Canadian History

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Canadian History

  1. 1. History of Canada European Colonization through Canadian Independence
  2. 2. Political Map of Canada Today
  3. 3. How the land was divided up back then
  4. 4. The First Europeans in Canada <ul><li>Spanish </li></ul><ul><li>Interested in gold </li></ul><ul><li>Settled in SW USA, Mexico, Florida, and South America </li></ul>
  5. 5. The First Europeans in Canada (continued) <ul><li>British </li></ul><ul><li>Interested in land </li></ul><ul><li>1497 – John Cabot founded Newfoundland </li></ul><ul><li>Also settled along eastern coast of US – 13 colonies </li></ul>
  6. 6. The First Europeans in Canada (continued) <ul><li>French </li></ul><ul><li>Interested in fur and fur trade </li></ul><ul><li>1534 – Jacques Cartier – 1 st to St. Lawrence River and claimed it for France </li></ul><ul><li>1608 – Samuel de Champlain – established first colony in Quebec </li></ul>
  7. 7. French/British Conflict-caused by fur trade <ul><li>French – Catholic </li></ul><ul><li>Treaty of Utrecht gave them South of the Hudson Bay and the St. Lawrence region </li></ul><ul><li>British – Protestant </li></ul><ul><li>Treaty of Utrecht gave them Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, Hudson Bay Territory </li></ul>
  8. 8. Canada’s Coat of Arms
  9. 9. Seven Years War – 1754 (French and Indian War) <ul><li>British won because: </li></ul><ul><li>More colonies </li></ul><ul><li>Greater military help </li></ul><ul><li>Indians helped British (Iroquois – strongest tribe in east) </li></ul>
  10. 10. Important Dates <ul><li>1759 – Battle of Quebec – British took Quebec </li></ul><ul><li>1763 – Treaty of Paris – Britain got complete control of Canada </li></ul><ul><li>As a result, some French left for France, some stayed but resisted British culture </li></ul><ul><li>At first, British wouldn’t let French vote of hold office </li></ul><ul><li>The first two British governors wanted French cooperation, so they gave in. </li></ul><ul><li>1774 – Quebec Act – Quebec and Ontario – French allowed to keep their Catholic religion, French language, and French culture </li></ul>
  11. 11. Great Britain’s Problem <ul><li>Around the same time, the Revolutionary War was going on in the US. </li></ul><ul><li>Some Americans remained loyal to the British and moved to Canada, but they didn’t like the French influence. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Great Britain’s Solution <ul><li>Divided the land into two colonies: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Upper – British – Ontario </li></ul><ul><li>2. Lower – French – remained in Quebec </li></ul><ul><li>War of 1812 – French and British worked together against the US who tried to invade Canada </li></ul>
  13. 13. After the War of 1812 <ul><li>French Canadians and British Canadians hated British rule </li></ul><ul><li>They felt that Great Britain was too far away to understand their needs. </li></ul><ul><li>So…1837 – Louis Papineau organized a revolt to establish Quebec as a separate country </li></ul><ul><li>Result of revolt: British easily defeated Papineau </li></ul>
  14. 14. Road to Canadian Independence <ul><li>Britain sends Earl of Durham </li></ul><ul><li>Canadians want: </li></ul><ul><li>1. more control over government </li></ul><ul><li>2. All Provinces to unite </li></ul><ul><li>G.B. only wanted Quebec and Ontario to unite. All provinces together could create a successful rebellion </li></ul>
  15. 15. British/North American Act <ul><li>July 1, 1867 </li></ul><ul><li>Results: </li></ul><ul><li>Canada was still subject to British rule </li></ul><ul><li>Canada had their own central government </li></ul><ul><li>Now they could solve their own problems </li></ul><ul><li>Happened without a war </li></ul>
  16. 16. Canada – A Nation <ul><li>People moved west to the plains region and established successful farms </li></ul><ul><li>1886 – Transcontinental Railroad </li></ul><ul><li>1896 – found gold and minerals in Yukon Territory </li></ul><ul><li>Canada was on its way to wealth and importance </li></ul>
  17. 17. Canada’s Flag
  18. 18. 20 th Century Problems <ul><li>WWII – built factories for war supplies (clothes, shoes, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Immigrants poured in from Asia, Africa, Europe, and the Caribbean </li></ul>
  19. 19. 20 th Century Problems <ul><li>Industrialization brought old conflicts: </li></ul><ul><li>1. British wanted factories in Quebec, French didn’t </li></ul><ul><li>2. 1976 – French were tired of being part of Canada – wanted independence </li></ul><ul><li>3. 1982 – new constitution – in response to French wanting a bilingual country – two official languages: French and English </li></ul><ul><li>4. Canadian government modeled after British parliament – constitutional monarchy </li></ul>
  20. 20. Symbols of Canada
  21. 21. Bilingual Canada

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