1776 – January 2, 1777 in Trenton and Princeton, New Jersey </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Washington crossed the Delaware river and ambushed Hessian Mercenaries at Trenton. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cornwallis saw campfires at Princeton, but they were part of a trap set by Washington. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Victories gave Americans new hope . </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Washington Crossing the Delaware <ul><li>How is the picture inspirational? </li></ul><ul><li>How might it have inspired the colonials? </li></ul>
  16. 16. Battle of Saratoga <ul><li>British – General John Burgoyne </li></ul><ul><li>Continentals – None listed (Green Mountain Boys were there) </li></ul><ul><li>October, 1777 at Saratoga, New York </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Burgoyne recaptured Ft. Ticonderoga while trying to cut off New England from the other colonies. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many British loses led to them being surrounded at Saratoga. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Burgoyne surrendered all his troops. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Considered the turning point in the Revolution </li></ul></ul><ul><li>France was convinced to become America’s ally . </li></ul>
  17. 17. Camp at Valley Forge
  18. 18. Section 4: Fighting for Liberty on Many Fronts <ul><li>During the Revolution, Americans fought for liberty on many fronts and in many ways. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Summary of 6.4 <ul><li>Women: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Betsy Ross sewed the first American flag. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mary Ludwig Hayes (AKA “Molly Pitcher”) carried water to soldiers in battle. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>African Americans: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Washington allowed eventually let free African-Americans fight. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The American Navy let A.A. join from the start. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Had many jobs including spies, drummers, and guides </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many runaway slaves join the British </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The War on the Western Frontier: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Native Americans fought mostly with the British. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fighting at Sea: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>John Paul Jones captured the British ship Serapis . </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Section 5: Winning the War in the South <ul><li>After the British surrendered at Yorktown, Britain recognized the United States as an independent country . </li></ul>
  21. 21. Battle of Cowpens <ul><li>British - General Charles Cornwallis </li></ul><ul><li>Continentals – Generals Nathanael Green and Daniel Morgan </li></ul><ul><li>January 1781 at Cowpens, South Carolina </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Greene used local geography to gain an advantage . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Morgan used a false retreat to ambush the British lines. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Swamp Fox” Francis Marion used guerilla tactics. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Americans won, setting up an advance up to Yorktown. </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Battle of Yorktown <ul><li>British – General Charles Cornwallis </li></ul><ul><li>Continentals – Gen. George Washington </li></ul><ul><li>Spring through October 1781 in and around Yorktown, Virginia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Americans surrounded the British on land, while the French surrounded them at sea, creating a siege (land) and blockade (water). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Without supplies, Cornwallis had to surrender. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Last major battle of the American Revolution. </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Tying It All Together… <ul><li>How did the untrained Continental Forces defeat the professional army and mercenaries of the British? (think of Rebels and Redcoats!) </li></ul><ul><li>What about the words “Patriotism” and “Morale”? </li></ul>