Origins of the War on Terror


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Origins of the War on Terror

  1. 1. Origins of the War on Terror From the Cold War to 9/11/01
  2. 2. Background: COLD WAR <ul><li>USSR and US needed Oil for their economies to function </li></ul><ul><li>US supported Israel and stayed friendly with Saudi Arabia, and Iraq </li></ul><ul><li>USSR supported other Arab nations such as Egypt, Syria, Jordan, and Iran </li></ul>
  3. 5. A Brief history of Afghanistan <ul><li>Soviets invaded Afghan. in 1979 (communist expansion) and established puppet government </li></ul><ul><li>The population resisted. Mujahideen opposition forces </li></ul><ul><li>US and Pakistan sent CIA to train these rebels in terror tactics, and guerrilla warfare. </li></ul><ul><li>Soviets pulled out in 1988. </li></ul><ul><li>Guess you one of these Mujahideen fighters was? </li></ul>
  4. 6. Osama Bin Laden <ul><li>Originally from a rich Saudi Arabian family. </li></ul><ul><li>Joined the call from Afghanistan to join a religious war against the Soviets </li></ul><ul><li>He received training from our CIA operatives. </li></ul>
  5. 7. Afghanistan after the Soviets left <ul><li>Mujahidin factions started fighting one another for control </li></ul><ul><li>US pulled out (no interest since the Soviets were defeated) This caused bitter resentment by many, including Bin Laden </li></ul><ul><li>An Islamic extremist group known as the Taliban, eventually took control by 1996 </li></ul><ul><li>This government supported any extremist group dedicated to preserving Islam and destroying Western influence in the Middle East. </li></ul>
  6. 8. Al Qaeda <ul><li>Arabic translation </li></ul><ul><li>“ The Base” </li></ul><ul><li>Started by Osama during the Soviet Afghan war </li></ul><ul><li>Al-Qaeda's objectives include the elimination of foreign influence in Muslim countries, eradication of those deemed to be &quot;infidels&quot;, elimination of Israel, and the creation of a new pure Islamic state. </li></ul>
  7. 9. Osama and the Taliban <ul><li>He now had a country to base his operations </li></ul><ul><li>Al Qaeda sets up training facilities for anyone who was willing to fight for their cause </li></ul><ul><li>The US knew about this but chose to do little as it was not seen as an immediate threat (1996-2001) </li></ul>
  8. 10. The Iran-Iraq War
  9. 11. Background: Iran-Iraq War <ul><li>1979-1980 the Iranians had held American hostages from our embassy. </li></ul><ul><li>Sept 1980 Iraq invades Iran starting an eight year long war. </li></ul><ul><li>US and other western nations supported Iraq and Saddam against Iran (which was ruled by a fundamentalist Islamic gov’t AND had close ties with the USSR) </li></ul><ul><li>US sold Saddam chemical weapons to use against the Iranians. (he later used them in an attempted genocide of Kurds in the north). </li></ul>
  10. 12. The Gulf War 1990-91
  11. 13. Iraq invades Kuwait <ul><li>Saddam faced a huge $14 billion debt after his failed war with Iran </li></ul><ul><li>Kuwait was seen as a “quick fix” and he invaded it in 1990. </li></ul><ul><li>The US had close connections with Kuwait and Saudi Arabia (Oil). </li></ul><ul><li>Saudi Arabia allowed us to station troops in their country to eventually free Kuwait </li></ul>
  12. 14. Back to Osama <ul><li>Osama offered the Saudi gov’t Islamic fighters to fight against Saddam, who was seen as a western conspirator </li></ul><ul><li>That is until….. </li></ul><ul><li>The Saudi government allowed “infidels” (US troops) onto holy ground </li></ul><ul><li>(Saudi Arabia is where Mecca and Medina are) </li></ul><ul><li>This infuriated the Al Qaeda leadership </li></ul>
  13. 15. Back to the Gulf war <ul><li>US and allied forces take back Kuwait from Iraq in early 1991 with only 6 weeks of fighting. </li></ul><ul><li>Saddam was allowed to stay in power. </li></ul><ul><li>The UN decided that the goal was to free Kuwait, NOT oust Saddam </li></ul>
  14. 16. Events leading up to 9/11: Al Qaeda attacks against the US
  15. 17. Aden, Yemen: 1992, three hotels are bombed that housed US troops
  16. 18. Somalia 1993: US helicopter is shot down ( remember “Black Hawk Down?”)
  17. 19. World Trade Center bombing 1993-attempt failed
  18. 20. Embassy bombings <ul><li>Al-Qaeda is believed to have conducted the bombings in August 1998 of the U.S. embassies in Nairobi , Kenya , and Dar es Salaam , Tanzania , killing more than 200 people and injuring more than 5,000 others. </li></ul>
  19. 21. Oct 2000 The USS Cole is bombed, Aden Yemen
  20. 22. US Finally Responds <ul><li>US sends in Missiles to hit certain terrorist training sites in Afghanistan. (ineffective) </li></ul><ul><li>Nearly causes an international incident (missiles over other countries) </li></ul>
  21. 23. Al Qaeda Succeeds in the US: September 11, 2001 <ul><li>4 Commercial planes are hijacked by Al Qaeda sleeper cells </li></ul><ul><li>2 hit the World Trade Center in New York </li></ul><ul><li>-American Airlines Flight 11 -hit North Tower </li></ul><ul><li>-United Airlines Flight 175 - hit South Tower </li></ul><ul><li>2 more planes are hijacked shortly there after </li></ul><ul><li>-American Airlines Flight 77 hits the Pentagon </li></ul><ul><li>-Untied Airlines “Hero” Flight 93-passengers rebel and plane crashes in PA. </li></ul><ul><li>19 hijackers, 2,973 Americans Killed </li></ul>
  22. 25. Osama and 9/11 <ul><li>There is America, hit by God in one of its softest spots. Its greatest buildings were destroyed, thank God for </li></ul><ul><li>that. There is America, full of fear from its north to its south, from its west to its east. Thank God for that. </li></ul><ul><li>What America is tasting now is something insignificant compared to what we have tasted for scores of years. </li></ul><ul><li>Our nation (the Islamic world) has been tasting this humiliation and this degradation for more than 80 years. </li></ul><ul><li>Its sons are killed, its blood is shed, its sanctuaries are attacked, and no one hears and no one heeds. </li></ul><ul><li>To America, I say only a few words to it and its people. I swear by God, who has elevated the skies without </li></ul><ul><li>pillars, neither America nor the people who live in it will dream of security before we live it in Palestine, and </li></ul><ul><li>not before all the infidel armies leave the land of Muhammad, peace be upon him. </li></ul>