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  • Napoleon

    1. 1. Chapter 4 The Napoleonic Era
    2. 2. Napoleon I Emperor of the French 1769 - 1821 “Ambition is never content even on the summit of greatness.” Napoleon Bonaparte
    3. 3. Introduction • Napoleon was one of the greatest military commanders in history. • He has also been portrayed as a power hungry conqueror. • Napoleon denied being such a conqueror. He argued that he was building a federation of free peoples in a Europe united under a liberal government. • But if this was his goal, he intended to achieve it by taking power in his own hands. • However, in the states he created, Napoleon granted constitutions, introduced law codes, abolished feudalism, created efficient governments and fostered education, science, literature and the arts.
    4. 4. Law Codes Emperor Napoleon proved to be an excellent civil administrator: • One of his greatest achievements was his supervision of the revision and collection of French law into codes. • The new law codes—seven in number—incorporated some of the freedoms gained by the people of France during the French revolution, including religious toleration and the abolition of serfdom. • The most famous of the codes, the Code Napoleon or Code Civil, still forms the basis of French civil law. • Napoleon also centralized France's government by appointing prefects to administer regions called departments, into which France was divided.
    5. 5. His Rule • While Napoleon believed in government "for" the people, he rejected government "by" the people. • His France was a police state with a vast network of secret police and spies. • The police shut down plays containing any hint of disagreement or criticism of the government. • The press was controlled by the state. • It was impossible to express an opinion without Napoleon's approval.
    6. 6. Napoleon's own opinion of his career is best stated in the following quotation: “I closed the gulf of anarchy and brought order out of chaos. I rewarded merit regardless of birth or wealth, wherever I found it. I abolished feudalism and restored equality to all regardless of religion and before the law. I fought the decrepit monarchies of the Old Regime because the alternative was the destruction of all this. I purified the Revolution.”
    7. 7. Making France Strong • 1799, Napoleon helped to overthrow the Directory (French Gov’t) because it was inefficient and corrupt. • He was named First Consul after seizing power. • He set about to improve French life: 1. bring new laws together with old laws – Civil Code – what did it guarantee? 2. started public works – How? • Economy was still not strong – the industries
    8. 8. Napoleon the Emperor • He tried to destroy democracy in France • Became more of a tyrant than any of the rulers of the ancient regime • Ancient views about women • 1804, crowned himself Emperor of France • Complete control of the country • Secret police force • Controlled media, law, and education system censorship
    9. 9. Napoleon & Europe • Napoleon waged war with most of Europe trying to expand his empire in the 1800s. • Take notes on Britain versus Napoleon – first paragraph on p. 104.
    10. 10. Napoleon’s Continental System • Activity 4-4: Advantages Disadvantages
    11. 11. Conquering Europe • Napoleon knew that his power came from his military victories. • He believed he could defeat any army, and did, beating the armies of Austria, Russia, and Prussia. • Used speed and surprise to win major battles at Ulm, Austerlitz, and Jena. • His enemies signed the Treaty of Tilsit (1807), giving Napoleon control of Europe.
    12. 12. Europe in 1789
    13. 13. The New Map of Europe (1810)
    14. 14. • Napoleon insisted that all parts of his empire base their gov’ts and legal systems on those of France. • He abolished serfdom, the privileges of aristocrats, replaced old laws with the Napoleonic Code, and encouraged religious tolerance. • From his efforts, many features of the old feudal system was gone.
    15. 15. The Rise of Nationalism
    16. 16. Questions 1. Explain the meaning of “nationalism”. 2. Why did it appeal to many people in Europe? 3. Explain why you think nationalism is a positive or negative force, or both.
    17. 17. Loss in Spain
    18. 18. The Russian Campaign • Man of Destiny video?