Intro to the Intro
• The conquest of New France did not end the Seven
Years’ War – war raged from the West Indies to
• 1762, France launched an attack on NFL to capture
St John’s to hold it as a bargaining tool.
• French captured Fort William in the Spring at the
harbour and in Sept 1500 British troops led by
Colonel William Amherst poured in – called the
Battle of Signal Hill (last battle of the 7 Years’ War)
• The French surrendered after one day and Canada
was lost to them forever.
With a Partner:
Answer the following:
1.) What is the difference between Canadian
2.) What are Voltaire's reasons for referring to
Canada as "a few acres of snow"?
Introduction – Read p. 294
Who were the New Englanders?
How loyal were they to Britain?
Who were the United Empire Loyalists?
What happened in 1791?
After the Capture
• French surrender of Canada and the Treaty of
Paris in 1763 ended the wars between Britain
and France for control of NA.
• Terms of the Treaty of Paris:
1. France gave up all rights and colonies in NA, except for
Louisiana and St. Pierre and Miquelon (off NFL).
2. France received Martinique, Guadaloupe, and other sugar
islands in the Caribbean.
Why were Les Habitants not
deported by the British?
• French military were wiped out, so the
Habitants (Canadiens) were not seen as a
• James Murray (Military Governor) was not a
cruel man. He had no intention of
impoverishing Les Habitants financially or
Quebec Accepts British Rule
• People of New France were not given many rights
or much say in government.
• No democracy in France at this time. Quebec came
under military rule.
• The Habs would not abandon their way of living,
but they were treated well by the British (p. 296-7):
• Many important French fur merchants departed for
France or Louisiana.
• Replaced by Scottish and American traders –
expanded trading routes west, using voyageurs and
interpreters, and later some formed the NWC.
Native Peoples’ Resistance
• To the west (Great Lakes and beyond), Native traders
were not happy with the results of the Seven Years’
• They knew that British and Anglo-American traders
were a serious threat to their way of life.
• They protested to the British authorities, but received
• Scottish traders were supported by Scottish MPs in
Parliament, large British factories sold goods to
traders, and land speculators had support from
• Pontiac tried to unite the tribes, but could not get
support from French settlers, and British forces
defeated him and called a peace conference that split
The Royal Proclamation
• In 1763, King George issued a Royal Proclamation
• Came into effect in August 1764.
• New France became the Province of Quebec –
Murray as Governor.
• Province of Nova Scotia expanded to include Cape
Breton, PEI, and New Brunswick.
The RP Angers the Americans
• It cut off land speculation to the west of the
• The 13 colonies’ settlers could not move into
the Ohio Valley – fertile land.
• Native People were satisfied because settlers
and traders would not be able to enter their
territory without permission.
• Colonists felt anger towards British and it is
one of the causes of the American Revolution.
The Quebec Act
• 1774 – changed Quebec from military rule into a
new British colony.
• Mixed French Civil law with English Criminal law.
• It tried to keep everyone happy.
• Guy Carleton was the Governor since 1766.
• What did the Quebec Act do to these 3 groups: