Conducting an Interview - Part 1


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The interview process is one of the ways that we collect data for analysis. Here is Part 1 of the overview.

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Conducting an Interview - Part 1

  1. 1. Conducting an Interview An Introduction Part 1
  2. 2. The Interview: an Introduction <ul><ul><li>Technique to collect information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interactive, verbal, real time contact </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>First step in collecting information for needs analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Research method for making personal contacts </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. The Interview: an Introduction <ul><li>The interview is a way to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Share ideas, engage in dialogue, solve problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Obtain peripheral information that may be associated with an analysis goal </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. The Interview: an Introduction <ul><li>Two types of interview techniques: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Face to face </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Telephone </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Provides in-depth narrative information </li></ul><ul><li>Encourages respondents to talk about: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>feelings, attitudes, and opinions </li></ul></ul>Purposes of Conducting Interviews
  6. 6. <ul><li>Interviews in a systematic needs analysis: </li></ul><ul><li>Provides information to develop questions for a written questionnaire </li></ul><ul><li>Produces information for analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Validates information that we may already have </li></ul>Purposes of Conducting Interviews
  7. 7. <ul><ul><li>Structured </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Semi-structured </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unstructured </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The extent of information and feedback required for a particular needs analysis will determine which type you use. </li></ul>Three Types of Interviews
  8. 8. <ul><li>Structured interviews = written questionnaires </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fixed questions with fixed response categories covering a specific area or topic – responses (Yes, no, sometimes, always) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Work well with clear needs analysis goals. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Needs analyst needs to have some information about the performance problem before constructing the questions. </li></ul></ul>Types of Interviews
  9. 9. <ul><li>Concise questions/to the point </li></ul><ul><li>Interview time usually takes no more than 15 to 20 minutes </li></ul>Types of Interviews – Structured Interviews cont’d
  10. 10. Interview Advantages/ Limitations <ul><li>Useful before developing a questionnaire </li></ul><ul><li>Useful to validate information obtained from other methods </li></ul><ul><li>Seldom used as the only method to gather needs analysis information. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Interview Advantages/Limitations <ul><li>The best way to use an interview: </li></ul><ul><li>To find the optimals: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>what they think ought to be going on </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>how the organization should work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>what they know based on personal experience </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Interview Advantages/Limitations <ul><li>Best questions to ask: </li></ul><ul><li>Finding Actuals: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>how employees are/are not performing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>way the organization is operating </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>whether they perceive problem/opportunity </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Interviews Advantages/Limitations <ul><li>Best questions to ask: </li></ul><ul><li>Finding Feelings: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>how respondents feel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>how they think others feel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>confidence with the interview topic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>whether they like/dislike the topic </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Interviews Advantages/ Limitations <ul><li>Best questions to ask: </li></ul><ul><li>Finding Cause(s): what is causing the problem </li></ul><ul><li>Finding Solution(s): ideas on how to solve a problem or initiate a business opportunity </li></ul>
  15. 15. Five Steps in Conducting an Interview <ul><li>Determine the objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Prepare for the interview </li></ul><ul><li>Carry out the interview </li></ul><ul><li>Conclude the interviewing process </li></ul><ul><li>Compile and analyze results </li></ul>
  16. 16. Determine the Objectives of the Interview <ul><li>Are you looking for information about: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Optimal performance? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Actual performance problems? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feelings about performance? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Solutions to performance problems? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Business opportunities and barriers to implementing them? </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Determine the Objectives of the Interview <ul><li>Draft objectives for the interview using standard terms, keeping them clear, direct, and short. </li></ul><ul><li>Share the objectives with the champions of the needs analysis initiative for their review and comments. </li></ul><ul><li>Finalize the objectives. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Prepare for the Interview <ul><li>Clarify and make decisions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The specific purposes of the interview </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The population or sample or respondents </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Develop protocol/ script to help in carrying out the interviews. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Prepare for the Interview <ul><li>Draft an opening statement explaining the purposes of the interview </li></ul><ul><li>Indicate the estimated time that will be needed </li></ul><ul><li>Provide an explanation concerning issues of confidentiality </li></ul>
  20. 20. Conduct the Interview <ul><li>Don’t dominate the conversation </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage the respondent to talk </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid interrupting </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid stating your own opinions </li></ul>
  21. 21. Conduct the Interview <ul><li>Aim your questions at the required information </li></ul><ul><li>Allow the respondent to follow his/her own line of thought </li></ul><ul><li>Show that the views expressed are understood and taken seriously </li></ul>
  22. 22. Conduct the Interview <ul><li>Use the interview to supplement information already obtained </li></ul><ul><li>Identify/investigate any inconsistencies </li></ul><ul><li>Ask specific questions to allow for quantitative responses </li></ul><ul><li>Distinguish hard facts from opinion </li></ul>
  23. 23. Conduct the Interview <ul><li>When questions are answered vaguely, pursue them until they are clarified. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Respondent may be too theoretical, conceptual, or uses jargon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If you don’t understand -- ask for concrete examples and explanations </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Conduct the Interview <ul><li>Don’t ask strong, direct questions early in the interview. </li></ul><ul><li>Begin by building upon information already available or use closed-ended questions which are not provoking. </li></ul><ul><li>Establish rapport and make respondent comfortable. </li></ul><ul><li>Then ask open ended questions </li></ul>
  25. 25. Conclude the Interview Process <ul><li>Stop the interviewing process when you begin to hear the same information from several respondents. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>After 4 to 6 interviews, you could notice much redundancy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If you hear similar responses with 2 or 3 stop the interviewing process </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Conclude the Interview Process <ul><li>Follow-up with any respondents to get further clarification or needed data. </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t betray trust/ confidence of those you interviewed. </li></ul><ul><li>Remove information that could identify a particular respondent. </li></ul>