For France and Britain, Acadia was a base for attacking each other, and for protecting their colonies and trade routes. For the Mi’kmaq, Acadia was part of their home.
The Acadians share the culture and religion of the French, so how would an oath of allegiance to the British make the Acadians feel? They would refuse.
• How did competition between France & Britain to control
North America shape Canada?
• What challenges of co-existence among British, Canadien &
First Nations lead to?
• How did people meet those challenges?
• Britain & France fought
to gain control of North
• The battle took place on
the Atlantic Coast and
• Other battles took place
in the interior for the fur
Why Control Acadia?
• France and Britain saw Acadia as a base for attacking each other.
• To the Mi’kmaq, Acadia was a part of their homeland.
• Location was important for trade & military ships.
• In 1604 French had settled Acadia & established farms & a friendly
relationship with the Mi’ kmaq
• French built a fort & military base called Louisbourg & Britain
• In 1713 Britain won the War of Spanish Succession & gained control
over the territory called Acadia
• This was decided in the Treaty of Utrecht
• Mi’ kmaq fought against British colonization
Identify 2 Differences between
French/Acadian & British/Acadian
• 1713 Britain takes control of Acadia through the Treaty
• 1720 France builds Louisbourg
• 1745 Britain captures Louisbourg
• 1748 France regains Louisbourg
• 1749 Britain builds Halifax
• 1758 Britain captures Louisbourg during the 7 Years War
• 1763 France cedes all claims in North America. Under
The Treaty of Paris France is left with 2 small islands off
Newfoundland: Saint-Pierre, & Miquelon
What does the term cede mean?
Which war was concluded with the
Treaty of Utrecht?
• 1713 Britain controlled Acadia & told Acadians to leave within 1 year
(Most Acadians stayed)
• 1730 those Acadians that stayed were forced to take an ‘Oath of Neutrality’
• 1755 Acadians required to take an‘Oath of Allegiance’, forcing Acadians to
support Britain in a war against France
• Refusal resulted in deportation or they found protection with the Mi‘kmaq
• Great deportation- 11 000 Acadians were forced from their homes leaving
• Britain deported the Acadians because: Acadia was a very important strategic
location in the event of a war
• Acadians were catholic & French so they were associated more with the
• Acadians outnumbered the British, they refused to support Britain & they
were not trusted
What was the reaction of the
Acadians when they were forced
from their homeland? Where did the
7 Years War
• 1754 British & French battled for control for the Ohio Valley, this escalated into war
• 1756 British aimed to end French control in North America & Britain to dominate the
• The war would take place not only in North America but also on the oceans & in
• 1759 Battle of the Plains of Abraham was one of the Most important of the 7 Years
• General Wolfe led Britain’s attack on Quebec & defeated the French led by General
• This was an important victory because Quebec was a French stronghold
• French were forced to retreat to Montreal
• Although the French were able to later surround Quebec the British continued their
dominance when reinforcements came in the spring
• 1763 Treaty of Paris ends the 7 Year War between France & Britain
• France is left with the colony Guadeloupe & two islands off the Newfoundland coast
• French people left in North America were protected to practice their Catholic faith
Why was Quebec such an important
position during the 7 Years War?
1763 Royal Proclamation
• Statement was important because it was an attempt at
• It assimilated the Canadiens by having a British style
government, disallowing Catholics from holding
government positions, abolishing French laws &
encouraging British settlers to move to Quebec
• The peace with the First Nations was done through a
proclamation line which separated the Thirteen Colonies
& Indian territory
• There was to be no settlement in the Indian territory
which was just West of the Thirteen Colonies
Quebec Act 1774
• During the 1770’s the 13 Colonies were at war with Britain to gain
independence from Britain
• This was called the War of Independence
• Britain had attempted to assimilate the Canadiens to become British
• The British were worried about resistance from the territory of
Quebec similar to that from the 13 Colonies
• In order to gain support from Quebec the British relaxed the idea of
becoming British in the Quebec Act
• It stated that: Catholics could practice their religion, Catholic church
could play a role in decisions of the colony, Canadiens could hold
government positions, French laws were reinstituted, & Quebec’s
boundaries were extended without First Nation assistance