<ul><li>Was the North American version of the Seven Years War being fought in Europe. </li></ul><ul><li>The name refers to the two main enemies of the British: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the French </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>American Indian forces (fighting with the French). </li></ul></ul>The French & Indian War (1756 – 1763)
The First Clash - 1754 British French Fort Necessity Fort Duquesne * George Washington * Delaware & Shawnee Indians The Ohio Valley
Fort Necessity - 1754 This confrontation in the summer of 1754 was the opening battle of the war fought by England and France for control of the North American continent. It was also the opening episode of a worldwide struggle known in North America as the French and Indian War, but in Europe as the Seven Years War.
Ben Franklin invited representatives from New England, NY, MD, PA <ul><li>Albany Congress failed </li></ul><ul><li>Iroquois broke off relations with Britain and threatened to trade with the French. </li></ul>Albany Plan of Union - 1754
<ul><li>A famous political cartoon created by Benjamin Franklin and first published in his Pennsylvania Gazette on May 9, 1754 </li></ul><ul><li>A snake severed into eighths, with each segment labeled with the initial of a British American colony or region. However, North England was represented as one colony, rather than the many states it has now. </li></ul>Colonial unity
Fort Duquesne 1755 The British were led by General Braddock, but his expedition to capture the French stronghold of Fort Duquesne resulted in ambush, with England losing more than a thousand men that day. He invited George Washington along as an aide-de-camp.
The British troops, in Washington’s words, were “immediately struck with such a deadly Panick that nothing but confusion prevail’d amongst them.” Braddock was mortally wounded.
Washington did his best to try to rally the regulars and to use a few Virginia troops to cover the retreat. His coolness and bravery under fire enhanced his reputation.
This etching depicts General Edward Braddock’s burial by George Washington, then a Braddock aide.
Native American tribes exploited both warring sides Lord Loudouin Marquis de Montcalm War is formally declared 1756
<ul><li>He understood colonial concerns. </li></ul><ul><li>He offered them a compromise: </li></ul>- col. loyalty & mil. cooperation-->Br. would reimburse col. assemblies for their costs. RESULTS? Colonial morale increased by 1758. 1757 William Pitt becomes foreign minister
Sir William Johnson In 1756, Sir William secured the title of British Superintendent of Indian Affairs for the Six Nations and held this title for the rest of his life. In 1759, Johnson’s troops seized Old Fort Niagara.
North America in 1750 At the end of the 17th century approximately 200,000 people inhabited the British colonies in North America. The following century saw an explosion in numbers with the population doubling about every 25 years.
* By 1761, Spain has become an ally of France 1758-1761 The Tide Turns for England The French were driven from many frontier posts such as Fort Niagara , and the key Fortress Louisbourg fell to the British in 1758.
Treaty of Paris 1763 It was signed by the Kingdoms of Great Britain, France and Spain to end the French and Indian War and the Seven Years' War.
France --> lost her Canadian possessions, most of her empire in India, and claims to lands east of the Mississippi River. Spain --> got all French lands west of the Mississippi River, New Orleans, but lost Florida to England. England --> got all French lands in Canada, exclusive rights to Caribbean slave trade, and commercial dominance in India. Treaty of Paris - 1763 The surrender of New France to the English, Montréal, 1760
March in formation or bayonet charge. Br. officers wanted to take charge of colonials. Drills & tough discipline. Colonists should pay for their own defense. Prima Donna Br. officers with servants & tea settings. Indian-style guerilla tactics. Col. militias served under own captains. No mil. deference or protocols observed. Resistance to rising taxes. Casual, non-professionals. Methods of Fighting: Military Organization: Military Discipline: Finances: Demeanor: British-American Colonial Tensions British Colonials
<ul><li>Why and in what ways did British policies change after 1763, frustrating colonial Americans and fueling the fires of independence? </li></ul><ul><li>What factors widened the gap between American ambitions and British expectations of American colonists? </li></ul><ul><li>How did these factor into the American Revolution? </li></ul>Effects on British-colonial relationships?
<ul><li>It increased her colonial empire in the Americas. </li></ul><ul><li>It greatly enlarged England’s debt. </li></ul><ul><li>Britain’s contempt for the colonials created bitter feelings. </li></ul>Therefore, England felt that a major reorganization of her American Empire was necessary. Effects of the war on Britain?
<ul><li>It united them against a common enemy for the first time. </li></ul><ul><li>It created a socializing experience for all the colonials who participated. </li></ul><ul><li>It created bitter feelings toward the British that would only intensify. </li></ul>Prelude to another war
Aftermath The decisive result of the war meant that it was the last of the French and Indian Wars and thereby set the stage for the American Revolutionary War.